• Title, Summary, Keyword: child poverty rate

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A Study on the Relationship Between Child Poverty Rate and Family Policy Expenditure of Welfare States -Focused on OECD Countries- (복지국가의 아동·가족복지지출과 아동빈곤율의 관계 -OECD 국가를 중심으로-)

  • Ryu, Yun Kyu;Baek, Seung Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare
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    • no.36
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    • pp.65-99
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    • 2011
  • The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between child poverty rate and family policy expenditure of welfare states (focusing on OECD countries). We analyzed not only the total social & family policy expenditures but the components of the family policy expenditure. OECD SOCX and calculated data from the LIS & OECD data were utilized for child and family policy expenditures and the poverty rate. One-way correlation and cluster analysis were employed for the analysis. The analytic results are as follows: Southern European and Anglo-Saxon countries' child poverty rates were higher and Scandinavian countries' child poverty rates were lower than any other clusters. The countries with high child poverty rate had higher child poverty rate than the entire nation's poverty rate, but Scandinavian countries' child poverty rate was lower. There was a strong correlation between family policy expenditure and child poverty rate. Especially the service expenditure and leave benefit expenditure were highly correlated with child poverty rate. On the other hand, cash expenditure was not significantly correlated with child poverty rate. We can suggest the policy implications from these results. Based on the analytic results, policy implications that the government should increase the family policy budget, especially the budget for family services and leave benefit to decrease child poverty rate and should make effort to support the employment of parents through policies such as active labor market strategies can be suggested.

Child Poverty (아동 빈곤)

  • Lee, Wan-Jeong;Kwon, Hye-Jin;Yang, Sung-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.337-347
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    • 2009
  • Since 1990, South Korean children living in relative poverty have increased whereas those living in absolute poverty have decreased until 2002 and then the decrease remained somewhat stagnant. A substantial body of research proposed a strong relations between child poverty and low quality well-being of the child. Poor children, in comparison to those of more affluent families, are more likely to have health, behavioral, social, and emotional problems. They are also more likely to grow up in families that provide less cognitive stimulations which, in turn, can negatively affect their cognitive and academic attainments. The present paper highlights the trends and the consequences of child poverty and suggests policy approaches based on the premise of decreasing poverty of low-income children and their families.

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What Causes Children to Work in Indonesia?

  • SANDRA, Heri;MAJID, M. Shabri Abd.;DAWOOD, Taufiq C.;HAMID, Abdul
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.7 no.11
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    • pp.585-593
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    • 2020
  • This study contributes to the existing literature by empirically exploring the causes of child labor in the Indonesian labor market. Factors identified include rate of poverty, average wages, education participation, and quality of education. This study utilized an aggregate data of 301 districts and cities across 34 provinces sourced from the National Labor Force Survey and the National School/Madrasah Accreditation Board of the Republic of Indonesia. Using a multiple regression analysis, the study found strong evidence of the positive effect of poverty on child labor. Conversely, the study documented the adverse impact of average wages on child labor in Indonesia. Similarly, the participation in the education system also contributed negatively to the child labor. Finally, the quality of education services is found to have a negative effect on child labor in Indonesia. The findings of this study suggest that, in efforts to reduce the involvement of children in the workforce, the poverty eradication program should be enhanced. The wages should be continuously improved, at least, in par with the changes in prices. Finally, the quality of education and its services ought to be further enhanced to attract more child student participation rates across junior high schools nationwide.

An Ecological Study on the Environment of the Children in the Deprived Areas in Seoul (빈민지역 아동의 생활환경에 관한 생태학적 연구)

