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Effects of Skipping Breakfast on Nutrition Status, Fatigue Level, and Attention Level among Middle School Students in Gyunggi Province, Korea (아침 결식이 경기지역 남녀 중학생의 영양섭취상태, 피로자각도 및 주의집중력에 미치는 영향)

  • Yim, Kyeong Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.464-475
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    • 2014
  • Eating breakfast provides crucial nutrition for brain function and helps promote overall health. It is especially critical in growing adolescents, as it is known to form good eating habits and better study habits. This study investigated the effects of skipping breakfast on nutritional state, fatigue level, and attention level. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on total of 828 adolescents composed of 414 boys and 414 girls. Students who ate breakfast never to twice per week were placed in the breakfast-skipper group while students who ate breakfast more than five times per week were included in the breakfast-eater group. Students performed a self-reported questionnaire on food behaviors, amount of food consumption, fatigue level, attention deficient hyperactivity disease (ADHD) level by Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scales, depression scale, and self-esteem level. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SAS program (version 9.1). A total of 135 boys (32.6%) and 138 girls (33.3%) were included in the breakfast-skipper group, whereas 241 boys (58.2%) and 223 girls (53.9%) were included in the breakfast-eater group. The breakfast-skipper group showed irregular food behaviors and lacked nutrients. Specifically, energy (p< .001), protein (p< .001), dietary fiber (p< .001), calcium (p< .01), vitamin A (p< .01), thiamin (p< .05), niacin (p< .001) levels in boy breakfast-skippers were statistically lower compared to boy breakfast-eaters. Intakes of all nutrients except fat in girl breakfast-skippers were statistically lower than in girl breakfast-eaters. Girl breakfast-skippers (41.3%) showed significantly higher fatigue risks compared to girl breakfast-eaters (21.5%). Low attention level was also observed only in girls in the breakfast-skipping group. Moreover, students in the breakfast-skipper group showed higher scores for depression and low self-esteem (p< .001). In conclusion, skipping breakfast has effects on young adolescents' nutrition, manifesting as high fatigue level and low attention level, especially in girls.

Relation of Breakfast Intake to Diet Quality in Korean School-Aged Children: Analysis of the Data from the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey (초.중.고등학생의 아침식사 섭취에 따른 하루식사의 질 평가: 2001년 국민건강.영양조사 자료 분석)

  • Yeoh, Yoon-Jae;Yoon, Ji-Hyun;Shim, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2009
  • The aims of this study were to assess the quality of breakfast intake and to examine the relation of breakfast intake to the quality of daily diet in Korean school-aged children. The one day 24-hour recall data from the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey were analyzed. The sample of this study consisted of 1,600 children aged 7 to 18 years attending elementary, middle, or high schools. By calorie level of breakfast intake, the children were grouped into Breakfast Skippers (0 kcal; n = 268, 17%), Low Calorie Breakfast Eaters (0 kcal < and < 10% of Estimated Energy Requirement (EER); n = 190, 12%), Moderate Calorie Breakfast Eaters (10% ${\leq}$ and < 25% of EER; n = 861, 54%), or Sufficient Calorie Breakfast Eaters (${\geq}$ 25% of EER; n = 281, 17%). General characteristics including weight status and nutritional quality of breakfast and daily diet were compared among the four groups. The average daily calorie intake of Breakfast Skippers, Low, Moderate, and Sufficient Breakfast Eaters were 1,771 kcal, 1,719 kcal, 1,902 kcal, and 2,349 kcal, respectively; they were 86.3%, 85.9%, 98.0%, and 124.9% of EER, respectively. The percentages of students consuming daily diet with protein, vitamin A, $B_1$, $B_2$, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, or iron less than Estimated Average Requirement decreased in the breakfast groups with the higher calorie level of breakfast intake. The Dietary Variety Score of daily diet significantly increased by increasing the calorie level of breakfast intake. The results indicated the quality of daily diet was positively related to the level of calorie intake from breakfast.

