• Title, Summary, Keyword: champion health belief model

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Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for Colorectal Cancer Screening

  • Kharameh, Zahra Taheri;Foroozanfar, Sahar;Zamanian, Hadi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4595-4599
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    • 2014
  • Background: Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem. Early detection of colorectal cancer is crucial for treatment and reducing mortality. Beliefs related to colorectal cancer have been found to be a factor in a person's decision about colorectal cancer screening programs. To determine such beliefs, a valid and reliable instrument is necessary. Objective:The aim of this study was to adapt and determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale of breast cancer screening in the measurement of beliefs toward colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Materials and Methods: The 'forward-backward' procedure was applied to translate the instrument from English into Persian. This study was conducted in Iran from June 2012 to May 2013. A convenience sample of 200 individuals aged 50 years and older was recruited from the population at the outpatient clinics in the three teaching hospitals. Validity was assessed using content, face and construct validity. To test reliability, the internal consistency was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient) analyses. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity and determine the factors of adapted Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Results: The mean age of the participants were 62.5 years (SD=10.8 years) and the majority of them (75.5 percent) were female. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated a six-factor solution for the questionnaire (benefits, motivation and confidence, seriousness, susceptibility, emotional barriers and background barriers) that jointly accounted for 55.52% of variance observed. Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.57 to 0.89 and test-retest reliability ranged from 0.81 to 0.93 indicating a good range of reliability. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the Persian version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale of CRC screening has good psychometric properties and could be an appropriate measure for health beliefs related to CRC screening in national and international studies.

Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior of Turkish Women about Breast Cancer and Breast Self-Examination According to a Turkish Version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale

  • Erbil, Nulufer;Bolukbas, Nurgul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5823-5828
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    • 2012
  • Background: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. Methods: Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. Results: The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. Conclusion: Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.

Beliefs and Behaviors of Breast Cancer Screening in Women Referring to Health Care Centers in Northwest Iran According to the Champion Health Belief Model Scale

  • Fouladi, Nasrin;Pourfarzi, Farhad;Mazaheri, Effat;Asl, Hossein Alimohammadi;Rezaie, Minoo;Amani, Fiouz;Nejad, Masumeh Rostam
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6857-6862
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. All ages are susceptible and more than 90% of the patients can be cured with early diagnosis. Breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography can be useful for this aim. In this study we examined the components of the Champion health belief model to identify if they could predict the intentions of women to perform such screening. Materials and Methods: A total of 380 women aged 30 and above who had referred to health-care centers were assessed for use of breast cancer screening over the past year with a modified health belief model questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to identify leading independent predictors. Results: In this study 27% of the women performed BSE in the last year but only 6.8% of them used mammography as a way of screening. There were significant differences regarding all components of the model except for perceived severity between women that underwent BSE. over the past year and those that did not. Findings were similar for mammography. Regression analysis revealed that intentions to perform BSE were predicted by perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE while intentions to perform mammography were predicted by perceived barriers. Conclusions: This study indicated that self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography. Thus we must educate women to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.

Predicting Factors of Breast Self-Examination Among Middle Aged Women (장년기 여성의 유방자가검진 수행에 대한 예측변수)

  • Lee, Young-Whee;Lee, Eun-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.551-559
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predicting factors of the performance of breast self-examination (BSE) among Korean middle-aged women based upon the Health Belief Model. Method: A descriptive design was used for this study. A total of 309 convenience samples were recruited from Yonsu-Gu, Inchon. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scale was used to measure the health belief related variables of susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, confidence, and health motivation. The performance of BSE asked of it was as ever or never performed during the last year. The obtained data were analysed using descriptive statistics, $\chi^2$-test, t-test, and logistic regression. Result: Results showed that 32% had ever BSE last year. Age and BSE education among demographic characteristics were significantly associated with the performance of BSE. Thus, these demographic variables were added to the logistic regression analyses with the health belief variables. As a result, age, BSE education, health motivation, and confidence significantly explained the performance of BSE. Conclusion: This study suggests that it is important that the development of BSE educational programs increase confidence and motivation, particularly for middle aged-Korean women.

