• Title, Summary, Keyword: chemopreventive

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Chemopreventive Potential of Annona Muricata L Leaves on Chemically-Induced Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice

  • Hamizah, Sulaiman;Roslida, A.H.;Fezah, O.;Tan, K.L.;Tor, Y.S.;Tan, C.I.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2533-2539
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    • 2012
  • Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(${\alpha}$)anthracene (DMBA 100ug/100ul acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in theAMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

Chemopreventive Effect of Gamdutang Aqua-Acupuncture Solution (감두약침액의 암예방 효과)

  • 한상훈;조경희;최혜경;임종국;손윤희;이임태;남경수
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.684-691
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    • 1999
  • Gamdutang aqua-acupuncture solution (GAS), Gamdutang water-extracted solution (GWS) and Dae-Gamdutang aqua-acupuncture solution (DGAS) were prepared and tested for chemopreventive potentials. GAS was potent inducer of quinone reductase (QR) activity in Heapa1c1c7 murine hepatoma cells in culture, whereas GWS is less potent. GAS, GWS and DGAS were significantly induced QR activity in cultured rat normal liver cell, Ac2F. Glutathione (GSH) levels were increased about 1.8, 1.0 and 1.1 fold with GAS, GWS and DGAS in Hepa1c1c7 cells, respectively. In addition glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was increased with GAS, GWS and DGAS. The effects of GAS, GWS and DGAS on the growth of Acanthamoeba castellanii were tested. Proliferation of A. castellanii was inhibited by GAS, GWS and DGAS at concentrations of 1 $\times$ and 5$\times$. These results suggest that GAS has chemopreventive potential by inducing QR and GST activities, increasing GSH levels and inhibition of polyamine metabolism.

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Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Phytochemicals: Rationale and Mechanisms (Dietary Phytochemical을 이용한 화학적 암에방과 그 작용 기전)

  • Surh, Young-Joon;Lee, Jong-Min
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1998
  • Chemoprevention refers to the use of non-toxic chemical agents to prevent the neoplastic development by inhibiting, delaying, or reversing a multi-stage carcinogenesis. The primary goal of chemoprevention research is to identify or produce effective agents and strategies for clinical trials for applications to normal or high risk human populations. A large number of compounds have been tested for their possible chemopreventive activities, and it is of interest to note that many of them are naturally occurring substances. Thus, a variety of plant and vegetable constituents, particularly those included in our daily diet, have been found to possess substantial protective properties against experimental carcinogenesis. These substances, collectively known as dietary phytochemicals, exert their chemopreventive effects by influencing specific step(s) of multi-stage carcinogenesis: some inhibit metabolic activation or enhance detoxification of carcinogens, others interfere with covalent interactions between ultimate eloctrophilic carcinogens and the target cell DNA and still others may exert anti-promoting or anti-progressing effects. Mechanism-based interventions by use of safe dietary phytochemicals may provide one of the most practical and promising cancer chemopreventive strategies.

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Effect of Genistein on Chemopreventive Activity of Human Brest Cancer (Genistein이 유방암예방 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Shon Yun-Hee;Kim Ho-Chang;Nam Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.88-92
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    • 2006
  • Genistein was tested for chemopreventive potential against breast cancer by measuring the effect on proliferation of human breast cancer cells, human placental aromatase activity and cyclooxygenases-2 (COX-2) expression and activity, Genistein inhibited the growth of estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell. However, there is no inhibitory effect of genistein on human placental aromatase activity. The expression of COX-2 was inhibited by genistein in Western blot analysis. Genistein significantly inhibited COX-2 activity at the concentrations of 10 (p<0.05), 25 (p<0.05) and 50 ${\mu}M$ (p<0.01). These results suggest that genistein may have breast cancer chemopreventive potential by inhibiting the growth of human breast cancer cell and expression and activity of COX-2.

Effect of Prunella vulgaris L. on Chemopreventive Enzymes of Colorectal Cancer (꿀풀하고초가 직장암 예방효소 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Shon, Yun-Hee;Seo, Jae-Beom;Nam, Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2008
  • Water extract from Prunella vulgaris L. (PVW) was tested for colon cancer chemopreventive activity by measuring the activities of cytochrome P450 1A1, phase Ⅱ detoxification enzyme [quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and glutathione (GSH) levels in cultured human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. PVW significantly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activity at 10 and 50 ${\mu}g/ml$. PVW induced QR activity in a dose-dependent manner over a concentration range of $1{\sim}50\;{\mu}g/ml$. GST activity was also induced with the treatment of PVW in HT-29 cells. In addition GSH levels were increased with PVW. PVW inhibited ODC activity, a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, which is enhanced in tumor promotion. These results suggest that Prunella vulgaris L. has colon cancer chemopreventive activity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A1 and ODC activities and by increasing phase Ⅱ enzyme activity and GSH levels.

