• Title/Summary/Keyword: cancer cell lines

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Antimutagenic and Antitumor Effects of Codonopsis lanceolata Extracts (더덕 추출물의 항돌연변이 및 항종양 효과)

  • Kim, Soo-Hyun;Choi, Hyun-Jin;Chung, Mi-Ja;Cui, Cheng-Bi;Ham, Seung-Shi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.1295-1301
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic, antimutagenic, cytotoxicity and antitumor effect of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL). CL was extracted with 70% ethanol and then further fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antimutagenic, cytotoxicity and antitumor effects of CL extracts were measured by using Ames test, SRB method, and the tumor growth inhibition test. CL extracts did not show any mutagenicity in the Ames test; however, 70% ethanol extracts and its fractions had strong antimutagenic effects against mutation induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). The ethyl acetate fraction of CL (200 ${\mu}g$/plate) showed approximately 72.1% inhibitory effect on the mutagenesis induced by 4NQO against TA98 strain, whereas 69.6% and 67.0% inhibitions were observed on the mutagenesis induced by MNNG and 4NQO against TA100 strain. In anticancer effects, the cytotoxicity of CL extract and its fractions against cancer cell lines including human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human lung carcinoma (A549) and transformed primary human embryo kidney (293) were investigated. The treatment of 1 mg/mL CL ethyl acetate fraction had the highest cytotoxicity of 74.5%, 70.7% and 80.3% against HeLa, MCF-7 and A549 cells, respectively. In contrast, the extract and its fractions showed only 2$\sim$31% cytotoxicity for a normal human kidney cell line (293). In vivo anticancer effect of CL extract was tested using Balb/c mice transplanted sarcoma-180 cells. CL ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest inhibition rate of 56.4% at the 50 mg/kg concentration.

Oestrogenic Activity of Parabens In Vitro Estrogen Assays (에틸, 프로필, 이소프로필, 부틸, 이소부틸 파라벤의 In Vitro 검색시험 연구에서의 내분비독성)

  • Lee Sung-Hoon;Kim Sun-Jung;Park Jung-Ran;Jo Eun-Hye;Ahn Nam-Shik;Park Joon-Suk;Hwang Jae-Woong;Jung Ji-Youn;Lee Yong-Soon;Kang Kyung-Sun
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.100-106
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    • 2006
  • The use of underarm and body care cosmetics with oestrogenic chemical excipients (particularly the parabens) and the hypothesized association with breast cancer incidence, particularly in women. It is noted that the type of cosmetic product is irrelevant (e.g. antiperspirant/deodorant versus body lotion, moisturizers or sprays versus creams) and attention must focus on issues of actual exposure to chemicals through continued dermal application of body care products and the endocrine/hormonal activity and toxicity of the chemicals in the formulations. To evaluate the estrogenic activities of parabens such as ethylparaben, butylparaben, propylparaben, isobutylparaben and isopropylparaben, we used recombinant yeasts containing the human estrogen receptor [Saccharomyces cerevisiae ER+LYS 8127], human breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines and human estrogen receptor ${\alpha}\;and\;{\beta}$. In E-screen assays, isopropylparaben is the most estrogenic paraben, and in ER competition assay, isobutylparaben is the most estrogenic paraben. We evaluated isopropylparaben was most active in the recombinant yeast assay, followed by propylparaben, ethylparaben, isobutylparaben and butylparaben. Results from this study demonstrate that parabens are observed in human endocrine system. Therefore, we have shown that the parabens is induced the estrogenic activities similar to $17{\beta}$-estradiol and Bisphenol-A.

Experimental Studies on the Antitumor Effects of Jinryungtang Gagambang Extract (진령탕가감방의 항종양효과(抗腫瘍效果)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Jeong, Jun-Tak;Moon, Goo;Moon, Suk-Jae
    • THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN ORIENTAL ONCOLOGY
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.37-53
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    • 1998
  • The sprig of Jinryungtang Gagambang has been used for curing as a traditional medicine without any experimental evidence to support the rational basis for their clinical use. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the possible therapeutic or antitumoral effects of Jinryungtang Gagambang extract against cancer, and to study some mechanisms responsible for its effect. The cytotoxic and antitumor effects were evaluated on human cell liens (A549, hep3B, Caki-1, Sarcoma 180) after exposure to Jinryungtang Gagambang extract using in ILS, colony forming efficency and SRB assay which were regarded as a valuable method for cytotoxic and antitumor effects of unknown compound on tumor cell lines. The results obtained in this studies were as follows. 1. As a result of exposure to Jinryungtang Gagambang extract, the proliferation of A549, hep3B, Caki-1, good correlations were shown from the results of SRB assay and those of clogenetic assay. 2. The oral administration of Jinryungtang Gagambang extract showed significant effects of increase of MST(mean survival time) and ILS(increased life span) depending on the increasing concentration. 3. Against squamous cell carcinoma induced by MCA, Jinryungtang Gagambang decreased not only the frequency of tumor production but also the number and weight of tumors per tumor bearing mice(TBM). Jinryungtang Gagambang also significantly suppressed the development of 3LL cell-implanted tumors by frequency and their size, and some developed tumors were regressed by the continuous treatment of Jinryungtang Gagambang extract into TBM. 4. Jinryungtang Gagambang extract also increased NK cell activities. According to the above results, it could be suggested that Jinryungtang Gagambang extract has prominent antiutmor effect.

