• Title, Summary, Keyword: body weight

Search Result 12,732, Processing Time 0.067 seconds

Prevalence Rate of Hypertension and Cared Pattern in Rural Aged over Sixty Years Old (농촌지역 60세 이상 노인인구의 고혈압 유병율 및 관리형태)

  • Lim, Song;Chun, Byung-Yeol;Yeh, Min-Hae
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.129-140
    • /
    • 1994
  • The survey has for its object to detect prevalence rate of hypertension in target population, to find out the risk factor to hypertension, to detect the hypertensive patients cared pattern and therefore, to consider a effective counter plan for the long term about hypertension. The study, population of this survey was 894 out of 1013 target population from Feb. 1 1994 to March 31 1994 in Kyougsang-namdo Ulsan-gun Samnam-myoun. For these two month, check of blood pressure and direct measurement of height and weight was carried out by mass screening and home visiting and had an interview about risk factors for hypertension and cared pattern by questionnaire. The results of survey were as follows : 1. The prevalence rate of 894 study, population was 27.5% and 26.0% in man and 28.6% in women. 2. In male, the prevalence rate for age group, family history of hypertension, drinking, salt intake by risk factors were significant statistically. 3. In female, the prevalence rate for salt intake, body mass index by risk factors were significant statistically. 4. Motivation which was diagnosed as hypertension was that be examined for subjective symptoms of hypertension and routine check for health was only 25.0%, 9.1% and visiting to the hospital for other diseases, detect hypertension by chance was 65.9%. 5. The experience of treatment in prevalent cases was significant statistically in middle class of SES. And the place of treatment by risk factors could not be significant statistically in spite of the majority selected hospital generally. 6. The reasons of non-compliance in prevalent cases was restricting daily activities for its 45.5% most high and the interruption of treatment in prevalent cases was far from hospital geographically for its 47.6% most high 7. The preventive behavior about hypertensive by risk factors or general characteristics wasn't significant statistically. 8. Being treated or not in the near future about age group, SES, family history of the hypertension was significant statistically. And with regard to the place of treatment in the near future, in spite of the majority selected hospital generally, it wasn't significant statistically. 9. The reasons of non-compliance in incidence cases was restricting daily activities for its 46.8% most high. 10. The preventive behavior in the near future about age group, education level, SES, family history of hypertension was significant statistically.

  • PDF

In Vivo Preperation of Standard Reference Materials of Lead in Blood (생체내 혈중 납 표준물질의 제조)

  • Chung, Kyou-Chull;Choi, Ho-Chun
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.28 no.4
    • /
    • pp.863-873
    • /
    • 1995
  • This report describes a preperation and characterization of canine blood lead(Pb) standard reference material(SRM). Three adult beagle dogs(A, B, and C)were orally dosed with gelatin capsules containing $Pb(NO_3)_2$, equivalent to $10\sim80mg$ Pb/kg body weight. Blood was drawn 24 hours after the dose from the cephalic vein into lead free 500ml Pyrex beaker in which EDTA.K was contained as an anticoagulant. The amount of lead given to individual dog was varied arbitrarily. Three month later, 3 canine animals were orally dosed with lead secondarily to make mixed SRM(D1) which was mixed different concentrations of lead in bloods with A1, B1, and C1 in vitro. The SRMs for A, B, C, A1, B1, C1, and D1 were distributed 2ml each into more than 300 lead free bottles, and were stored in refregerator at $4^{\circ}C$. The amount of lead in canine whole blood samples were determined using a Varian 30A atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS) with a model GTA-96 graphite tube atomizer with D2 background correction and a Hitachi Z-8100 AAS with Zeeman background correction. The sensitivity and detection limits for lead determination of Varian 30A were $0.46{\mu}g/L,\;0.34{\mu}g/L,\;and\;0.56{\mu}g/L,\;0.14{\mu}g/L$ of Hitachi Z-8100, respectively. Day to day variations in determination of blood lead concentration in a certain sample were $31.11{\pm}1.36{\mu}g/100ml$ by Varian 30A, and $33.08{\pm}0.82{\mu}g/100ml$ by Hitachi Z-8100, showing the difference of 3% between the two results. At the blood lead concentrations of $56.31{\pm}1.98{\mu}g/100ml(A),\;40.89{\pm}0.80{\mu}g/100ml(B),\;59.01{\pm}1.38{\mu}g/100ml(C)$, the precisions of replicated measurements by AAS were 3.52%, 1.96%, and 2.34%, respectively. Coefficient variation(CV) of SRMs(A, B, and C) within a standard sample were ranged from 0.92% to 7.50%, and those between 5 standard samples were 1.21%, 2.64%, and 1.11%, respectively, showing inter-vial variation of $1{\mu}g/100ml$. Lead levels in SRMs during one month storage were unchanged. The overall recoveries were $89.6\sim100.4%,\;91.6\sim101.9%,\;90.3\sim100.0%$ for A, B, and C SRMs, means were $56.46{\pm}2.69{\mu}g/100ml,\;39.35{\pm}1.89{\mu}g/100ml,\;57.40{\pm}2.31{\mu}g/100ml$, and measurement ranges were$52.88{\pm}59.26{\mu}g/100ml,\;37.47{\pm}41.68{\mu}g/100ml,\;54.80{\pm}60.69{\mu}g/100ml$, respectively. Those results were laid within confidence limits values. The lead concentrations in the mixed sample(D1) stored over one month period were ranged from $32.76{\mu}g/100ml\;to\;33.54{\mu}g/100ml$, with CV ranging from 1.2% to 2.7%. The results were similiar to each of single samples(A1, B1, and C1) in respect of homogeneity and stability. Results of the mixed blood sample analysed after 1 month storage at $4^{\circ}C$ by four other laboratories(L1, L2, L3, L4) were similar with those of our laboratory($L5;31.18{\pm}0.24{\mu}g/100ml$, acceptable range by $CDC;25.18\sim37.18{\mu}g/100ml$), showing the concentrations of $25.91{\pm}1.19{\mu}g/100ml(L1),\;34.16{\pm}0.22{\mu}g/100ml(L2),\;35.68{\pm}0.85{\mu}g/100ml(L3),\;30.95{\pm}0.46{\mu}g/100ml(L4)$ in a each samples.