Mechanistic Insights into the Chemopreventive Action of Phenethy1 Isothiocyanate against Ν-Nitrosobis(2-Oxopropyl) Amine-Induced Carcinogenesis

  • Lee, In-Seon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.227-229
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    • 1996
  • The effects of phenthyl isothiocyanate(PEIFTC) on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and cell kinetics in the target organs for Ν-nirtosobis(2-oxopropyl) amine(BOP)-tumorigenicity were investigated in female Syrian golden hamsters in order to gain the mechanistic insigths into the chemopreventive action of PEITS against BOP-initiated lung and pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters. Hamsters were given BOP subcuteneo-usly(s.c.) and/or PEITC by gavage 2h prior to the BOP treatment. Eight and 24h after the PEITC administration, animals were sacrificed for analyzing P450 isoenzymes, glutathine(GSH), glutathione S-transferase(GST) and cell kinetics. The PEITC pretreatment significantly reduced the hepatic P450 isoenzume levels such as CYP2B1 and DYP1A1 which were significantly increased by the BOP treatment. However, PEITC did not affect the CYP levels in the pancreas and lung. Interestingly, the PEITC pretreatment rather lowered the heparic GST and GSH levels, regradless of BOP administration. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA)- labeling indices were dose dependently decreased by PEITC in the pancreas acini and ducts, bronchioles, and renal tubules in which the cell replication was significantly affected by BOP. These results thus suggest that PEITC exerts the chemopreventive effects in hamsters by influencing xenobiotic matabolizing phase I enzymes in the liver and regulating cell kinetics in the target organs.

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Chemopreventive Effect of Protein Extract of Asterina pectinifera in HT-29 Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

  • Shon Yun-Hee;Nam Kyung-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the effect of protein extract of Asterina pectinifera on the activity of 4 enzymes that may playa role in adenocarcinoma of the colon: quinone reductase (QR), glutathione Stransferase (GST), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. QR and GST activity increased in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells increased that had been exposed to 4 concentrations of the protein extract (80, 160, 200, and $240{\mu}g/mL$). Additionally, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ODC activity decreased significantly in cells exposed to the extract in concentrations of $160{\mu}g/mL$ (p<0.05), $200{\mu}g/mL$ (p<0.005), and $240{\mu}g/mL$ (p<0.005). TPA-induced COX-2 activity also decreased in cells exposed to extract concentrations of 10, 20, 40, and $60{\mu}g/mL$. COX-2 expression was also inhibited in cells exposed to this extract. These results suggest that this protein extract of A pectinifera has chemopreventive activity in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells, and therefore, may have the potential to function as a chemopreventive agent in human colorectal cancer.

Chemopreventive Effect of Saponins Derived from Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum on 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in A/J Mice

  • Lee, Kyung-Jin;Shin, Dong-Weon;Chung, Young-Chul;Jeong, Hye-Gwang
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.651-656
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    • 2006
  • This study examined the chemopreventive effect of saponins that were isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (Campanulaceae), Changkil saponins (CKS), against the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), -on lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. The mice were treated with a single NNK dose (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.). CKS (0.5, 1, 4 mg/kg body wt.) was administered orally daily for 3 days/week beginning 1 day after the NNK treatment and was maintained throughout the experiment. The administration of CKS suppressed the NNK-induced increase in the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which are a marker of cell proliferation, in the lungs of the mice 4 weeks after the NNK injection. Twenty-five weeks after the NNK treatment, the mice were sacrificed and the number of surface lung tumors was measured. CKS significantly reduced the number of lung tumors induced by NNK in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that CKS suppresses the development of lung tumors and has a chemopreventive effect against NNK-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis.

Effect of Ethanol Extract from Thesium chinense Tunczaninov on Chemopreventive Enzymes of Breast Cancer (하고초 에탄올추출물이 유방암 예방효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Han-Gyu;Shon, Yun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.161-165
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    • 2003
  • Ethanol extract from Thesium chinense Tunczaninov (TCTE) was tested for breast cancer chemopreventive activity by measuring 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) - induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activity, induction of quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione level. TCTE significantly inhibited cytochrome P45O 1A1 activity at the concentration of 90 and 150 mg/ml. TCTE induced quinone reductase activity in a dose-dependent manner in a concentration range of 3-150 mg/ml. In addition glutathione S-transferase activity and glutathione level were increased with TCTE in cultured murine hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These results suggest that TCTE has breast cancer chemopreventive potential by inhibiting cytochrome P45O 1A1 activity, inducing quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities, and increasing GSH level.

Effect of Cnidii Rhizoma Water Extract on Chemopreventive Enzymes for Hepatocarcinoma (천궁 물추출물이 간암예방효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • Shon, Yun-Hee;Kim, Han-Gyu;Nam, Kyung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2003
  • Cnidii Rhizoma water extract (CRW) was tested for liver cancer chemopreventive potential by measuring the inhibition of phase I enzyme and benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation and induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. There was 17.0% inhibition in the activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 enzyme with the treatment of 150 mg/ml CRW. At concentration of 30 mg/ml CRW, the binding of $[^3H]B[a]P$ metablites to DNA of NCTC-clone 1469 cell was inhibited by 33.3%. CRW was potent inducer of quinone reductase (QR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in cultured murine hepatoma Hepalc1c7 cells. However, hepatic glutathione (GSH) level was not influenced by CRW. These findings suggest that CRW has chemopreventive potential of liver cancer by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A1 activity and benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct formation and inducing QR and GST activities.