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Immuno-stimulating and Antitumor Effects of Crude Polysaccharides Extracted from Fruiting Body of Grifola frondosa (잎새버섯(Grifola frondosa)의 자실체에서 추출한 조다당류의 면역증강 및 항암효과)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwa;Cha, Youn-Jeong;Shim, Mi-Ja;Lee, Min-Woong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2011
  • 80% methanol and 0.9% neutral saline soluble and hot water substances (hereinafter referred to Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH, respectively) were extracted from fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa. In vitro cytotoxicity tests, crude polysaccharides were not cytotoxic against cancer cell lines such as Sarcoma 180 and RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 10~2000 ${\mu}g/ml$, but crude polysaccharides from Fr. NaCl was slightly toxic to HT-29 and NIH3T3 at the concentration of 2000 ${\mu}g/ml$. Intraperitoneal injection with crude polysaccharides exhibited life prolongation effect of 25.0~52.9% in mice previously inoculated with Sarcoma 180. Fr. HW increased the numbers of spleen cells by 1.3 fold at the concentration of 200 ${\mu}g/ml$ compared with control. Fr. NaCl improved the immuno-stimulating activity of B lymphocyte by increasing the alkaline phosphatase activity by 1.5 fold compared with control at the concentration of 200 ${\mu}g/ml$. 10~14 ${\mu}M$ of nitric acid were generated when Fr. NaCl was added to RAW 264.7 at the concentration of 50~500 ${\mu}g/ml$, while the control group produced 4.3 ${\mu}M$ of nitric oxide. The Fr. NaCl, Fr. HW and Fr. MeOH increased the production of TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, Il-2 and IL-6 by more than 1.4 times compared with the control group. The Fr. of MeOH increased the numbers of peritoneal exudate cells and circulating leukocytes by 3.0 and 2.0 folds compared with the control at the concentration of 50 ${\mu}g/ml$, respectively. Therefore, the crude polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Grifola frondosa could improve antitumor activity of mice.

Effect of Steviol β-Glucopyranosyl Ester on The Production of Nitric Oxide and Inflammatory Cytokines in RAW 264.7 Cells (Steviol β-Glucopyranosyl Ester가 RAW 264.7 세포의 산화질소 및 염증성 사이토카인 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Heehoon;Cho, Uk Min;Hwang, Hyung Seo;Cho, Kun;Lee, Sang Rin;Kim, Moo Sung
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2018
  • Chronic inflammation is known to have effects on various diseases such as gout, cancer, dementia, atopic disease, and obesity. In addition, since some signal cascades involved in the development of inflammation are known to affect the damage and aging of the skin tissue, studies are being conducted actively to control the inflammation mechanism. In order to mitigate or prevent inflammatory response, a number of researches have been made to develop anti-inflammatory materials from some plants. In particular, Stevia rebaudiana produces steviol glycosides (SG), a natural sweetener with a distinctive flavor. Studies on some of SG have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity. Researchers of this study expected that more SG also possess anti-inflammatory activity, besides stevioside, rebaudioside A, and steviol. In order to confirm this possibility, the researchers screened inhibition activity of various steviol glucosides for NO production in RAW 264.7 cell lines. As a result, steviol ${\beta}-glucopyranosyl$ ester (SGE) showed the highest inhibitory activity among steviol derivatives treated at the same molar concentration. In addition, we found that mRNA expression level of $interleukin-1{\alpha}$ ($IL-1{\alpha}$), $interleukin-1{\beta}$ ($IL-1{\beta}$), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa-light chain-enhancer of activated B cells ($NF-{\kappa}B$) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was also decreased in a dose-dependent manner. These results show that SGE inhibits anti-inflammatory activity and NO production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. It was confirmed that SGE has potential to be applied as an anti-inflammatory material.

