Breast self-examination is the most effective and easiest way for women to increase the responsible consciousness about their health. The purpose of this study was to test the variables impacted to promote breast self-examination practice. The research design used in this study was a nonequevalent control group of a non-synchronized design. The sample that was assembled consisted of 124 women. A purposive sample consisted of 124 women. Each subject was given to assessed on the following the demographic data related to the breast self-examination, knowledge of self-examination, accuracy, in performing self-examination, self-efficacy about breast cancer and breast self-examination, and the number of subjects who found a mass. The result of this study may be summarized as follows : 1. To examine the theretical model fit to the data, chi square test statistics and goodness of fit index were identified($\chi$$^2$=2.30, df=2, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.94 RMSR=0.02, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99, Critical Number=439). 2. The direct effects of education of breast self-examination were knowledge, self-efficacy, accuracy, number finding a mass. But the Indirect effect of education on breast self-examination was frequency of breast self-examination. 3. Knowlege, as direct paths to the breast self-examination practices, was removed in the theoretical model. The parsimonious best fit model included self-efficacy, accuracy, the number finding mass, frequency of breast self-examination practices. 4. The final model produced a chi-square=5.58(p=0.35) with df=5, and GFI =0.99, AGFI =0.94, RMSR=0.03, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99, CN=339 indicating very a good fit. Based on the result of this study, education of breast self-examination is very effective for increasing the competency of the breast self-examination through the knowledge and self-efficacy. Resources to promote self-efficacy may be helpful to increase the frequency of self-examination because self-efficacy is a direct effect on it. These findings suggest the need to develop nursing strategy to promote the self-efficacy of breast self-examination.
This study is carrying out a before and after experiment design for the non-equal comparative group to identify the effects of the breast self-examination education on breast self-examination participant education compliance and health promotion in women. The subject of this study was 58 women residing in Chungju. Their age ranged from 20 to 40. These women were not pregnant or did not breast feed, as well as they did not have any breast disease, at the time of survey. They were available for the response to the questionnaires, and understood the purpose of this study. They also agreed to participate in the study, and responded to the 3rd time questionnaires to the end. Thus, brochures and lectures were provided side by side to a group of 19 of those women, and only brochures were provided to another group of 39 of those women. With regard to education, a brochure and a program using a breast model were applied. Then, the frequency of the breast self examination compliance, breast self examination capability and the relations between the breast self examination and activities to promote health were measured, before the education, after 4 weeks of education and after 12 weeks of education. Before education and after 4 weeks of education. I collected the questionnaires myself visiting them, and after 12 weeks of education, the questionnaires were collected by mail. In relation to the study tool, the breast self examination activity was measured by two measuring tools: breast self examination activity frequency and breast self examination compliance capability. As for the frequency, the number of self examination for the period of 3 months, before the questionnaire survey, was measured in the form of self report. In relation to the tool to measure the breast self examination capability, the BSEPRI tool, which was developed by Wood in 1994, was used. Here, as the score was higher, the capability was indicated to be higher. The translated and revised version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (Walker, Sechrist & Pender. 2002) was used as a tool for health promotion. As the measured score was higher, the health promoting activity was indicated to be higher. The results of this study were as follows: 1. As a result of checking the breast self examination compliance frequency between the experiment group that received the breast self examination participant education and the comparative group that did not receive the education, there was a significant difference in interaction between groups by time, as time passed by. 2. As a result of checking the breast self examination compliance capability between the experiment group and the comparative group, there was a significant difference in interaction between groups by time, as time passed by. 3. As a result of carrying out a repetitive measurement analysis, between the experiment group that received the breast self examination education and the comparative group that did not receive the education, which was carried out to validate the hypothesis that the former would have higher health promoting activities than the latter, there was no significant difference after the breast self examination education was conducted.
This study was undertaken to examine the degree of knowledge and compliance of breast self-examination with women. The subjects for this study were 474 women aged 35-65 receiving health examination from Yonsu-ku Public Health Service Center in Inchon. Data collection was conducted through the use of 2 questionnaires. Analysis of the data was done by used of descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The results of this study were as follows: 1. There were significant differences in the breast self-examination compliance rate according to age(F=5.82, p=.000), marital status(F=2.67, p=.047), educational level (F=5.83, p=.000) and household income (F=3.41, p=.018). 2. The correct answer rate for each items of breast self-examination knowledge scale was between 14.1% of a minimum rate and 65.0% for a maximum rate of 100. The degree of knowledge for relation of breast cancer and menopause, the time of the highest occurance of breast cancer, the best time of breast self-examination and inspection methods of breast self-examination shows relatively low understanding. 3. The average score of breast self-examination was 1.34 from a maximum score of 6. The score of breast self-examination with palpation methods was higher than with inspection methods. 4. A positive correlation was found between breast self-examination knowledge and compliance rate (r=.417, p=.001). According to the results, it is necessary to provide knowledge of the relationship of breast cancer and menopause, the time of the highest occurance of breast cancer, and the best time of breast self-examination and inspection methods of breast self-examination. Also, it is necessary to provide detail guidance for inspection methods and develop a program for promoting the compliance of breast self-examination.
