• Title, Summary, Keyword: chemopreventive

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Breast Cancer Chemopreventive Activity of Polysaccharides from Starfish In Vitro

  • Nam Kyung-Soo;Kim Cheorl-Ho;Shon Yun-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1405-1409
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    • 2006
  • Polysaccharides from the starfish Asterina pectinifera were assessed in vitro for their chemopreventive potential in human breast cancer. The polysaccharides from A. pectinifera inhibited cell proliferation in the estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast carcinoma cell lines. In addition, the polysaccharides were found to be an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A1-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, and caused a dose-dependent inhibition of aromatase activity in microsomes isolated from a human placenta. There was a significant reduction in the ornithine decarboxylase activity to 30.7% of the control in the polysaccharide-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Therefore, the polysaccharides from A. pectinifera merit further investigation with respect to breast cancer chemoprevention.

Evaluation of chemopreventive effects of Thymoquinone on cell surface glycoconjugates and cytokeratin expression during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

  • Rajkamal, G.;Suresh, K.;Sugunadevi, G.;Vijayaanand, M.A.;Rajalingam, K.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.664-669
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    • 2010
  • The present study aimed to investigate the membrane stabilizing effect of Thymoquinone (TQ) on cell surface glycoconjugates and cytokeratin expression against DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. 0.5% DMBA painting (three times per week) in hamster buccal pouches for 14 weeks resulted in the formation of well developed oral squamous cell carcinoma. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked abnormalities of glycoconjugates status in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of TQ at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, to DMBA painted hamsters on alternate days for 14 weeks, reduced the tumor formation as well as protected the levels of cell surface glycoconjugates in DMBA painted hamsters. The present study thus suggests that TQ has potent chemopreventive efficacy as well as protected the abnormalities on cell surface glycoconjugates during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

Natural Modulators of Estrogen Biosynthesis and Function as Chemopreventive Agents

  • Bhat, Krishna P.L.;Pezzuto, John M.
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.473-484
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    • 2001
  • There is clearly a need for novel breast cancer chemopreventive agents with enhanced potency and specificity with tittle or no side effects. To this end, several new chemical moieties have been synthesized or isolated from natural sources. In this reviewal we have described some agents currently in use or under development for treatment or prevention of breast cancer, as well as our own strategies for the discovery of natural product modulators of estrogen biosynthesis and function. In particulars bioassay-guided fractionation of active plant extracts is a unique method for identifying agents with novel mechanisms of action, some of which should be useful for prevention of human cancer. Further, with the advent of combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening, even greater progress may now be expected with natural product leads.

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Effective Chemopreventive Activity of Genistein against Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Shon, Yun-Hee;Park, Sun-Dong;Nam, Kyung-Soo
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.448-451
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    • 2006
  • Chemopreventive and cytotoxic effect of genistein against human breast cancer cell lines was investigated. Genistein inhibited cell proliferation in estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast carcinoma cell lines. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was inhibited by genistein in a concentrationdependent manner. Genistein significantly inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cyclooxy-genase-2 activity and protein expression at the concentrations of 10 (p < 0.05), 25 (p < 0.05) and 50 mM (p < 0.01). In addition, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was reduced to 53.8 % of the control after 6 h treatment with 50 mM genistein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results suggest that genistein could be of therapeutic value in preventing human breast cancer.

Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Proanthocyanidins

  • Jo, Jeong-Youn;Lee, Chang-Yong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.501-508
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    • 2007
  • Proanthocyanidins (PACs), also named condensed tannins, are polymers of flavan-3-ols such as (+ )-(gallo)catechin and (-)-epi(gallo)catechin. A proper analysis of the PACs, with difficult challenges due to their complex structures, is crucial in studies of cancer chemoprevention. Cancer is a leading cause of mortality around the world. Many experimental studies have shown that dietary PACs are potential chemopreventive agents that block or suppress against multistage carcinogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary PACs has been shown effective through different mechanisms of action such as antioxidant, apoptosis-inducing, and enzyme inhibitory activities. Good sources of dietary PACs are nuts, fruits, beans, chocolate, fruit juice, red wine, and green tea. The chemopreventive potential of dietary PACs should be considered together with their bioavailability in humans. The safety issues regarding carcinogenesis and gastrointestinal disorder are also reviewed.

Regulation of Nrf2-Mediated Phase II Detoxification and Anti-oxidant Genes

  • Keum, Young-Sam
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.144-151
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    • 2012
  • The molecular mechanisms by which a variety of naturally-occurring dietary compounds exert chemopreventive effects have been a subject of intense scientific investigations. Induction of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant enzymes through activation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent gene is recognized as one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative or xenobiotic stresses and currently represents a critical chemopreventive mechanism of action. In the present review, the functional significance of Keap1/Nrf2 protein module in regulating ARE-dependent phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant gene expression is discussed. The biochemical mechanisms underlying the phosphorylation and expression of Keap1/Nrf2 proteins that are controlled by the intracellular signaling kinases and ubiquitin-mediated E3 ligase system as well as control of nucleocytoplasmic translocation of Nrf2 by its innate nuclear export signal (NES) are described.