Association between Regular Breakfast and Sleep-related Factors in Korean Adolescents (청소년의 규칙적 아침식사를 위한 수면 관련 요인 분석)

  • Cho, Yoon Jeong;Hwang, Jun Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Breakfast is the most important meal to provide energy for the day. Breakfast is especially important to give enough nutritional support to children and adolescents for their physical growth and sexual development. Sleep-related factors like average sleep duration and wake up time would mostly be associated with regular breakfast. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep on regular breakfast consumption in Korean adolescents. Methods: The study used the data from the 12th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS-XII) conducted in 2016 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data of 62,820 subjects (middle/high school students) were included in the final analysis. The study examined the factors related to regular breakfast, focusing on weekday average sleep duration and wake up time of middle school students and high school students, respectively. Results: Regular breakfast consumption was shown to have a statistically significant association with high economic status, nutritional education, weekday average sleep duration, wake up time, and subjective sleep satisfaction in the multivariate logistic regression. Regardless of the school level, regular breakfast consumption was significantly associated with early wake up time. As to the effect of weekday average sleep duration on regular breakfast consumption, it showed some different results depending on the school level. Conclusion: Regular breakfast consumption of Korean adolescents was related to weekday average sleep duration and wake up time. Having breakfast regularly was affected by both adequate weekday average sleep duration and early wake up time.

Effect of Breakfast Service on Nutritional Status, Hematological Status, and Attentiveness of Children in Low-Income Families (아침급식이 저소득층 결식아동의 영양상태, 혈액성상 및 주의집중력에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jeong-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.416-428
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of breakfast service on nutritional status, hematological status, and attentiveness of children in low-income families. The subjects were 19 boys and 13 girls between 7 and 11 years old. The subjects were divided into a control group and a breakfast service (BS) group, in which 12 boys and 5 girls received breakfast from February 1 to December 31, 2010. The results can be summarized as follows: intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, and vitamin C in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In the BS group, the intakes of calcium, folic acid, and vitamin C were lower than 75% of recommended intake levels. There were no significant differences in the total blood protein level and total cholesterol level between the BS group and control group. A blood albumin level was significantly higher in the BS group than in the control group. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the BS group than in the control group, whereas the diastolic blood pressure showed no significant difference between the groups. A dietary attitude score increased according to breakfast service and nutritional education. No significant differences were found in the capacity value and continuity value between the two groups, but the control value was significantly higher in the BS group than in the control group. Therefore, to sustain the effect of breakfast service and improve nutritional status for children skipping breakfast in low-income families, nutrition intervention services, as well as legal and financial support by the government should be provided.

Developing Breakfast Menus for Most Easily Breakfast-Skipping Groups (아침결식 위험집단을 위한 아침 균형식단 개발)

  • 이심열;이연숙;박정숙;배영희;김영옥;박영숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.315-325
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to develop the standard breakfast menu for those weak groups having insufficient breakfast intake. The following three target groups are classified as: 16-19 years old high school male student, 20-29 years old female who have job or college students, 20-29 years old male or female who have job (double income family). While developing menus for each target groups, we applied several basic guidelines for meal planning as follows: Nutrient intake level was set to $\graction one-Third$ of RDA, while the energy level to $\fraction one-quarter $ of RDAs. Most Sequent meal pattern of Koreans was adapted; Suitabilities of appropriate serving size and cost for middle-income families were considered; Domestic foods and ingredients were used. We developed 24 menus summed by 2 menus for each season and three target groups. When evaluating the menus, most of the breakfast menus were sufficient of nutrients as a meal for the subjects. Three food groups such as grain/starch group, meat/fish/egg/bean group, vegetable/fruit group were included in all menus. Even though milk/dairy products group was not excluded for some menus, other calcium substitutes like anchovies were used. Oil/nut/sugar group was used to a minimum. The average number of foods for each menu was 12.8, which ranged from 10 to 17 depending on the menus. The average weight of the menus including soup was 822 g, 633 g and 730 g for each target group, respectively. The average price of the menu ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 won per person. The above results could be applied at home as well as foodservice institutes and furthermore could offer information for developing breakfast-substituting food products.