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Is Health Locus of Control a Modifying Factor in the Health Belief Model for Prediction of Breast Self-Examination?

  • Tahmasebi, Rahim;Noroozi, Azita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2229-2233
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    • 2016
  • Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world. Early detection is necessary to improve outcomes and decrease related costs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of health locus of control as a modifying factor in the Health Belief Model (HBM) for prediction of breast self-examination. Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, 400 women selected through the convenience sampling from health centers. Data were collected using part of the Champion's HBM scale (CHBMS), the Health Locus of Control Scale and a self administered questionnaire. For data analysis by SPSS the independent T test, Chi square test, logistic and linear regression modes were appliedl. Results: The results showed that 10.9% of the participants reported performing BSE regularly. Health locus of control did not act as a predictor of BSE as a modifying factor. In this study, perceived self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of BSE performance (Exp (B) =1.863) with direct effect, while awareness had direct and indirect influence. Conclusions: For increasing BSE, improvement of self-efficacy especially in young women and increasing knowledge about cancer is necessary.

Determining the Awareness of and Compliance with Breast Cancer Screening among Turkish Residential Women

  • Yilmaz, Demet;Bebis, Hatice;Ortabag, Tulay
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3281-3288
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    • 2013
  • Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Despite being associated with high morbidity and mortality, breast cancer is a disease that can be diagnosed and treated early. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study of 321 women, data were collected by Questionnaire, Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chisquared tests and logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: It was found that only 2.2% of women have high and very high risk levels of breast cancer risk. There is a positive correlation between early diagnosis techniques and Health Belief Model Sub-Dimension scores which are sensibility, health motivation, BSE (Breast self-examination) self-efficient perception and negative correlation between mammography barrier score and BSE barrier score (p 0.05). When factors for not having BSE were examined, it was determined that the women who do not have information about breast cancer and the women who smoke have a higher risk of not having BSE. Conclusions: It is important to determine health beliefs and breast cancer risk levels of women to increase the frequency of early diagnosis. Women's health beliefs are thought to be a good guide for planning health education programs for nurses working in this area.

Health Beliefs and Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors among Iranian Female Health Workers

  • Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa;Kholasehzadeh, Golrasteh;Neamatzadeh, Hossein;Kargar, Saeed
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9817-9822
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a serious health problem. Early detection is crucial for optimal treatment and reducing mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate health beliefs concerning performance of breast self- examination (BSE) and mammography in a sample of Iranian female health workers. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed among 441 female health care workers (physicians=88, nurses=163, midwives=38, officers=68, and others=84) in 3 different health centers in Yazd, Iran. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics and thenPersian version of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Results: The mean age of the participants was $34.7{\pm}13.7$. It was found that 41.9% of the workers performed BSE in the past and 14.9% of them regularly, but only 10.6% of them had undergone a mammogram. Perceived barriers to BSE (F=6.351, P=0.021) and mammography (F=5.214, p=0.022) were significantly higher in officers than physicians, nurses or midwives. Perceived barriers were lower among those who had performed BSE and mammography, but not significant (p=0.34 and p=0.56, respectively). Furthermore, perceived susceptibility and perceived benefits of the workers who had BSE and mammography were significantly higher than who did not (p<0.05). Perceived seriousness was not a significant variable in BSE and mammography (p=0.71 and p=0.43, respectively). Conclusions: The health beliefs of health workers concerning the perceived susceptibility of breast cancer and the perceived benefits BSE and mammography significantly impact their screening practices.