  • PDF

Comparison on Seedling Production of Marine Fishes between Recirculating and Running Seawater System (순환여과식과 유수식 사육시스템에 의한 해산어류 종묘생산 비교)

  • Chang Young Jin;Ko Chang Soon;Yang Han Soeb
    • Journal of Aquaculture
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.117-131
    • /
    • 1995
  • In order to improve the present running seawater system for seedling production of marine fishes, rearing experiments with the juveniles of black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegeli) and oblong rockfish (Sebastes oblongus) were conducted. The recirculating seawater system (F) equipped with the rotating biological contactors and the running seawater system (R) were used. Environmental factors, growth, survival rate and rearing density of the fish were compared between two systems during the experimental period. In the rearing experiment of black seabream, water temperature in F was fluctuated with surrounding air temperature and was higher than that in R. Specific gravity of the rearing seawater in F was relatively stable in the range of 1.0252 to 1.0266, while that in R was greatly fluctuated. pH in F turned out to be 7.51, but pH in R was similar to that in the natural seawater. Dissolved nitrite and nitrate in F were higher than those in R. While no significant differences in the growth of black seabream juveniles were recognized between two systems, survival rates of fishes in F were higher than those of fishes in R. In the rearing experiment of oblong rockfish, water temperature in F was higher than that in R. Specific gravity in F was slightly higher than that in R which showed relatively less fluctuation in the range of 1.0253 to 1.0270. pH in F turned out to be 7.96, but pH in R was similar to that in the natural seawater. Dissolved nitrite and nitrate in F were higher than those in R, but ammonia was lower in F. The juveniles of oblong rockfish reared in F grew significantly faster in their total length and body weight than those in R (P<0.05). However, survival rates of fishes between two systems showed no significant differences.