Effects of Quinone Reductase Induction and Cytotoxicity of the Angelica radix Extracts (당귀 추출성분의 세포독성 효과와 Quinone Reductase 유도활성 효과)

  • 배송자;한은주;노승배
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2000
  • Various lines of evidence suggest that dietary components protect the initiation of carcinogenesis. In this study, the ethanol extracts (AGE) and the methanol and hexane partition layers (AGEM, AGEH) of the Angelica radix were screened for their cytotoxic effects using the MTT assay on HepG2, HeLa, MCF7 and SW626 cells and for their ability to induce quinone reductase (QR) in HepG2 cells. AGEM and AGEH of the Angelica radix showed the strongest cytotoxic effects on HepG2 and HeLa cells. Cell growth was inhibited by 99.8% and 99.8% on HepG2 cells and 99.3% and 99.4% on HeLa cells, at dose of $100\;\mu\textrm{g}/ml$ of AGEM and AGEH extracts respectively. AGE and AGEH significantly induced QR activities in the HepG2 cells. The QR activities of HepG2 cells grown in the presence of AGE, AGEH, and AGEM at the concentration of $50\;\mu\textrm{g}/mL$ were 313.5, 273.3 and 133.3 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Therefore, based on these studies, Angelica radix may be developed into a potentially useful cancer chemopreventive agent.

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Physiological Activities of Commercial Instant Curry Powders and Individual Spices (시판 instant curry 및 curry 사용원료의 생리활성)

  • Chung, Myong-Soo;Jung, Seung-Hyeon;Lee, Jin-Sun;Park, Ki-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 2003
  • Physiological activities of hot water extracts of 10 commercial instant curry powders and 6 spices, were investigated. All spice extracts except ginger showed significant antioxidant activities on the autoxidation of linoleic curry acid (p<0.01). Antioxidant activities of clove and fennel were significantly higher than ${\alpha}-tocopherol$, instant curry powders, and other spices, Red pepper $(52.8{\pm}2.13%)$, clove, and coriander showed significant inhibitory activities against angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (p<0.001). Cytotoxic effects of instant curry powder and spices against human cancer cell lines were examined through MTT assay. Black pepper $(29.31{\pm}2.21%\;cytotoxic\;rate)$ and cardamon $(19.41{\pm}3.92%)$ were effective against MCF-7 (p<0.01), Clove $(42.92{\pm}5.57%)$ against HeLa (p<0.01). Ginger $(34.21{\pm}1.11%)$, cardamon, and black pepper against A172 (p<0.001), garlic $(82.88{\pm}0.53%)$ against SN12C (p<0.001), garlic $(71.63{\pm}0.38%)$, red pepper, ginger, fenugreek, SPC, cumin, and MPC against SNU-638 (p<0.001), and cassia $(82.84{\pm}16.92%)$ against A549 (p<0.001).

Physiological Activity of Sarcodon aspratus Extracts (능이버섯(Sarcodon aspratus) 추출물의 생리활성)

  • 송재환;이현숙;황진국;한정환;노정근;금동혁;박기문
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.172-179
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to find the preventive medical and therapeutic effects of Sarcodon asparatus on adult disease by employing several biological and biochemical assays. Nitrate scavenging ability(NSA) of Sarcodan asparatus extracts was displayed up to 99.9% at pH 1.2 in a dose-dependent manner. They also had 90.4% electron donating ability(EDA) at the concentration of 0.1 mg/mL. Extracts of Sarcodon asparatus were also able to function as a powerful antioxidant at all concentrations(0.01∼l.0 mg/mL). Furthermore, we observed that 1 mg/mL concentration of the extracts was more powerful than BHT, With respect to fibrolytic activity, Sarcodon asparatus showed 1,843.8 unit/g, which was higher than streptokinase(1,189 unit/g). The inhibitory effects of the extracts on angiotensin converting enzyme, measured by the normal and pretreatment methods, were 53 and 58%, respectively. We also performed cytotoxicity effect of Sarcodon asparatus extracts on a various cancer cell lines. The growth inhibitory effects of the extracts(5.0 mg/mL) on A549, HeLa, AGS, and SK-Hep-1 cells were 78.9, 55.3, 69.0, and 42.5 %, respectively. Interestingly, Sarcodon asparatusextracts induced mutation on Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 when Ames test was done.

Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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