• Title/Summary/Keyword: calcium retention

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A Study on Ca Metabolism of College Women eating Usual Korean Diet (한국인의 일상식이를 섭취하는 여대생들의 칼슘 대사에 관한 연구)

  • 유춘희
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1049-1055
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    • 1995
  • This study was designed to investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on calcium metabolism in seven healthy college women, aged from 19 to 21 years old. For this purpose, metabolic studies were conducted for two weeks. During the first week, the subjects ate experimental diet which nutrients composition was similar to their usual intake. And during the consecutive second week, they ate the same experimental diet supplemented with 500mg of calcium daily. The results were summarized as follows ; 1) Fecal excretion of calcium increased significantly (P<0.05), but urinary excretion of that did not show any change after supplementary intake of calcium. 2) Mean apparent calcium absorption was 28.5% and retention was 182mg/day when subjects ate the experimental diet without calcium supplementation. Calcium retention was significantly ate the experimental diet without calcium supplementation. Calcium retention was decreased to 24.1% by additional intake of calcium. 3) Phosphorus balance did not show any change after additional intake of calcium. 4) Serum calcium level was also not changed by additional intake of calcium. 5) Serum calcium level increased significantly(P<0.05) but serum phosphorus level did not show any change after additional intake of calcium. The above results showed that supplementation of 500mg calcium daily can be helpful to increase calcium retention as well as the peak bone mass in young women eating usual Korean diets.

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Effects of Caffeine and calcium iIn take Calcium Utilization in Female Ratsof Different Age (카페인과 칼슘의 섭취수준이 연령이 다른 암쥐의 체내 칼슘 이용에 미치는 영향)

  • 최미경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.1160-1169
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of caffeine and calcium levels on calcium utilization in female rats of different ages. Calcium utilization was compared in female rats of different age( 4 weeks and 12 months) fed various levels of caffeine(0 and 7 mg/100g body weight) and calcium (50, 100 and 200% of requirement) for 3 weeks. Feed intake of the caffeine groups were lower than that of the no-caffeine groups. body weight gain was lowest in the high-caffeine and low-calcium group. Serum calcium levels of young rats were higher than those of adult rats. There were no significant differences in tibial calcium content among the caffeine and calcium -groups. Fecal calcium excretion increased as the level of dietary calcium was increased. Urinary calcium excretion increased as the levels of caffeine and dietary calcium were increased. With increasing levels of dietary calcium , daily calcium retention was accelerated, but apparent calcium absorbability was diminished. The results of this study suggest that caffeine consumption promotes urinary calcium excretion. However, increase in dietary calcium resulted in higher calcium retention . These findings indicate that high caffeine consumption may increase dietary calcium requirements. Therefore, it could be suggested that the supplementation of dietary calcium may counteract the negative effect of caffeine intake on calcium utilization.

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Ca and P Balance in Korean Female Adolescents (청소년기 여자의 칼슘과 인 평형 연구)

  • 김선희;최보영
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.433-439
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    • 2001
  • Intakes and excretions of calcium and phosphorus were determined for 8 female adolescents(aged 16.3$\pm$0.5y; body mass index 20.4$\pm$1.3kg/$m^2$; body fat 33.3$\pm$2.5%; bone mineral density of lumbar spine in L2-L4; 0.96$\pm$0.08g/$\textrm{cm}^2$) when they consumed diets basal and high in calcium for 6 days each. All subjects consumed a basal Ca diet containing 800mg, Korean RDA level of the subjects, and a high Ca diet containing 1200mg, RDA plus 2 SDs of calcium intake. The diets provided 58% of energy intake as carbohydrate, 25% as fat, and 17% as protein. Food, urine, and fecal composites were collected during the last 3 days of each feeding period. Fecal excretion of calcium was significantly greater on the high Ca than on the basal Ca diet. Hence, apparent absorption rate was significantly lowered from 40.9% on the basal Ca diet to 33.1% on the high Ca diet. There was no significant difference in calcium retention between the two diet periods but it tended to be greater on the high Ca diet. However, excretions and retention of phosphorus did not show any significant difference even though intake was significantly increased from 1,253mg on the basal Ca diet to 1,583mg on the high Ca diet. The results indicate that higher calcium intake than the Korean RDA level is recommended for adolescents to meet peak bone mineral accretion and attain a desirable level of calcium retention. (Korean J Nutrition 34(4) : 433~439, 2001)