  • PDF

The Effect of Coffee Consumption on Serum Total Cholesterol Level in Healthy Middle-Aged Men (건강한 중년 남성에서 커피 음용 습관이 혈중 총 콜레스테롤 값에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Myung-Hee;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Bae, Jong-Myun;Lee, Hyung-Ki;Lee, Moo-Song;Noh, Joon-Yang;Ahn, Yoon-Ok
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.200-216
    • /
    • 1994
  • In present study, the authors investigated the possible effect of coffee consumption on serum cholesterol level in 1017 men between the ages of 40 and 59 years, who were randomly selected from the members of Seoul Cohort Study. Serum total cholesterol data was collected with other serologic indices (e.g. systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, hight, weight, etc.) through the program of biennial health check-up offered by Korean Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC). The amount of coffee consumption was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire through mailing. Other confounding factors, such as age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and other dietary intake pattern were also determined by the questionnaire. The differences in means of serum total cholesterol in compared to non consumers were $-0.4{\pm}3.56mg/dl$ for those drinking less than 1 cup a day, $-0.6{\pm}3.60mg/dl$ for those drinking 1 cup a day, and $7.1{\pm}3.41mg/dl$ for those drinking more than 2 cups a day. Since smoking interacted the relationship between coffee consumption and serum total choleaterol, we re-analyzed those relationship in smokers and non-smokers separately Other atherogenic behaviors were well correlated with total cholesterol, so we adjusted the mean values of serum total cholesterol through multivariate model selection with age(r=0.12), total cigarette index (cigarette-years; r=0.10), Quetelet's index ($Kg/m^2$, r=0.16), daily calory expenditure (kcal/day, r=0.06), weekly meat and poultry consumption(g/week, r=0.05), weekly fish consumption (g/week, r=0.08), other caffeinated beverage intake (cups/week), and the amount of sugar and prim added to the coffee. Among those variables only age, Quetelet's index, fish consumption, and total cigarette index (in smokers) were remained in the models. After adjustment, the corresponing differences of total cholesterol in smokers were changed to $0.4{\pm}5.24mg/dl,\;-0.5{\pm}4.97mg/dl,\;and\;8.9{\pm}4.78mg/dl$, which were significantly different among themselves (P=0.011). In non-smokers, however, the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.76). Adjusted mean values of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were also determined to evaluate the direct effect of coffee to cardiovascular system, but their means were not significantly different by coffee consumption(p=0.18 for SBP, p=0.48 for DBP). Asuming instant coffee in the most popular type of coffee in Korea, the association observed in our study between coffee and serum total cholesterol, especially in smokers, is very interesting finding for the connection between coffee and serum total cholesterol, because only 'boiled coffee' tend to show significant lipid raising effect rather than to other types of coffee, like filtered or espresso, in most of the western countries. We concluded that people who drink coffee more than 2 cups a day have significantly higher serum total cholesterol level than those who never drink coffee, especially in smokers.

  • PDF

Experimental Studies on Lead Toxicity in Domestic II. Histopathology (고양이의 납중독에 관한 실험적 연구 2. 조직병리학적 소견)

  • Hong Soon-Ho;Han Hong Ryul
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.485-505
    • /
    • 1994
  • Lead toxicity was evaluated in forty-five cats on a balanced diet, treated with 0(control), 10, 100(low), 1, 000, 2, 000 and 4, 000(high)ppm of lead acetate orally on a body weight basis. The objectives were to describe the gross and histopathologic changes and to demonstrate what tissue lead concentrations correlate with the known dosages of lead. In subclinical lead toxicity, greater than 80% of the absorbed lead was deposited in the bone, whereas in more acute lead toxicity, 42% of absorbed lead was deposited in the bone and 36% and 20% of absorbed lead was deposited in the kidneys and in the liver, respectively. No gross lesions were found in the nervous system. Yellow-brown colored livers appear to be associated with lead toxicity. Neuronal necrosis in the cerebrum was the most predominant histopathologic finding. Astrocytic proliferation in the cerebral gray matter was observed in 1 high dose cat. Gliosis was noted in the cerebral cortex of 6 high dose cats. Two high dose cats had demyelination in the deepest layer of the cortical gray matter of the cerebrum. Extravasation of red cells and cavitation around the vessels were found in the cerebrum of 1 high dose cat. Six high dose cats had degeneration of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. The microscopic findings in the peripheral nerves were ambiguous. In more acute toxicity, the cats had lead inclusions in the epithelial cells of proximal tubules of the kidneys of 7 cats and hepatocytes of the liver of S cats. These inclusions could be seen wlth H&E, but were more prominent with orcein staining. Two high dose cats had granulomas and connective tissue hyperplasia between tubules of the kidneys. Periportal hepatocyte vacuolization was observed in the liver of 22 cats. Vacuolization of seminiferous tubules and a reduced number of spermatogonia(indicative of reduced spermatogenesis) were found in the testis of 5 treated cats. Cystic ovaries were observed in 3 high dose cats and poor development of oogonia was found in 2 cats. The diagnosis of lead toxicity in cats can be suspected on the basis of the histopathologic lesions described, and can be of value in contributing to a diagnosis. A reliable diagnosis of lead poisoning can be helped utilizing tissue lead analysis(post molten)

