• Title/Summary/Keyword: basal N fertilizer

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Improvement of Nitrogen Efficiency by N Application at Early Tillering Stage in Direct-Seeded Rice

  • Seo Jun-Han;Lee Ho-Jin;Lee Seung-Hun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to establish the elaborate nitrogen fertilization method to enhance N use efficiency in direct-seeded rice on flooded paddy. The nitrogen uptake by rice plants was insignificant until 25 days after seeding, and increased gradually thereafter. During this early growth stage, rice plants absorbed only the $4\%$ of basal applied N, while the $45\%$ of N fertilizer remained in the paddy soil. The absorption of basal N by rice plants was almost completed at 46 days after application. Nitrogen top-dressed at 5-leaf stage was well matched to crop nutrient demand, so it could be absorbed so actively in 8days after application. As a result, we could cut down the amount of N fertilizer to $36\%$ of the basal N level without significant difference in yield. Plant recoveries of fertilizer $^{15}N$ applied with different application timings were $7.8\%$ for basal, $9.4\%$ for 5-leaf stage, $17.1\%$ for tillering stage, and $23.4\%$ for panicle initiation stage, respectively. When urea was applied with nitrogen fertilization practice based on basal incorporation (BN), plant recovery of $^{15}N$ at harvest was $31.0\%$, which was originated from $13.7\%$ for grain, and $21.3\%$ of the fertilizer $^{15}N$ remained in the soil, and the rest could be uncounted. Plant recovery of fertilizer $^{15}N$ applied with nitrogen fertilization practice based on topdressing at 5-leaf stage (TN), where N rate was reduced by $18\%$ compared with BN, was $35.1\%$ (grain $15.6\%$), and $19.9\%$ of the fertilizer $^{15}N$ remained in the soil, and the rest could be uncounted. TN showed a higher $^{15}N$ recovery than BN because it was to apply N fertilizer at a time to well meet the demand of rice plant direct-seeded on flooded paddy. We concluded that TN would be the nitrogen fertilization method to enhance N use efficiency in direct-seeded rice on flooded paddy.

Yield and Nitrogen Uptake under Reduced Nitrogen Fertilizer during Early Growth of Rice in the Rice-Barley Double Cropping System

  • Seo, Jong-Ho;Cho, Hyeon-Suk;Kim, Chung-Guk;Lee, Jin-Mo;Park, Seong-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2004
  • N fertilizer required by rice could be reduced greatly in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system. This study was conducted to investigate how much of the N fertilizer during the early stage of rice in the rice-barley double cropping system, could be saved compared to that in the rice single cropping system. This experiment was carried out at the paddy field of the National Crop Experiment Station in Suwon, Korea during three years from 1999 to 2001. Amounts of soil mineral nitrogen (SMN) and SPAD values of rice leaf during rice growing season in the rice-barley double cropping system were higher than those in the rice single cropping system under the same amount of N application during two years. Yield and N uptakes of rice at harvesting time were also higher in the rice-barley double cropping system than in the rice single cropping system during two years. Yield and N uptake of rice in the rice single cropping system were decreased when basal N fertilizer was omitted, but those reductions were not found by either omitting basal N fertilizer or omitting N fertilizer at tillering stage in the rice-barley double cropping system during 2000 and 2001. But yield and N uptakes of rice were decreased by 70 kg/10a and 2kgN/10a by the omission of both N application at basal and tillering stages in the rice-barley double cropping system in 2002. It was concluded that N fertilizer as much as tillering N fertilizer could be saved in the rice-barley double cropping system.