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Effect of Dietary Calcium Levels on Iron Utilization in Female Rat (칼슘의 섭취수준이 암쥐의 체내 철분이용에 미치는 영향)

  • 승정자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.1016-1023
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    • 1996
  • The effect of dietary calcium levels, 50%, 100%, and 200% of requirement, on iron utilization was evaluated in 30 Sprague-Dawley female rats by use of balance study for 3 weeks. In the results of this study, there were no significant difference in feed intake, body weight gain, hemoglobin level, hematocrit, calcium and iron levels in serum and tissues across the groups supplemented different calcium levels. Calcium content in kidney of high-calcium group was significantly higher than that of other groups. Urinary and fecal calcium excretions increased as the level of dietary calcium was increased. With increasing levels of dietary calcium, daily calcium retention was accelerated, but daily calcium retention rate was diminished. Iron intake was significantly higher in adequate-calcium group than that in low-calcium or high-calcium group. Urinary and fecal iron excretions were significantly lower in low-calcium group than those in adequate-calcium or high-calcium group. Apparent retention and retention rate estimated by intake, urinary and fecal excretions of iron were significantly lower in high-calcium group t]lan those in low-calcium or adequate-calcium group. These results suggest that taking dietary calcium supplements reduce the absorption of dietary iron.

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The Effect of Dietary Protein Source on Protein, Lipid, Calcium Metabolizm and Immune Response in College Women (여대생의 식이내 단백질 종류에 따른 체내 단백질, 지방, 칼슘대사 및 면역능력에 관한 연구)

  • 장비귀
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 1986
  • This study was undertalien to investigate the effects of dietary protein sources on protein, lipid, Ca. metabolism and immune response in college women (20), 16 of whom had Jupito constitutions and 4 had Hespero constitutions based on Kwon's theory . They were divided into 3 groups according to the main dietary protein source ; Beef group, Yellow tailrunner group and Soybean durd group. The menu of experimental diet of 3 group were same except their main dietary protein source(beef, yellow tailrunner, soybean curd). They were fed experimental diet for 4 days and their food intake was not restricted. Beef group in Jupito constitutions and yellow tailrunner group in Hespero constitutions were expected to present better effects than the other groups, because beef and yellow tailrunner are good for Jupito constitutions and Hespero constitutions, respectively. Results of Beef group in Jupito constitutions and Hespero constitutions, respectively. Results of Beef group in Jupito constitutions and yellow tailrunner group in Hespero constitutions were as following. 1) Calcium retention rate, Calcium apparent digestibility, serum Complement 3 concentration and LDL+ VLDLconcentration were higher in both groups. 2) Serum HDL concentration and immunoglobulin G concentration were lower in both groups than in the other groups. According to the main dietary protein sources, noted results were as following. 1) Serum total lipid and total cholesterol concentration were the significantly lowest in Soybean curd group. 2) Nitrogen retention rate was the significantly highest in Beef group.