A Study of the Nutritional Intake and Health Condition of Female College Students as Related to Their Frequency of Eating Breakfast (전북지역 일부 여대생의 아침식사 빈도에 따른 영양소 섭취, 건강 상태에 관한 연구)

  • 유현희;남정은;김인숙
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.964-976
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    • 2003
  • The present study investigated the nutritional intake and health condition of 389 female college students living in Iksan, Jeonbuk, dependent on their frequency of breakfast. The subjects were evenly distributed in terms of their age, 61.7% were living at home with their parents, and most responded that they were from a middle income level. Of the subjects, 43.2% always had breakfast (more than 5 times a week), 26.5% sometimes (3 to 4 times a week); 30.3% seldom had breakfast (less than twice a week). The most frequent reason why they skipped breakfast was they were late risers (53%); 38.7% started to skip breakfast during their high school days. The nutritional intake based on whether or not they had breakfast showed that the intake of all nutrients including energy was higher in the students who always or sometimes had breakfast than in those who seldom did (p<0.05-0.001). The presence of clinical symptoms was dependent upon their intake of breakfast. It showed that the students who seldom ate breakfast, had more symptoms of convulsions, nervousness, neck or shoulder pain and indigestion, than those who always, or sometimes ate it (p<0.05-0.01). In all three groups, the largest number of students exercised once or twice a week. Their major reason for exercising was to lose weight. The degree of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) was in the normal range for 69.7% of the subjects. Female college students ate breakfast irregularly seemed to have a lower intake of nutrients and poorer health. In this regard, we should recognize the importance of eating breakfast, and should make a habit of doing so.

Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 성인의 아침식사 에너지 수준에 따른 대사적 위험과 영양상태: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Jang, So-Hyoun;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate energy level of breakfast with less risk of chronic disease for Korean adults. Methods: Using data from the 2007~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey, from a total of 12,238 adults aged 19~64, the final 7,769 subjects were analyzed except subjects who were undergoing treatment for cancer or metabolic disorder. According to the percent of breakfast energy intake versus their estimated energy requirement (EER), the subjects were divided into four groups: < 10% (very low, VL), 10~20% (low, L), 20~30% (moderate, M), ${\geq}30%$ (sufficient, S). All data were analyzed on the metabolic risk and nutritional state after application of weighted value and adjustment of sex, age, residential area, income, education, job or jobless, and energy intake using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: The subjects of group S were 16.9% of total subjects, group M 39.2%, group L 37.6%, and group VL 6.3%. The VL group included more male subjects, younger-aged (19 to 40 years), urban residents, higher income, higher education, and fewer breakfasts eaters together with family members. Among the 4 groups, the VL group showed the highest waist circumference, while the S group showed the lowest waist circumference, body mass index, and serum total cholesterol. The groups of VL and L with lower intake of breakfast energy showed high percent of energy from protein and fat, and low percent of energy from carbohydrate. With the increase of breakfast energy level, intake of energy, most nutrients and food groups increased, and the percentage of subjects consuming nutrients below EAR decreased. The VL group showed relatively higher intake of snacks, sugar, meat and eggs, oil, and seasonings, and the lowest intake of vegetable. Risk of obesity by waist circumference was highest in the VL group by 1.90 times of the S group and the same trend was shown in obesity by BMI. Risk of dyslipidemia by serum total cholesterol was 1.84 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Risk of diabetes by Glu-FBS (fasting blood sugar) was 1.57 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Conclusion: The results indicate that higher breakfast energy level is positively related to lower metabolic risk and more desirable nutritional state in Korean adults. Therefore, breakfast energy intake more than 30% of their own EER would be highly recommended for Korean adults.

Development of Convenient Menu School Breakfast Program for High School Students (고등학생을 위한 아침급식용 간편식단 개발)

