• Title, Summary, Keyword: bottom simulating reflector

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Sound Velocity Property of Sediment Containing Gas Hydrate in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea (동해 울릉분지 가스하이드레이트 함유 퇴적물의 음파전달속도 특성)

  • Kim, Gil-Young;Yoo, Dong-Geun;Ryu, Byong-Jae
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.424-431
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    • 2009
  • This study investigates the difference of sound velocity (compressional wave velocity) between gas hydrate-bearing sediments and nongas hydrate-bearing sediments in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea. We use a dataset measured from one site in the central part of the Ulleung Basin. Sound velocity for gas hydrate-bearing sediment shows the range from 1600 m/s to 2200 m/s. However, the value for nongas hydrate-bearing sediment is mostly around 1500 m/s, being less than 1400 m/s below 140 m subbottom depth. This trend is probably due to the presence of free gas below BSR (Bottom Simulating Reflector). Gas hydrate-bearing sediments show high value (maximum 150 Ohm-m) of resistivity. The physical properties between gas hydrate-bearing sediment and nongas hydrate-bearing sediment are characterized by the different patterns due to the presence of gas hydrate in comparison with those of marine unconsolidated sediments. Therefore, in order to investigate acoustic and physical properties for gas hydrate-bearing sediments, the study for the occurrence type and the amount of gas hydrates should be conducted simultaneously.

Application of Deconvolution Methods to Improve Seismic Resolution and Recognition of Sedimentary Facies Containing Gas Hydrates (동해 가스하이드레이트 퇴적상 해석 및 분해능 향상을 위한 디컨볼루션 연구)

  • Yi, Bo-Yeon;Lee, Gwang-Hoon;Kim, Han-Joon;Jeong, Gap-Sik;Yoo, Dong-Geun;Ryu, Byoung-Jae;Kang, Nyeon-Keon
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2010
  • Three deconvolution methods were applied to stacked seismic data obtained to investigate gas-hydrates in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea: (1) minimum-phase spiking deconvolution, (2) minimum-phase spiking deconvolution using an averaged wavelet from all traces, and (3) deterministic deconvolution using a wavelet with phases computed from well-logs. We analyzed the resolving property of these methods for lithological boundaries. The first deconvolution method increases temporal resolution but decreases lateral continuity. The second method shows, in an overall sense, similar results to the spiking deconvolution using a minimum phase wavelet for each trace; however, it results in a more consistent and continuous bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) and better resolved sub-BSR reflectors. The results from the third method reveal more detailed internal structures of debris-flow deposits and increased continuity of reflectors; in addition, the seafloor reflection and the BSR appear to have changed to a zero-phase waveform. These properties help more precisely estimate the distribution and reserves of gas hydrates in the exploration area by improving analysis of facies and amplitude of the BSR.

Seismic interval velocity analysis on prestack depth domain for detecting the bottom simulating reflector of gas-hydrate (가스 하이드레이트 부존층의 하부 경계면을 규명하기 위한 심도영역 탄성파 구간속도 분석)