  • Kim, Chong Soon
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.2
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    • pp.67-82
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    • 1981
  • The present study was intended to investigate ecological characteristics of poverty areas in Seoul from the perspectives of children's development. More specifically, the objectives of the study are to examine environmental ecology of the poverty areas and it's potential psycho-social development of children. Three poverty areas and 150 children currently living in the are as were sampled ; 70 children from middle class families and 88 from lower class respectively. Focal ecological aspects surveyed family environment, outdoor play ground and facilities, and village housing structures. Psycho-social dimension's development dealt with in the study included children's perceptions of parental child rearing practices and role taking, and children's future perception and perspectives. Data were collected through interviews and observations using structured formats. Following results were obtained from the data : 1. Children from the poverty families showed a higher tendency to have working mothers than those from middle class. 2. The rate of having single room is higher for children from middle class by two times than from lower class. 3. Children from lower class tended to have less favorable perceptions of attitudes tote and their own families than those from middle class. 4. The likelihood of showing discrepancy in vocational choice for children between parents and children is higher for children from lower class and those from middle class. 5. Children from lower class tended to allot more time in playing with peers than those from middle class. 6. The size of outdoor play ground are inadequately poor both for middle and lower class children. The inadequateness is particularly severe for the lower class children, showing that the size and facilities of playing ground available for the child from lower class is less than half compared with those of the children from middle class.

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Comparative Study on The Macro Causes of Single-Mother Households Poverty And Implications on Korea - Focusing on OECD 19 Countries Including Korea(1980-2012) - (독신모가구 빈곤의 거시적 결정요인 국제비교 - 한국을 포함한 OECD 19개국을 대상으로(1981-2012) -)

  • Sim, Sang Yong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.68 no.3
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    • pp.51-71
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify macro causes influencing on the diversity of single-mother households poverty among OECD Countries including Korea. This study carried out pooled time series cross-section analysis applying unbalanced panel design on the period from 1981 to 2012. There is marked diversity on single-mother households poverty. GDP per capita does not contributes to reduce poverty, and female employment rate and % population 0-14 exacerbate poverty. Several factors contribute on poverty reduction including social spending, child cash spending, union density, employment protection on regular workers, proportional representation system, cumulative left cabinet, cumulative women seat. In Korea, it needs to overcome the limit of anti-poverty strategy mainly based on economic growth and labor market flexibility. And it needs to enlarge universal welfare institutions, child benefits, work-family reconciliation policy, and to design adjusted labor market institutions including union density and employment protection, to introduce consensus political model including proportional representation system to enhance left power and women's representation.

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The Poor Children's Status and Its Investigation (빈곤한 아동의 현황 및 고찰)

  • Jang, Hye-Ja
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.257-270
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    • 2000
  • Poor children are a field of causing of various Issues and become a subject of sympathy, concern and anger, against adult's poor such as sleeper outdoors and unemployed to be made a subject of discussion. This study has theoretically investigated the poverty concept, family trait around poor children. And also for understanding the above status, poverty circumstances have been focused children family and shelter-care children. The conclusions are as follows. First, the family of children head was formed with children under fifteen years of age. It was reported that solo families were 26.4% and living together families with relatives were 64.7%. As status of producing causes, parents death was shown the most rate as 49% and abscondence or missing was 31.9%. Second, In the shelter-care aspect, the highest case is a parents-divorce with 42.5%, while children-head case is just shown 0.5%. Therefore, in a child right viewpoint, it needs more systematical/long-range study on children poverty, and some policies for protecting the poverty-children must be established in social policy.

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A Study to Assess the Need of Customized Visiting Health Care Services for Children according to Socioeconomic Status in a Province (사회계층에 따른 영유아 맞춤형 방문건강관리사업 요구도)

  • Kim, Hee-Ja;Bang, Kyung-Sook;Yoo, Jae-Soon;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Tak, Yang-Ju;Huh, Bo-Yun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.212-222
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to survey children's health status and need of customized visiting health care services in one province. Methods: The participants in this study were 237 caregivers of infants and preschoolers. Data were collected at the participant's home or public health center. Results: Many of the children did not receive developmental screening tests or dental examinations. In the beneficiary group, the prenatal checkup rate and children's vaccination rate were lower, and caregivers had more health problems than the other groups. On the assessment of home safety, unsafe conditions were more frequently found in the beneficiary group. The caregivers in the beneficiary group showed lower child rearing confidence than the other groups, and wanted customized visiting health care services most in the areas of developmental screening, regular health check-up and counseling, nutritional supplementation, and oral health care. Conclusion: These results indicate that it is necessary for children and parents in poverty to be provided with professional home visiting interventions for the promotion of child health and prevention of developmental problems and diseases. These findings can be used for developing future customized visiting health care service programs for infants and children in this community area.