Chemopreventive Effect of Chitosan on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Induced by Azoxymethane (실험적 대장암 모델에서 키토산의 발암 억제효과에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Beom-Seok;Kim, Dae-Joong;Ahn, Byeong-Woo;Kim, Ki-Sok;Kang, Jin-Seok;Moon, Ji-Young;Hong, Choong-Man;Jang, Dong-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to assess the chemopreventive effects of chitosan in a rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Ninety, 5-week-old, male F344 rats were divided into three groups. The animals in group 1 received subcutaneous injections of 15mg/kg AOM three times for two weeks, then were placed on powdered basal diet containing 2% chitosan for 37 weeks from weeks 3 to 40. The animals in group 2 were given AOM alone. The animals in group 3 were given 2% chitosan without prior carcinogen treatment. All animals were sacrificed at week 12 for quantitative analysis of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and at week 40 fur analysis of tumor induction. Total numbers of ACF and AC per colon of group 1 were not significantly different from those of group 2. Tumor incidences and multiplicities of small intestine in the group 1 were significantly decreased compared with those of the group 2 (P<0.05). According to pathological diagnoses, adenocarcinoma incidence and multiplicity in the small and large intestine in the group 1 were significantly decreased compared with those of the group 2 (p<0.05). No toxic effects were observed in animals given chitosan in terms of body weights, and liver or kidney histology. These results indicate that chitosan may have a potential as chemopreventive agents of colon carcinogenesis during the postinitiation stage.

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The Chemopreventive Effect of Sodium Selenite on Colon Carcinogenesis in Medium-Term Multi-Organ Bioassay (다장기 중기발암성 시험법을 이용한 셀렌염의 대장암 억제효과에 대한 연구)

  • Han, Beom-Seok;Hong, Choong-Man;Shin, Dong-Hwan;Lee, Kook-Kyung;Ahn, Byeong-Woo;Jang, Dong-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Pathology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to assess the chemopreventive effects of sodium selenite in the rat medium-term multi-organ bioassay using a DMBDD model (DEN+MNU+BBN+DMH+DHPN). Seventy five,6-week-old, male SD rats were divided into 3 groups. The animals in group 1 received DEN(diethylnitrosamine,100 mg/kg bw, single i.p., in saline), MNU (N-methyl-nitrosourea,20 mg/kg bw, i.p.,4 times for 2 weeks), BBN (N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, 0.2% in drinking water for 2 weeks), DMH (1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 40 mg/kg bw, s.c., in saline.4 times (or 2 weeds), and DHPN (N-bis(2-hydroxy-pro-pal)nitrosamine,0.1% in drinking water for 2 weeks), then were placed on sodium selenite (4 ppm in drinking water) for 22 weeks from weeks 4 to 26. The animals in group 2 were given DMBDD alone. The animals in group 3 were given sodium selenite alone. Animals were sacrificed at week 12 for ACF quantitative analysis and at week 26 for tumor induction. The body weights in the group 1 were significantly decreased compared with those of group 2. The tumor multiplicities of large intestine in the group 1 were significantly decreased compared with those of group 2 (P<0.05). These results indicate that sodium selenite may have a potential as chemopreventive agents of colon carcinogenesis.

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Suppressive effects on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by a natural sesquiterpenoid in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage cells

  • Min, Hye-Young;Park, Hyen-Joo;Park, Eun-Jung;Lee, Sang-Kook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.101-101
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    • 2003
  • Prostaglandins (PGs) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible cyclooygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively, have been implicated as important mediators in the process of inflammation and carcinogenesis. On this line, the potential COX-2 or iNOS inhibitors have been considered as anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. In our continuing efforts of searching for novel cancer chemopreventive agents from natural products, we isolated natural sesquiterpenoids as potential COX-2 and iNOS inhibitors in cultured lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Alantolactone, a natural eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid, exhibited a potent inhibition of COX-2 (IC50 = 0.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) and iNOS activity (IC50 = 0.08 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$) in the assay system determined by PGE2 and NO accumulation, respectively. The inhibitory potential of alantolactone on the PGE2 and NO production was well coincided with the suppression of COX-2 and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in LPS-induced macrophages. Furthermore, alantolactone inhibited NF-kB but not AP-l binding activity on nuclear extracts evoked by LPS-stimulated macrophage cells, suggesting the possible involvement of NF-kB in the regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression. In further study with COX-2-expressing human colon HT-29 cells, alantolactone inhibited the cell proliferation, down-regulated COX-2, and inhibited the ERK phosphorylation in the early time. These results suggest that a natural sesquiterpenoid alantolactone might be a potential lead candidate for further developing COX-2 or iNOS inhibitor possessing cancer chemopreventive or anti-inflammatory activity

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