Fertilizer Placement Effect on Agronomic Characteristics of Burley Tobacco(N. tabacum L.) (시비방법이 버어리종 잎담배의 농경적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 조천준;배성국;임해건;김요태
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Tobacco Science
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1997
  • Recently the method of basal compound fertilizer (N : P : K = 18.2 : 9.8 : 35.0) Placement has been changed from banding to broadcasting in tobacco cultivation. The effects of the compound fertilizer placement, level of fertilizer and additional urea application on the agronomic characteristics, two chemical compositions and physical Properties of burley tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. KB 108) were investigated at Chonju Experiment Station, Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute in 1995-1996. Six treatments consisted of (1) band (method of fertilizer Placement) + In kg/10a(compound fertilizer) + 0(additional urea applied), (2) broadcast+140+0, (3) broadcast+140+25, (4) band+180+0, (5) broadcast+180+0, and (6) broadcast +180+25. The additional urea was applied at hilling. No significant differences were detected between banding and broadcasting method of compound fertilizer Placement in field 9rowth, wield, organoleptic qualify(price Per kilogram), chemical composition and Physical properties of cured leaf, The increased compound fertilizer by 30%(40k/10a) or the additional urea application by 25kg per 10a produced slightly higher yield than the recommended amount of basal compound fertilizer without additional urea application did. It also increased the total alkaloid content of cured leaf. It is recommended that no more basal fertilizer above the recommended amount and no additional urea application are needed in burley tobacco fertilization, even though the method of basal fertilizer placement being chanced from banding to broadcasting. Key words : Nicotiana tabacum, fertilizer placement, additional urea.

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N Top-Dressing and Rice Straw Application for Low-Input Cultivation of Transplanted Rice in Japan

  • Cho, Y.S.;Kobata, T.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.273-278
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    • 2002
  • An efficient low-input system (LIS) for fertiliser use in rice cultivation is necessary to reduce fossil energy use and pollution. Japanese people like Japonica rice, especially cv. Koshihikari. However, it has very low lodging resistance in Japanese weather condition. Our objective was to develop a LIS with the minimum sacrifice of grain yield in rice. Koshihikari was grown using conventional fertilization as a control (CON) with 4 g N $m^{-2}$., 8g $P_2$ $O_{5}$ $m^{-2}$ and 8 g $K_2$O $m^{-2}$ as a basal fertilizer dressing. It was compared with a low fertilizer treatment (LF) with only 4 g $P_2$ $O_{5}$ $m^{-2}$ as a basal dressing in the first year and no basal phosphorus fertilizer in the second year. Chopped rice straw was incorporated into the soil before the cropping season in both years. Fertilizer of 4 g N $m^{-2}$ was top-dressed at 15 days before heading in CON plots and 30 days before heading in LF plots in both years. Lodging was significantly less in LF than in CON plots, however, no rice straw effect was found in low fertilized condition. Grain yields in LF plots were reduced by 15-16% below those of CON plots. Lower yields in LF plots were associated with a reduced number of spikelets per unit area. However, big spikelet size was acquired in LF by 10 days earlier N top dressing than CON plots. A close relationship was found between spikelet numbers and N content of the plant at heading, and between grain yield or shoot dry weight and N content of the plant at maturity. Regardless of the fertilizer application methods, N use efficiency for the number of spikelets, final total dry matter and grain yield was essentially identical among fertilizer treatments. The reduced growth and yield in the LF plots resulted from low absorption of nitrogen. Conclusively, LIS can drastically reduce chemical fertilizer use and facilitate harvest operations by reducing lodging with some yield reduction..

Effect of Liquid Manure Source, Application Rate and Time on Agronomic Characteristics and Forage Yield of Winter Rye (가축분뇨의 종류, 시비량 및 시비시기가 호밀의 생육특성과 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jin-Gil;Kim, Jong-Duk;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2006
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid manure source, application rate and time on the agronomic characteristics and forage yield of winter rye. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. The treatments were : CFB150=chemical fertilizer(CF) 150 N as basal, CFS150=CF 150 N as split application (75+75), SLB150=swine liquid (SL) 150 N as basal, SLS150=SL 150 N as split application (75+75), SLB300=SL 300 N as basal, SLS150=SL 300 N as split application(150+150), CLB150=cattle liquid (CL) 150 N as basal, CLS150=CL 150 N as split awlication(75+75), CLB300=CL 300 N as basal, CLS150=CL 300 N as split application(150+150). Heading date of the plant was observed on the 17th of April fur both chemical fertilizer and swine liquid, and on the 16th of April for cattle liquid. Stay green of chemical fertilizer was higher than others because of high crude protein content. Leaf was darker in high nitrogen fertilizer treatments than low N treatments. However lodging resistance was poor as nitrogen fertilizer was increased. Dry matter (DM) content of rye at chemical fertilizer was lower than liquid manure. DM yield of chemical fertilizer treatments were highest among the fertilizer source. However, DM yield of rye with application was all most same at different N application methods. The crude protein (CP) content and yield for chemical fertilizer was significantly higher than liquid manure. CP yield using split application was higher by 16% and 28%, compared to basal application. Based on the results of this study, forage production of liquid manure was lower, compared to chemical fertilizer. And split application was superior to basal application forage and protein yields, and high protein.