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Effect of Supplementing Sheep with Sunflower Acid Oil or its Calcium Soap on Nutrient Utilization

  • Alexander, G.;Rao, Z. Prabhakara;Prasad, J. Rama
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1288-1293
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    • 2002
  • Four adult rams ($22.25{\pm}0.90kg$) were used in a $4{\times}4$ latin square design to evaluate the rations without ($T_1$) or with supplementation of sunflower acid oil at 5 ($T_2$), 10 ($T_3$) or calcium soap at 10% of dietary DM ($T_4$) on nutrient digestibility and balances of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. The basal ration contained 60 parts Brazilian napier grass hay and 40 parts concentrate mixture. The DM, CF, NDF and ADF digestibilities and nitrogen retention (g/d) decreased (p<0.01) by inclusion of sunflower acid oil at 5% of dietary DM. In addition, depression (p<0.01) in digestibilities of CP, nitrogen free extract (NFE), cellulose, hemicellulose, retention of calcium and phosphorus (g/d) were also observed with increasing the level of sunflower acid oil to 10% of dietary DM. The EE digestibility, total digestible nutrients (TDN) content and calcium retention (g/d) were significantly higher (p<0.01) for ration supplemented with calcium soap. It is concluded that sunflower acid oil supplementation in free form as low as 5% of dietary DM is deleterious to fibre digestion in sheep while as calcium soap, it can be fed up to 10% of dietary DM as an energy source without any adverse effect.

Calcium and Phosphorus Balance Study by Soy Isoflavone Intake in Ovariectomized Rats (난소절제 흰쥐에서 대두 이소플라본의 섭취수준에 따른 Ca과 P의 평형 연구)

  • Chang Moon Jeong;Kwon Kyung Jin;Kim Sun Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to determine the effect of three different concentrations of soy-isoflavones on calcium and phosphorus balance in either sham-operated or ovariectomized female rats. Seventy-two 16-week old Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. They were provided diets containing different levels of soy iso-flavones for 6 weeks: 50 ppm (Jow isoflavone intake; LI) , 250 ppm (medium isoflavone intake; MI) and 500 ppm (high isoflavone intake; HI). The subsequent fecal and urinary excretions of calcium and phosphorus were then measured. In the sham-operated rats, body weight gains and food efficiency ratio of the MI and HI groups were significantly lower than the control group while food intake was not different. However, there was no significant difference in the ovariectomized rats. The fecal excretion of calcium was significantly lower in the LI, MI and HI groups than the control group in sham operated rats, and significantly lower in the HI group than the control group in ovariectomized rats. Also, apparent ab-sorption rate of calcium and phosphorus did not show any significant difference among groups. Urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus was significantly lower in the HI group than the LI group in the sham-operated rats. Urinary excretion of calcium was significantly higher in the control ovariectomized rats than in the control sham-operated rats. Retention of calcium and phosphorus did not show any significant difference in both groups. From the above result, we see that isoflavone intake increases calcium retention through an increase in calcium absorption and also suppresses the increase of calcium excretion in urine in ovariectomy. Therefore, it is suggested that isoflavone intake is recommended for menopausal women who experience sharp bone loss due to the decrease in estrogen honnone.

Effects of Chitosan on Mineral Metabolism in Rats Exposed to Cadmium (카드뮴 투여 흰쥐에서 키토산 섭취가 무기질 대사에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Yeon-Sook;Kim, Yun-Ah;Jang, Soo-Jung;Park, Mi-Na
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of chitosan on mineral metabolism in rats exposed to cadmium by oral administration. Six week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups. Four groups were fed AIN-93G based 3% ${\alpha}$-cellulose diets and the other four groups were fed 3% chitosan diets for four weeks with the oral administration of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg Cd/2ml distilled water three times per week, respectively. The essential mineral contents of serum, liver, kidney and bone (femur and lumbar), and the excretion of calcium in feces and urine were determined. There was no significant difference in weight gain and food intake among groups. The cadmium administration significantly decreased calcium in serum, iron in blood, calcium and iron in liver and iron contents in kidney. In contrast, calcium and zinc contents in kidney increased by the administration of cadmium. The weight, length and breaking forces of the femur and lumbar were not significantly different due to cadmium administration and chitosan among the groups. The fecal excretion of calcium was increased by the administration of cadmium. On the other hand, calcium absorption and the absorption rate were decreased by Cd administration. In the groups without Cd administered (N, N-Chi groups), chitosan significantly decreased the absorption rate of calcium by increasing the excretion in feces (p<0.05). These results suggest that cadmium administration may facilitate the decline of essential minerals in rats and also, chitosan may have a conflicting effect between cadmium and the essential minerals of tissues.