The Relationship between GDI(Gender Related Development Index) and the maternal and Child Mortality (여성관련개발지수와 모성 및 영아 사망률과의 관계)

  • 신미경;김한중;김모임;박은철;박종연
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.120-130
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    • 2000
  • Studies on the relation between socio-economic factors and metermal and child health have found that poverty, lack of edcation, inappropriate health serives are affecting to maternal and child health. The Gender Related Development Index (GDI) focuses on equality between men and women as well as on the average achiement of all people taken together, using same cariables as the Human Development Index (HDI) which are life expectancy, literacy rate, and per capita GDP. This research is to inverstigate whether HDI and GDI are useful determinants for maternal infant mortality. Using 146 UN member countries date, we condented multiple regression analysis for maternal and infant mortality with three models which are Model(individual variables-literacy rate, per capita GDP), Model(HDI) and Model(GDI). The results showed that HDI and GDI are powerful determinants of both maternal and infant mortality, respectively HDI($\beta$=-1.18, t=3.3; $\beta$=1.04, t=5.1) GDI($\beta$=-1.44, t=3.9; $\beta$=1.28, t=6.5) The higher power in model with GDI for both maternal and infant mortalities represented that GDI was more powerful determinant of maternal and infant mortality, than HDI respectively HDI($R^2$=0.824, $R^2$=0.842), GDI($R^2$=0.834, $R^2$=0.865). In conclusion, the maternal and infant mortalities are explained by GDI than HDI and may be lower in the societies where there are less discimination between men and women.

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Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health Services that Disciplined Itself in Primary Health Care Post from 1980 to 2009 (보건진료소 가족계획 및 모자보건사업(1980년~2009년))

  • Son, Gye-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Rural Health Nursing
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: A study of the family planning and Maternal-Child Health Services that disciplined itself in primary health care post form 1980 to 2009. Method: Investigation studies family planning in primary health care post and a change process of a Maternal-Child Health Services into case by case until 2009 from 1980. Results: Our country family planning business began at economic development dimensions in order to solve a poverty issue. This business goal were childbirth decrease of pregnancy possibility couple aged 19~49 and improve to mother and child health. For this goal, all kinds of health education included sex education and contraception education, contraception service, comprehensive maternal and child health service that management of front and back of childbirth etc. are provided. According to fail down a birthrate from 6.0(1962) to 1.25(2009), the nation reached to a dilemma called childbirth encouragement policy. Conclusions: Decrease of labor supply by low birthrate, decrease numerical an employed person by aging was brought a labor shortage and decrease of productivity of labor of industrial manpower. Deterioration phenomenon of financial income and expenditure by consumption and investment contraction caused decrease of slowdown of economic growth and potential growth rate, and a social cost burden is increased by deterioration financial old man support burden increase by this and pensions and health insurance, a sharp increase of social welfare cost etc. Now, in order to solve a low birth issue, the government establishes a whole nation forwarding system and establishes basic plan social low birth and advanced age, and to prepare for childbirth fault factors removal and advanced age society shall endeavor.

The Early Childhood Education in Korea (유아교육)

  • Choi, Suk-Ran;Kim, Young-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.209-221
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    • 2009
  • The early childhood education in Korea has made a great progress during the last thirty years. However, understanding the early childhood education is a challenging task because of the diversity of the fields. Currently 38% of 3-5 year old children are enrolled in kindergarten. And several efforts to develop and distribute the standard curricula on a national level were underwent successfully. Researches are rapidly expanding in volume and the topics are becoming diverse. Focuses of researches moved from the area of cognitive development, science and mathematics in 80s, social and emotional aspects in 90s to language, curriculum and teacher education in 2000s. One of the emerging issues is the inclusion of kindergarten to public education system and free kindergarten education for young children. The second issues is more interdisciplinary policies are in need related to the low-birth rate in nation. The third one is about teacher training policy. The fourth one is related to the health, nutrition and safety of young children. And the fifth issue is moving educational system and policies that provide better future of young children while focusing on the children in low income families and children with absolute poverty.

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