  • Ko Seung-Won;Chung Bu-Heung
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.638-642
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    • 2005
  • For gas hydrate exploration, long offset multichannel seismic data acquired using by the 4km streamer length in Ulleung basin of the East Sea. The dataset was processed to define the BSRs (Bottom Simulating Reflectors) and to estimate the amount of gas hydrates. Confirmation of the presence of Bottom Simulating reflectors (BSR) and investigation of its physical properties from seismic section are important for gas hydrate detection. Specially, faster interval velocity overlying slower interval velocity indicates the likely presences of gas hydrate above BSR and free gas underneath BSR. In consequence, estimation of correct interval velocities and analysis of their spatial variations are critical processes for gas hydrate detection using seismic reflection data. Using Dix's equation, Root Mean Square (RMS) velocities can be converted into interval velocities. However, it is not a proper way to investigate interval velocities above and below BSR considering the fact that RMS velocities have poor resolution and correctness and the assumption that interval velocities increase along the depth. Therefore, we incorporated Migration Velocity Analysis (MVA) software produced by Landmark CO. to estimate correct interval velocities in detail. MVA is a process to yield velocities of sediments between layers using Common Mid Point (CMP) gathered seismic data. The CMP gathered data for MVA should be produced after basic processing steps to enhance the signal to noise ratio of the first reflections. Prestack depth migrated section is produced using interval velocities and interval velocities are key parameters governing qualities of prestack depth migration section. Correctness of interval velocities can be examined by the presence of Residual Move Out (RMO) on CMP gathered data. If there is no RMO, peaks of primary reflection events are flat in horizontal direction for all offsets of Common Reflection Point (CRP) gathers and it proves that prestack depth migration is done with correct velocity field. Used method in this study, Tomographic inversion needs two initial input data. One is the dataset obtained from the results of preprocessing by removing multiples and noise and stacked partially. The other is the depth domain velocity model build by smoothing and editing the interval velocity converted from RMS velocity. After the three times iteration of tomography inversion, Optimum interval velocity field can be fixed. The conclusion of this study as follow, the final Interval velocity around the BSR decreased to 1400 m/s from 2500 m/s abruptly. BSR is showed about 200m depth under the seabottom

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Complex Analyses for Gas Hydrate Seismic Reflection Data (가스하이드레이트 탄성파 자료의 복소분석)

  • Hien, D.H.;Jang, Seong-Hyung;Kim, Young-Wan;Suh, Sang-Yong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.208-212
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    • 2008
  • Gas hydrate has been paid attention to study for because: 1) it can be considered as a new energy resources; 2) one of reasons causing the instability of sea floor slope and 3) a factor to the climate change. Bottom simulating reflector (BSR) defined as seismic boundary between the gas hydrate and free gas zone has been considered as the most common evidence in the seismic reflection data for the gas hydrate exploration. BSR has several characteristics such as parallel to the sea bottom, high amplitude, reducing interval velocity between above and below BSR and reversing phase to the sea bottom. Moreover, instantaneous attribute properties such as amplitude envelop, instantaneous frequency, phase and first derivative of amplitude of seismic data from the complex analysis could be used to analyze properties of BSR those would be added to the certain properties of BSR in order to effectively find out the existence of BSR of the gas hydrate stability zone. The output of conventional seismic data processing for gas hydrate data set in Ulleung basin in the East sea of Korea will be used for complex analyses to indicate better BSR in the seismic reflection data. This result of this analysis implies that the BSR of the analyzed seismic profile is clearly located at the two ways time (TWT) of around 3.1 seconds.

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S-wave Velocity Derivation Near the BSR Depth of the Gas-hydrate Prospect Area Using Marine Multi-component Seismic Data (해양 다성분 탄성파 자료를 이용한 가스하이드레이트 유망지역의 BSR 상하부 S파 속도 도출)

  • Kim, Byoung-Yeop;Byun, Joong-Moo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.229-238
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    • 2011
  • S-wave, which provides lithology and pore fluid information, plays a key role in estimating gas-hydrate saturation. In general, P- and S-wave velocities increase in the presence of gas-hydrate and the P-wave velocity decreases in the presence of free gas under the gas-hydrate layer. Whereas there are very small changes, even slightly increases, in the S-wave velocity in the free gas layer because S-wave is not affected by the pore fluid when propagating in the free gas layer. To verify those velocity properties of the BSR (bottom-simulating reflector) depth in the gas-hydrate prospect area in the Ulleung Basin, P- and S-wave velocity profiles were derived from multi-component ocean-bottom seismic data which were acquired by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) in May 2009. OBS (ocean-bottom seismometer) hydrophone component data were modeled and inverted first through the traveltime inversion method to derive P-wave velocity and depth model of survey area. 2-D multichannel stacked data were incorporated as an initial model. Two horizontal geophone component data, then, were polarization filtered and rotated to make radial component section. Traveltimes of main S-wave events were picked and used for forward modeling incorporating Poisson's ratio. This modeling provides S-wave profiles and Poisson's ratio profiles at every OBS site. The results shows that P-wave velocities in most OBS sites decrease beneath the BSR, whereas S-wave velocities slightly increase. Consequently, Poisson's ratio decreased strongly beneath the BSR indicating the presence of a free gas layer under the BSR.