The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and the ability of women toward breast self-examination and to identify factors that may influence the ability of breast examination. The subjects for this study were 105 women in a community health center located in Busan. Data was collected during the period from September I to 20, 2002 by means of a structured questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program and included descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise multiple regression. The results of study are as follows： 1. The mean knowledge score for the total sample was 9.62 and the mean attitude score was 62.95. The mean self- practice score was 5.79. 2. Women's knowledge about breast self-examination was significantly related to attitudes and the ability of women toward breast self-examination (p＜0.05). 3. The ability of women toward breast self-examination was significantly related to attitudes about breast self-examination (p＜0.05). 4. According to the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis, factors affecting women's ability of breast self-examination were practice of breast self-examination and level of education and explained 19.7％ of variance. From the results of this study it can be said that women need to be taught proper breast self-examination so that they can become more proficient in detecting breast abnormalities.
The purpose of this study was to test the fitness and explainable power of TPB-SE model to the behavior of breast self examination and it was to examine effectiveness of education for Intention and behavior of breast self examination. The subjects were 122 womens under baby sitting teachers' training programs at "S"college on Po Hang city, Kyung Pook province from May 10, 1998 through October 17, 1998. Among 122 subjects, 61 were placed in experimental group and 61 in control group. The experimental group was treated by researcher who administered booklet, slide and breast model. Collected data were analyzed through $X^2$-test, t-test, MANOVA, ANCOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient via SPSS/PC and applied LISREL 8.0 programs to test TPB-SE model. The result of this study was summarized as follows: 1. TPB-SE model with additions of self efficacy from TPB fits well for predictive factors of behavior of breast self examination and it also fits well for data (GFI=.91, $R^2$=.45). 2. Behavior score of breast self examination in the experimental group with already educated with breast self examination was significantly higher than that of control group (Wilks's value=.711, p=000). Through the results of this study, TPB-SE model with additions of self efficacy from TPB fits well for predictive factors of behavior of breast self examination and the education of breast self examination was effective to improving intention and behavior of breast self examination. I herewith reached final conclusions that the behavior of breast self examination should be regarded as one of health behavior for all women and the health education to women for breast self examination will be important job role for all nurses. In addition to above, the intervention through effective education designed for improving attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, self efficacy and intentions will be necessary step for any improvement of women' health behavior.
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
The purpose of this study is to analyze the affecting factors on breast self-examination of middle-aged women in Korea. The subjects were 141 women on Jeju Island, and materials were collected through an organized questionnaire from March to August 2002. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, $x^2$-test. A-nova and Discriminant analysis by the SAS program. The major results are as follows: 1. 53% of the subjects performed the breast self-examination. The practice of breast self-examination was correlated with the education level, income, low salt diet, more than 30 minutes of regular exercise. 2. Attitudes towards breast self-examination were not a significant practice regarding breast self-examination. However, the cognition about difficulty of breast self-examination partly showed an important barrier factor to the positive attitude. 3. The average self-efficacy concerning breast self-examination was 3.03. The stages of change related to the subjects showed that a contemplation stage was high. 4. With a stepwise multiple regression, the most significant factor on self-efficacy related with breast self-examination was the contemplation stage, 30-40 aged women. high income, regular exercise, low salt diet, family cancer history, etc. 5. With the discriminant analysis, the most important factors related with the practice of the breast self-examination were income and self-efficacy. The power of discriminant was 59%. The results of this study suggests that programs should be developed to promote practice and the self-efficacy related with breast self-examination.
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze studies in Turkey about self-breast examination and produce conclusive, reliable and detailed basis for future studies. Methods: Studies performed between 2000 and 2009 (until the end of September) were retrieved from databases using breast cancer, breast examination, breast cancer screening and risk factors as key words. Fifty-nine studies were identified and 18 of them (15 journal articles and three theses) were used for the meta-analysis. Results: Married women and women with a family history of breast cancer were found to perform self-breast examination more frequently than single women and women without a family history of breast cancer, respectively (OR=1.02 %CI 0.82-1.63; OR=1.16 %CI 0.82-1.63). According to the health belief model scales, women performing self-breast examination were determined to have 1.7 times higher susceptibility (OR=1.70), 1.34 times higher seriousness perception (OR=1.34), 3.32 times higher health motivation (OR=3.32), 5.21 times more self-efficacy/confidence (OR=5.21) and 2.56 times higher self-breast examination benefit perception (OR=2.56). Conclusion: Nursing care models caused an increase in self-breast examination by women, and thus, it may be useful to organize and evaluate such health-related programs and consider women health perceptions.