Estimation of Nitrogen Optimum Level for Rice Planting after Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) Cultivation (이탈리안 라이그라스 후작 벼 재배시 수량을 고려한 적정 질소시비량 추정)

  • Song, Yo-Sung;Park, Woo-Kyun;Lee, Ye-Jin;Lee, Jong-Sik;Yun, Hong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.448-451
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    • 2011
  • To establish the optimum nitrogen level for rice planting after Italian ryegrass cultivation, one experiment was conducted on a normal paddy soil (Jeonbug series soil taxonomy) with six different nitrogen treatments for two years from 2009 to 2010. The treatments were including no nitrogen fertilization (Free N), 50%-Basal N, 75%-Basal N, 100%-Basal N, 150%-Basal N and 100% of basal fertilization with $30kg\;N\;ha^{-1}$ (100%+N30-Basal N) for decomposing of Italian ryegrass stubble. The highest rice yields were 8,420 obtained by 100%-Basal N. 150%-Basal N and 100%+N30-Basal N produced a rice yield of $8,190kg\;ha^{-1}$. Those of 50%-Basal N and Free N were produced 8,020 and $7,370kg\;ha^{-1}$, respectively. The correlation between rice yield and nitrogen treatment showed a quadratic relationship in high significant. According to this regression, the highest level of nitrogen treatment was $73kg\;ha^{-1}$ and the highest rice yield was $8,405kg\;ha^{-1}$. Nitrogen uptake rates were relatively higher with lower amounts of nitrogen fertilizer treated.

Effects of different split application and adapted fertilization cultivation for established GAP guide book in acorus graminens S.

  • Kim, Myeong Seok;An, Ho Sub;Kim, Gil Ja;Kim, Yong Soon;Choi, Jin Gyung;Park, Heung Gyu;Kim, Hyun Woo;Kim, Seong Il;Kim, Young Guk;Park, Chun Geun;Chang, Jae Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.225-225
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    • 2017
  • This study is to investigate the effect of split application and adapted fertilization application cultivation in stable medicinal herbs production of Acorus graminens S. And it accomplished one's purpose to GAP guide manual established standard method of cultivation technology, contribute to the enlargement of farm's income. Method of fertilization application were conducted under five condition compose to standard application(N-P-K-Compost: fermented mixed oil cake fertilizer applied at $4-2-6-300kg.10a^{-1}$, twofold application(N-P-K-Compost applied at $8-4-12-600kg.10a^{-1}$) cultivation. Compost (fermented mixed oil cake fertilizer) and fused phosphate applied at 100% of basal fertilizer in April 14. The split application level of standard application and twofold application(N-K) applied at 100%, 50%, 40% of basal fertilizer in April 14, 50% and 40% of top dressing were three times application (N-K) in June 1, July 15, August 15, 25% and 20% respectively. Transplanting with Naju varieties in May 12 by growing pot seedling for 40 days in 2015. Planting density were spaced 30 cm apart in rows 30 cm apart with black vinyl mulching on open cultivation. Plot design randomized block 3 repetition. Therefore, growth characteristics by 50% and 40% of top dressing were three times application (N-K) compared to standard application and twofold application (N-K) applied at 100% basal fertilizer, aerial part as a result were so many such amount of growth as number of leaf per plant, etc., Length of diameter and main root of subterranean part growth increment rising highest. Dried roots yields treated standard fertilizer 100% application($250kg.10a^{-1}$) compared to 100% from twofold application (N-K) applied at 50% basal fertilizer, 50% and 40% of top dressing were three times application increased by 16%, 20%. respectively.