The Effects of Educational Level on Breast Cancer Awareness: A Cross-Sectional Study in Turkey

  • Gurdal, Sibel Ozkan;Saracoglu, Gamze Varol;Oran, Ebru Sen;Yankol, Yucel;Soybir, Gursel Remzi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.295-300
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    • 2012
  • Breast self-examination (BSE) is important for early diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). However, the majority of Turkish women do not perform regular BSE. We aimed to evaluate the effects of education level on the attitudes and behaviors of women towards BSE. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 413 women (20-59 years), divided into university graduates (Group I, n = 224) and high school or lower graduates (Group II, n = 189). They completed a 22-item scale assessing the knowledge level, attitudes and behaviors regarding BSE, and the Turkish version of the Champion's Revised Health Belief Model. A significantly higher number of women in Group II did not believe in early diagnosis of BC. A significantly higher number of Group I had conducted BSE at least once, and their BSE frequency was also significantly high. Moreover, a significantly lower number of Group I women considered themselves to not be at risk for BC and the scores for "perceived susceptibility" and "perceived barriers" were significantly higher. Logistic regression analysis identified the university graduate group to have a higher likelihood of performing BSE, by 1.8 times. Higher educational levels were positively associated with BSE performance. Overall, the results suggest that Turkish women, regardless of their education level, need better education on BSE. Consideration of the education level in women will help clinicians develop more effective educational programs, resulting in more regular practice and better use of BSE.

Factors Related to the Stage of Mammography Screening in Married Korean Women (기혼 여성의 유방조영술 검진 행위에 대한 영향요인)

  • Hur, Hea-Kung;Park, So-Mi;Kim, Gi-Yon
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to different stages of mammography screening based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) and health belief model (HBM). Method: 143 women were recruited from community centers in W city. The mean age was 44.08 (SD=7.78) and 74 (51.7%) had experienced education on preventative behavior related to breast cancer. The Decisional Balance Scale (Pros and Cons of mammography) and Stages of Adoption of Mammography Scale by Rakowski et al. (1992) and the revised Health Belief Model Scale (Perceived Seriousness, Perceived Susceptibility and Health Motivation) by Champion (1993) were used. Result: According to the stage of adoption of mammography, 17.4% of the women were In pre-contemplation, 45.5% in contemplation, 24.5% in action, and 12.6% in maintenance. The mean differences for pros, and the decisional balances between the stages of mammography adoption were significant (F=8.84, p=.000; F=7.20, p=.000). Education related to prevention of breast cancer was the most important variable. Prevention education, history of breast disease and pros of mammography explained the stages of mammography adoption ($R^{2}=26%$). Conclusion: Findings support TTM as a useful tool for improving mammography adherence. Behavioral interventions that target decisional balance and health belief can effectively promote adherence to mammography.

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Predictors of Participation in Prostate Cancer Screening among Older Men in Jordan

  • Abuadas, Mohammad H;Petro-Nustas, Wasileh;Albikawi, Zainab F.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.13
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    • pp.5377-5383
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    • 2015
  • Background: Participation is one of the major factors affecting the long-term success of population-based prostate cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to explore strong factors linked to participation in prostate cancer screening among older Jordanian adults using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from Jordanian older adults, aged 40 years and over, who visited a comprehensive health care center within the Ministry of Health. A pilot test was conducted to investigate the internal consistency of the the Champion Health Belief Model Scale for prostate cancer screening and the clarity of survey questions. Sample characteristics and rates of participation in prostate cancer screening were examined using means and frequencies. Important factors associated with participation in prostate cancer screening were examined using bivariate correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: About 13% of the respondents had adhered to prostate cancer screening guidelines over the previous decade. Four out of the seven HBM-driven factors (perceived susceptibility, benefits and barriers to PSA test, and health motivation) were statistically significant. Those with greater levels of susceptibility, benefits of PSA test and health motivation and lower levels of barriers to PSA testing were more likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. Family history, presence of urinary symptoms, age, and knowledge about prostate cancer significantly predicted the participation in prostate cancer screening. Conclusions: Health professionals should focus more on the four modifiable HBMrelated factors to encourage older adults to participate in prostate cancer screening. Intervention programs, which lower perceived barriers to PSA testing and increase susceptibility, benefits of PSA testing and health motivation, should be developed and implemented.