Park, Jeong-Sook;Oh, Yun-Jung;Choi, Young-Hee;Park, Eun-A;Chung, Choo-Ja;Jang, Hee-Jung
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify knowledge, attitude, and practice of middle-aged women breast self-examination, and to develop a breast self-examination promotion program for them. Method: The subjects of the study were 365 middle-aged women in Seoul, Busan, Daegu, Daejeon, Gyeongbok, Gyeongnam, Jeonbuk, Gangwon, and Kyonggi. The instruments used in this study included knowledge (l6items), attitude (22items) by Choi (1996) and practice (1item). The data were collected from September 15 to October 31, 2001 by using self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, $x^2$ test, t-test, ANOVA and Scheffe test with SPSS program. Results: 1) 78.4% of the subjects were educated for breast self-examination. The most common source of knowledge for the breast self-examination was mess media. 2) The average score of knowledge on breast self-examination was 8.52 points. The average score of attitude toward breast self-examination was 3.08 points. 58.3% of the subjects practiced breast self-examination. But only 9.4% of the subjects practiced breast self-examination with a monthly basis. 3) Knowledge on breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence (F=2.923, p=0.004), education (F=5.145 p=0.000), number of children (F=5.125 p=0.002), family income (F=6.128 p=0.002), and menopause (t=-2.330, p= 0.020). Attitude toward breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence (F=3.611, p=0.000), age (F=2.731 p= 0.029), education (F=4.480 p=0.004), and family income (F=5.963 p=0.003). Practice of breast self-examination was correlated with demographic variables including residence ($x^2$=51.342, p=0.000), education ($x^2$=19.896, p=0.000), and menopause ($x^2$=9.841, p=0.000). 4) In terms of correlations among the scores of breast self-examination related knowledge, attitude, and practice, there was a correlation between knowledge and attitude. But there was no correlations between knowledge and practice, and between attitude and practice of breast self-examination. Conclusion: This study suggests that programs about the practice of breast self examination need to be developed in the future.
Background: This research evaluated the effectiveness of an online education model in teaching breast self-examination to university staff and students. Materials and Methods: 1,679 women participated in a breast self-examination online training program. Breast self-examination knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer (1997) were used in the research and were evaluated on a 100 point scale. Paired t-test and McNemar's Test statistics were employed. Results: The participants scored an average of 46.5 (14.0%) on knowledge on breast self-examination before training, but 77.4 (11.0%) one month after education and 76.7 (9.52%) after six months. There was a clear significant difference between these knowledge levels (p<0.05). Similarly, while the rate for systematic practice of breast self-examination among women was 30.8% before training it increased to 47.8% afterwards. Again the difference was significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: Online education is an effective method for teaching breast self-examination to women.
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
Breast cancer ranks as one of the major health problems in adult women. The purpose of this study is to determine relationships among the practice of Breast Self-Examination(BSE) and the variables of cancer risk and other genernal factors. This knowledge may be helpful in designing a BSE educational program to promote breast self-examination on a regular basis. The study population included 205 women who live in K city. Personal interviews were conducted to determine the individual's breast self-examination behavior, the level of Breast Cancer Risk according to general factors as well as her reasons for not doing a breast self-examination. The collected data was analyzed with an SAS program The results were summarized as follows : 1. The level of Breast Cancer Risk of the subjects is as follows: high risk(9%), moderate risk(11%), boderline risk(12%), no increased risk (68%). 2. There was no difference in the practice of BSE between women who were at high cancer risk and at no increased cancer risk. 3. BSE practice levels according to general foctors were significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The performing of regular breast self-examination in urban areas was 7% and in rural areas was 0%. Regularly practiced breast self-examination in women with a low education was 5% and in college educated women, it was 29%. 4. BSE education was significantly related to the residence and the level of education of the subjects. The majority learned BSE through 'a magazine or journal'. 5. The reason of the majority of women did not perform a regular breast self-examination was, 'Didn't know the BSE technique'. On the basis of this study it can be concluded that the development of a BSE education program is needed to help women perform the examination correctly.
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