  • PDF

CHLOROFORM IN THE AIR OF INDOOR SWIMMING POOLS AND THE OUTDOOR AIR NEAR THE SWIMMING POOLS IN A CITY OF KOREA (국내 한 도시의 실내 수영장 공기 및 수영장 인근의 실외 공기에서의 클로로포름)

  • 조완근;황영미
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.3 no.3
    • /
    • pp.253-261
    • /
    • 1994
  • Chloroform present in the swimming water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite is released to the air of swimming pools. The air chloroform concentrations were measured in two swimming pools A and B which applied both sodium hypochlorite a:d ozone. Thew mean concentrations are 28.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 33.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3in the swimming pools A and B, respectively. On the other hand, the mean water chloroform concentrations in the swimming pools A and B were 23.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l and 19.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l, respectively. The air chloroform concentrations were lower in the swimming Bools A and B than those reported by previous studies abroad employed the swimming pools which applied sodium hypochlorite only for water disinfection. The water chloroform concentrations were also lower in this study than in the previous studies. The relationship between the air and water chloroform concentrations measured in this study was significant with p=0.002 and Rz=0.42. At similar time to the indoor air sampling, outdoor air samples were collected at two sites near each of the swimming Pools A and B. The mean outdoor air chloroform concentrations near the swiminE Pools A and B were 0.41 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 0.16 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3, respectively. The outdoor air chloroform concentrations measured in this study were equal to or lower than those reported by previous studies abroad. 'rho chloroform dose inhaled for a typical one-hour swim was estimated to be 25.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person, corresponding to a specific 0.37 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg body weight for a reference 70 Kg male adult, while the inhalation dose of chloroform from the outdoor air was estimated to be 5.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person per day, corresponding to a specific 0.08 $\mu\textrm{g}$/Kg/day for the same reference male adult.

  • PDF

Purification of Thiazole- and Pyrazine-inducible Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase: Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase-related Novel 43 kDa Protein (Thiazole 또는 Pyrazine유도성 Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase의 순수정제: Epoxide Hydrolase-관련성 43 kDa 단백질의 유도증가)

  • Kim, Sang-Geon
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.29 no.2
    • /
    • pp.275-282
    • /
    • 1993
  • Liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is active in the detoxification of epoxide-containing reactive intermediate. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that thiazole and pyrazine are efficacious inducers of mEH in rats with large increases in mEH mRNA levels (Carcinogensis, Kim et al, 1993). mEH was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from thiazole-induced rat hepatic microsomes using DEAE-cellulose column chromatography whereas another protein $({\sim}43\;kDa)$ was co-purified with mEH from pyrazine-induced rat hepatic micrsomes (200 mg/kg body weight/day, ip, 3d). The antibody raised from a rabbit against mEH protein purified from thiazole-induced rat hepatic microsomes appeared to specifically recognize mEH protein in rat hepatic microsomes, as assessed by immunoblotting analysis. Immunoblotting analyses revealed a 10- and 7-fold increase in mEH levels in the hepatic microsomes isolated from thiazole- and pyrazine-treated rats, respectively. Moreover, immunoblotting analysis showed cross-reactivity of the mEH antibody with a 43 kDa protein in pyrazine-induced rat hepatic microsomes and with co-purified 43 kDa protein in purified fractions. The ratio between the 43 kDa protein and mEH in pyrazine-induced rat microsomes or in purified fractions was ${\sim}1$ to 15. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of both purified rat mEH and 43 kDa protein revealed that 10 out of 12 amino acids in N-terminus of the 43 kDa protein were identical with the mEH sequence with two amino acid residues of the 43 kDa protein undetermined. Either thiazole or pyrazine treatment, however, failed to increase the levels of mEH protein in rabbits while pyrazine caused elevation of the 43 kDa protein in this species, as determined by irnrnunoblotting analysis. These results demonstrated that treatment of rats with either thiazole or pyrazine causes elevation in hepatic mEH expiession whereas pyrazine treatment results in induction of another mEH-related 43 kDa protein and that a distinct species difference exists between rats and rabbits in the induction of mEH by these xenobiotics.