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Effect of golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste on laying performance, calcium utilization, immune response and serum immunity at early phase of production

  • Mahfuz, Shad;Song, Hui;Liu, Zhongjun;Liu, Xinyu;Diao, Zipeng;Ren, Guihong;Guo, Zhixin;Cui, Yan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of golden needle mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) stem waste (FVW), on organic eggs production, calcium utilization, antibody response, serum immunoglobulin, and serum cytokine concentration at early phase of production in laying hens. Methods: A total 210, 19 weeks old aged ISA Brown layers were randomly assigned into 5 equal treatment groups, with 7 replications of 6 hens each. Dietary treatment included a standard basal diet as control; antibiotic (0.05% flavomycin); 2% FVW; 4% FVW; and 6% FVW. The experimental duration was 10 weeks. Results: There was no significant differences (p>0.05) on hen day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental groups. Unmarketable eggs were significantly lower (p<0.05) both in 4% FVW and 6% FVW fed groups than control group. The calcium retention and calcium in egg shell deposition were significantly higher (p<0.05) in FVW inclusion groups than control and antibiotic groups. Antibody titers against Newcastle diseases were significantly higher (p<0.05) in 6% FVW fed group (except combined with 4% FVW at day 147) and infectious bronchitis were significantly higher (p<0.05) in FVW fed groups (except 2% FVW and 4% FVW at day 161) than control and antibiotic groups. Serum immunoglobulin sIgA was significantly higher (p<0.05) in all levels of FVW and IgG was significantly higher (p<0.05) in 4% FVW than control and antibiotic groups. Serum cytokine concentration interleukin-2 (IL-2) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in 6% FVW; IL-6 and tumor necrotic $factor-{\alpha}$ were significantly higher (p<0.05) both in 4% FVW and 6% FVW than control and antibiotic groups; IL-4 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in antibiotic, 2% FVW and 4% FVW fed groups than control. Conclusion: F. velutipes mushroom waste can be used as a novel substitute for antibiotic for organic egg production and sound health status in laying hens.

The Effect of Fermentation of Soybeans on the Protein and Mineral Bioavailability in the Rats (대두의 발효가 흰쥐의 단백질 및 무기질의 생체 이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Bai, Young-Hee;Yoon, Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 1985
  • This study was attempted to investigate the effect of fermentation of soybean on protein and mineral bioavailability. The traditional, oriental fermented soybean foods, Meju and Tempeh, and isolated soybean protein( ISP ) and cooked soybean were prepared and fed to rats as sources of protein. The C-PERs of ISP, cooked soybean, Meju and Tempeh were 1.82, 1.98, 2.11, and 2.36, respectively C-PERs of fermented soybean products, Meju and Tempeh were higher than ISP and cooked soybeans. However, they were not significantly different The percent retention of protein of rats fed with casein, ISP, cooked soybean, Meju and Tempeh were 47.44%, 51.83%, 47.67%, 50.90% and 45.97%, respectively, showing no significant differences among the diets. The rates of calcium retention percent were 62.26%, 59.22%, 61.59%, 55.78% and 67.09 % in rats fed with casein, ISP, cooked soybean, Meju and Tempeh, respectively, demonstrating no significant differences. Rats fed with cooked soybeans did show significantly higher iron retention rate than other samples. However, this study failed to any significant increase in iron availability. The percent of fine retained in rats fed with ISP was significantly lower than those of rats fed with other diets, however, significantly high amounts of zinc were retained in rats fed with Tempeh compared with other diets. The percents of zinc, iron, calcium retained in the bones of rats were not significantly different among the diets.

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