  • Kim, Jung-Eun;Ji, Myoung-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.343-351
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    • 2013
  • To help reduce the 'breakfast-skip' rate of the high school students and improve such 'breakfast-skipping' practice this study devised a new covenience menu for school breakfast Program. Dictated by a dietitian the form of cooking was rendered within directly-cookable convenient food; The price of menu ranged from 1,500-2,000won taking into account the parents' survey ; the menu formation drew largely from the student food preference survey and their favorites. The composition of menu - the Korean dish and the western dish put together-were of two folds and was based on the two: main menu, subsidiary menu. While main menu used rice, the subsidiary one used fruits, salads, milk, and juices. Energy intake sufficiency standard was set at a level of between 1/4 and 1/3 of the relevent group(mid&high students, 15-18 yrs old)'s approximated energy need, drawn from the Dietary Reference Intakes For Koreans(2010). 10 disparate, divised menus were tested deliberately- cooked at a site, thereafter qualifed and supplemented to meet the targeted energy amount. The nuturitional facts of each menu set were measured through the usage of CAN-PRO 3.0, Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program, for professionals. Completed menu set were then given in photograph. The results of this study were as follows : The results of this study were as follows : the newly developed menu's calories and nuturitional content were as follows in the ratio of Dietary Reference Intakes For Koreans(2010) : Calories 95.7%(4.3% below the targeted intake standard), Protein(131.1%), Calcium(130.2%) the both of which marked higher than the recommended daily intake, iron(71.0%), Potassium(93.1%) both of which figure lower than the recommended daily intake. The cost of ingredients per each person was 1,335won, which was lower than the targeted cost(1500won). When calculated, hypothetically provided breakfast's labor hour needed per 1 meal is shown to be average 1.2 minute. In conslusion : Convenience style school breakfast program would bring an increse in the intake of high school students' breakfast, which may contribute not only to the sound physical growth but to academic performance. Various developments of the school breakfast program is much needed continually.

Nutrient and Food Intake of Koreans by the Economic Status and Meal Pattern Using 1998 Korean National Health Examination Nutrition Survey (1998년도 국민건강영양조사자료를 이용한 한국인의 경제수준별 끼니별 영양 및 식품섭취현황)

  • 문현경;김유진
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.236-250
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study was to investigate difference in the diet by the kind of meal and the economic status. Nutrient contents at each meals were compared and differences in food intake at different meal were analyzed by economic status. Data from the 1998 Korean National Health Examination Nutrition Survey were used. Using the poverty line based on the 1998 Korean minimum cost of living, the subjects (n = 10400) were classified into high class (36.1%), middle class (40.7%) and low class (23.1 %). Most nutrient intakes were obtained for main meals regardless of economic status. For high class, breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks bring about 21, 29, 30 and 19 % of total energy intake, for middle class 22, 29, 30 and 19% and for low class 24, 30, 30 and 16%, respectively. The high-middle class people tend to get more food intakes and nutrients at dinner and snacks, while the low class at main meals. This result was associated with the consumption of a smaller number of meals and a greater number of snacks daily as the economic level was going up (p 〈 0.05). Meals contributed to energy, protein and fat intake, and snacks to water, retinol and vitamin C. The food intakes by food group were different at meals by economic class. Seaweed product were popular breakfast foods in both middle and low groups. Thus three meals such as breakfast, lunch and dinner still delivered most of the energy and most of the macro-nutrients regardless of economic status.

A Study on Nutrition Intake Related to Food Habit and Family Environmental Factor of High School Girls in Seoul (서울시내 일부 여고생의 食行動 및 家族環境과 관련된 營養攝取樣相 조사연구)

  • Kim, Hyong Ran
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.49-66
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    • 1986
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrition intake of high school girls related to food habit, physical status, family environmental factor. The survey of 216 high school girls, aged 15 to 17 years old in Seoul area was conducted from April, 21 to 30, 1986. Food habit and family environmental factor were researched by means of questionnaires and nutrition intake was surveyed. by recording the kinds, amounts and ingredients of foods taken by the girls for two days, and height and weight were also measured during the period. The findings are summarized as follows: 1. Mean value of height and weight of the girls were 157.6cm and 50.9kg. 2. Number of family members per household was 5.2. Mean value of father's age was 47.1 and mean value of mother's age was 43.6. 44.9% of the girls had fathers who graduated the college, 41.6% of the girls had mothers who graduated the high school and 29.2% of the girls had mothers who had the job. 3. Breakfast missing rate was high, most of the reason for breakfast missing was 'have no time to eat' and time for breakfast was short. 64.4% of the girls had meal irregularly. 4. Mean daily intake of all nutrients except vitamin A and riboflavin was higher than Recommended Dietary Allowances. Mean caloric intake was 89.8% of R.D.A.. Breakfast intake of energy and most of nutrients was less than snack. Mean meal balance score was 47.9 and mean food diversity score was 13.4. 5. Mother's education level was related to intake of protein and calcium and height. Breakfast and lunch missing and number of snack intake were related with nutrition intake.

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