Prestack depth migration for gas hydrate seismic data set (가스 하이드레이트 탄성파 자료에 대한 중합전 심도 구조보정)

  • Hien, Doan Huy;Jang, Seong-Hyung;Kim, Yong-Wan;Suh, Sang-Yong
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.564-568
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    • 2007
  • Gas hydrate has been attractive topic for two dedicates because it may cause the global warming, ocean hazards associated with the instability of marine slope due to the gas hydrate release as well as high potential of future energy resources. The study on gas hydrate in Ulleung basin has been performed since 1999 to explore the potential and distribution of gas hydrate offshore Korea. The numerous multi channel seismic data have been acquired and processed by Korea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The results showed clearly the gas hydrate indicators such as pull up structure, bottom simulating reflector (BSR), seismic blanking zone. The prestack depth migration has been considered as fast and accurate technique to image the subsurface. In this paper, we will present both the conventional seismic data processing and apply Kirchhoff prestack depth migration for gas hydrate data set. The results will be applied for core sample collections and for proposal more detail 2D with long offset or 3D seismic exploration.

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Seismic Modeling for Inhomogeneous Medium (불균질 매질에서 탄성파 모델링)

  • Kim, Young-Wan;Jang, Seong-Hyung;Yoon, Wang-Jung
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.739-749
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    • 2007
  • The seismic velocity at the formation varies widely with physical properties in the layers. These features on seismic shot gathers are not capable of reproducing normally by numerical modeling of homogeneous medium, so that we need that of random inhomogeneous medium instead. In this study, we conducted Gaussian autocorrelation function (ACF), exponential autocorrelation function and von Karman autocorrelation function for getting inhomogeneous velocity model and applied a simple geological model. According to the results, von Karman autocorrelation function showed short wavelength to the inhomogeneous velocity medium. For numerical modeling for a gas hydrate, we determined a geological model based on field data set gathered in the East sea. The numerical modeling results showed that the von Karman autocorrelation function could properly describe scattering phenomena in the gas hydrate velocity model which contains an inhomogeneous layer. Besides, bottom-simulating-reflectors and scattered waves which appear at seismic shot gather of the field data showed properly in the inhomogeneous numerical modeling.

Seismic AVO Analysis, AVO Modeling, AVO Inversion for understanding the gas-hydrate structure (가스 하이드레이트 부존층의 구조파악을 위한 탄성파 AVO 분석 AVO모델링, AVO역산)