  • PDF

Effect of Addition Lonicera japonica Thunberg on Productivity md Development of Intestinal Organs in Broiler Chickens (금은화 첨가가 육계 생산r성과 장기 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • 조성구
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-34
    • /
    • 1992
  • Seventy-five commercial male day-old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of Oxytetracycline(OTC) and Lonicera japonica Thunberg(LJT) to be active in anti-bacteria and anti-virus on the growth rate, carcass rate and various intestinal organs sizes in broiler at 3 wk of age. Five experimental diets were formulated to have similar protein and energy levels, with OTC 0.04% as low-level antibiotics and OTC 0.34% as high-level antibiotics and 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% level of LJT. Birds were housed randomly in 15 battery cages. Birds were 3 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per replicate. In the body gain, 0.5% level of LJT addition grew significantly higher than the other birds. The feed intake and feed efficiency were not significantly between other birds. The addition levels in OTC and LJT did not any consistent effect on the carcass rate. However, the chest meat percentage vs carcass volume in LJT 0.5% treatment and the leg meat percentage vs carcass volume in DTC 0.04% addition level were significantly higher than those of birds fed other diets. The liver weight rate was significantly higher in OTC 0.04% level. However, the 0% and LJT levels did not exert any consistent effect on the weights of gizzard, heart, bursa of fabricius, head and spleen of broilers. The abdominal and gizzard surrounding fat content rate was higher in bird LJT 1.0% level than birds fed other levels.

  • PDF

Histopathological study of chronic nitrite toxicity on the japanese eel, Anguilla japonica (아질산의 만성중독증에 의한 참장어(뱀장어)의 병리조직학적 연구)

  • Yang, Han-Choon;Chun, Seh-Kyu
    • Journal of fish pathology
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.93-118
    • /
    • 1992
  • The research was carried out to examine the chronic toxic effects of nitrite on the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica by neans of histological observations. Young eel, 10.8g mean body weight. were exposed to 6 different concentrations of nitrite(1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40ppm) for 10 weeks. Each concentration was treated under 5 different levels of pH(5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0 and 7.5) and each of these treatment was tested at 2 different temperature regimes($25^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$). Proper concentration of nitrite was made by $NaNO_2$ and proper pH levels were made by the combinations of 0.1M $KH_2PO_4$ and 0.1M $NaHCO_3$. Histopathological test of gill tissues were made along with the test of the formation of thrombocystes and chloride cells on the gill filaments. At the lower pH levels, mucus secretion from the gill was incrased as the nitrite concentration increased. As the level of nitrite increased the number of chloride cells on the gill filament were decreased. Most of the remained chloride cells were observed only at the terminar part of the gill filament at 40ppm of nitrite. Degeneration of gill tissues were observed when nitrite levels were over 10ppm along with detachement and sweption of the epithelial cells of the gill lamellae. Shrunken gill lamellae and formation of thrombosis in the capillaries of gill lamellae were also observed. When temperature goes higher at the higher level of nitrite, necroses in the gill lamellae was increased. At the lower than 10ppm of nitrite, degeneration of gill lamellae was occured at the beginning of the test period but regenerated later. Negative effects of nitrite on the growth of young eel was started between 5~10ppm at the pH level of 7.0 and 7.5. Thrombosis formation were also started at this level. The safety concentration of nitrite at the pH levels of 7.0 and 7.5 on the small eel seems to be 1ppm. Thrombosis and gill lamella detachment and necrosis in the gill capillaries were not observed at this level. Chloride cells were appeared the whole part of the gill filament.

  • PDF

Induced Breeding and Indoor Culture of the Catfish, Silurus asotus (Teleostomi : Siluridae) (메기(Silurus asotus)의 산란 유도 및 실험실 사육에 관한 연구)

  • CHOI Gyeong Cheol;KIM Dong Soo;JO Jae-Yoon;KIM Jong-Man
    • Journal of Aquaculture
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.117-126
    • /
    • 1992
  • Induced breeding and indoor rearing of the catfish, Silurus asotus were performed. Ovulation was induced by injection of 5 mg dried carp pituitary per kg body weight. Fertilization rates were $81.5\~98.0{\%}$ and hatching success was $67.0\~82.0{\%}$. There were no significant differences of daily growth rate (DGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the groups fed extruded eel pellet and extruded carp pellet. No significant differences in DGR and FCR were also found between $3{\%}$ and $4{\%}$ daily feeding rates. DGR and FCR of small fry were slightly affected by dissolved oxygen (DO) level in aquaria. When the DO level maintained at $4.5\;mg/{\ell}$, the best result was obtained and DGR and FCR were $5.7{\%}$ and 0.65, respectively. At the higher level of DO, $5.5\;mg/{\ell}$, DGR and FCR were $5.52{\%}$ and 0.77, respectively, whereas at the lower level of DO, $3.5\;mg/{\ell}$, the DGR was decreased to $3.45{\%}$ and FCR was increased up to 1.01.

  • PDF