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Effects of Granular Silicate on Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) Growth, Yield, and Characteristics of Soil Under Greenhouse

  • Kim, Young-Sang;Kang, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Tae-Il;Jeong, Taek-Gu;Han, Jong-Woo;Kim, Ik-Jei;Nam, Sang-Young;Kim, Ki-In
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.456-463
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of granular type of silicate fertilizer on watermelon growth, yield, and characteristics of soil in the greenhouse. Four different levels of silicate fertilizer, 0(control), 600, 1,200, $1,800kg\;ha^{-1}$ were applied for experiment. The silicate fertilizer was applied as a basal fertilization before transplanting watermelon. Compost and basal fertilizers were applied based on the standard fertilizer recommendation rate with soil testing. All of the recommended $P_2O_5$ and 50% of N and $K_2O$ were applied as a basal fertilization. The N and $K_2O$ as additional fertilization was split-applied twice by fertigation method. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar was 'Sam-Bok-KKuol and main stem was from rootstock (bottle gourd: Lagenaria leucantha Standl.) 'Bul-Ro-Jang-Sang'. The watermelon was transplanted on April, 15. Soil chemical properties, such as soil pH, EC, available phosphate and exchangeable K, Mg, and available $SiO_2$ levels increased compared to the control, while EC was similar and the concentrations of soil organic matter decreased. Physical properties of soils, such as soil bulk density and porosity were not different among treatments. The growth characteristics of watermelon, such as stem diameter, fresh and dry weight of watermelon at harvest were thicker and heavier for silicate treatment than the control, while number of node was shorter than the control. Merchantable watermelon increased by 3-5% compared to the control and sugar content was 0.4 to $0.7^{\circ}Brix$ higher than the control. These results suggest that silicate fertilizer application in the greenhouse can improve some chemical properties of soils and watermelon stem diameter and dry weight, which are contributed to watermelon quality and marketable watermelon production.

Estimation of growth stage-based nitrogen supply levels for greenhouse semi-forcing zucchini cultivation (시설애호박 관비재배 시 생육단계별 질소요구량 산정)

  • Ha, Sang-Keun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Jung, Kang-Ho;Lee, Ye-Jin;Cho, Min-Ji;Yun, Hye-Jin;Sung, Jwa-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2015
  • An estimation of the requirement of minerals based on growth stage and cropping pattern is very important for greenhouse zucchini. This study was performed at farmer's field which was applied with a fertigation system and a semi-forcing cultivation from Feb. to July in 2014, and nitrogen levels were set up with x0.5, x0.75, x1.0 and x1.5 of the NO3-N-based soil-testing recommendation for zucchini cultivation. Top dressing of nitrogen (basal : top = 4 : 6) and potassium (basal : top = 3 : 7) was applied with an interval of every two weeks from two and six weeks after transplanting, respectively, and phosphorus was totally supplied with basal dressing. The nitrogen uptake was the order of x1.0, x0.75, x1.5 and x0.5, phosphorus, x1.0, x0.75, x0.5 and x1.5, and potassium, x0.75, x1.0, x1.5 and x0.5. From these results, it was suggested that highest mineral uptake could be reached between x0.75 and x1.0 of the NO3-N-based soil-testing recommendation. In conclusion, nutrient management based on the growth stage was proven to be better method for favorable growth and yield of zucchini.

Effects of Split Application of SCB Liquid Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Chemical Property in Honam Plain Field (호남평야지에서 SCB 액비 분시가 쌀 수량과 토양 화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Bok;Cho, Kwang-Min;Yang, Chang-Hu;Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Tai-Il;Kim, Kee-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2011
  • In order to establish the application method of slurry composting & biofilteration liquid fertilizer (SCB LF) in rice cultivation, experiments were studied on split application method of it and effects of it on soil chemical properties and rice yields. Land leveling by rotary tillage within 2 days after application of SCB LF, $NH_4$-N concentration in soil was maintained uniformly in all paddy field. Initial concentrations of $NH_4$-N and $NO_3$-N in soil were high at standard fertilization and 100% application of SCB LF as basal fertilization, however, after tillering stage they maintained similar concentrations in all experimental plots. $NO_3$-N content in infiltration water was slightly lower at 70% application of SCB LF as basal fertilization and 30% application of SCB LF as fertilization at panicle initiation stage than at standard fertilization. Yields of rice by split application of SCB LF were lower at 100% application of SCB LF as basal fertilization, however, those of the other application of SCB LF were similar with that of standard fertilization. In case of rice quality, perfect kernel rates were high and protein contents were lower at non-application and 100% application of SCB LF. Rice quality of 70% application of SCB LF as basal fertilization and 30% application of SCB LF as fertilization at panicle initiation stage were similar with that of standard fertilization.