  • Kim Gun-Duk;Chung Bu-Heung
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.643-646
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    • 2005
  • The gas hydrate exploration using seismic reflection data, the detection of BSR(Bottom Simulating Reflector) on the seismic section is the most important work flow because the BSR have been interpreted as being formed at the base of a gas hydrate zone. Usually, BSR has some dominant qualitative characteristics on seismic section i.e. Wavelet phase reversal compare to sea bottom signal, Parallel layer with sea bottom, Strong amplitude, Masking phenomenon above the BSR, Cross bedding with other geological layer. Even though a BSR can be selected on seismic section with these guidance, it is not enough to conform as being true BSR. Some other available methods for verifying the BSR with reliable analysis quantitatively i.e. Interval velocity analysis, AVO(Amplitude Variation with Offset)analysis etc. Usually, AVO analysis can be divided by three main parts. The first part is AVO analysis, the second is AVO modeling and the last is AVO inversion. AVO analysis is unique method for detecting the free gas zone on seismic section directly. Therefore it can be a kind of useful analysis method for discriminating true BSR, which might arise from an Possion ratio contrast between high velocity layer, partially hydrated sediment and low velocity layer, water saturated gas sediment. During the AVO interpretation, as the AVO response can be changed depend upon the water saturation ratio, it is confused to discriminate the AVO response of gas layer from dry layer. In that case, the AVO modeling is necessary to generate synthetic seismogram comparing with real data. It can be available to make conclusions from correspondence or lack of correspondence between the two seismograms. AVO inversion process is the method for driving a geological model by iterative operation that the result ing synthetic seismogram matches to real data seismogram wi thin some tolerance level. AVO inversion is a topic of current research and for now there is no general consensus on how the process should be done or even whether is valid for standard seismic data. Unfortunately, there are no well log data acquired from gas hydrate exploration area in Korea. Instead of that data, well log data and seismic data acquired from gas sand area located nearby the gas hydrate exploration area is used to AVO analysis, As the results of AVO modeling, type III AVO anomaly confirmed on the gas sand layer. The Castagna's equation constant value for estimating the S-wave velocity are evaluated as A=0.86190, B=-3845.14431 respectively and water saturation ratio is $50\%$. To calculate the reflection coefficient of synthetic seismogram, the Zoeppritz equation is used. For AVO inversion process, the dataset provided by Hampson-Rushell CO. is used.

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Random heterogeneous model with bimodal velocity distribution for Methane Hydrate exploration (바이모달 분포형태 랜덤 불균질 매질에 의한 메탄하이드레이트층 모델화)

  • Kamei Rie;Hato Masami;Matsuoka Toshifumi
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2005
  • We have developed a random heterogeneous velocity model with bimodal distribution in methane hydrate-bearing Bones. The P-wave well-log data have a von Karman type autocorrelation function and non-Gaussian distribution. The velocity histogram has two peaks separated by several hundred metres per second. A random heterogeneous medium with bimodal distribution is generated by mapping of a medium with a Gaussian probability distribution, yielded by the normal spectral-based generation method. By using an ellipsoidal autocorrelation function, the random medium also incorporates anisotropy of autocorrelation lengths. A simulated P-wave velocity log reproduces well the features of the field data. This model is applied to two simulations of elastic wane propagation. Synthetic reflection sections with source signals in two different frequency bands imply that the velocity fluctuation of the random model with bimodal distribution causes the frequency dependence of the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) by affecting wave field scattering. A synthetic cross-well section suggests that the strong attenuation observed in field data might be caused by the extrinsic attenuation in scattering. We conclude that random heterogeneity with bimodal distribution is a key issue in modelling hydrate-bearing Bones, and that it can explain the frequency dependence and scattering observed in seismic sections in such areas.

Gas Hydrate Occurrence in the Southwestern Slope of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Inferred from Seismic Evidence (동해 울릉분지 남서 사면지역에서 탄성파 특징으로부터 유추한 가스 수화물의 존재 가능성)

  • Hong, Jong-Kuk;Yoo, Hai-Soo;Jou, Hyeong-Tae;Han, Sang-Joon;Choi, Dong-Lim
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2001
  • A high resolution Chirp seismic profile and a multichannel seismic reflection profile were analysed to study the possibility of gas hydrate presence in the southwestern upper slope of the Ulleung Basin. The Chirp profile shows acoustic turbidity, acoustic void, and pockmarks, suggesting the presence of shallow gas in the sediments .Slope failures appear to have occurred in association with decomposition of gas hydrated sediments. A bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is seen in subbottom depths of 60 to 110 m below the seafloor at water depths of 750 to 1130 m. The sediments above BSR are characterized by acoustic blanking probably due to amplitude reduction caused by a mixture of gas hydrate with sediments. The interval velocity above the BSR is 1,650 m/sec and it drops abruptly to 1,080 m/sec below the BSR. The sediment column between seafloor and the BSR thins with increasing water depth, which is very closely related to increasing geothermal gradient with increasing water depth in the Ulleung Basin.

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