• Title/Summary/Keyword: autophagy

Search Result 360, Processing Time 0.113 seconds

Siamese Crocodile White Blood Cell Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Promotes Autophagy in Multiple Cancer Cell Lines

  • Phosri, Santi;Jangpromma, Nisachon;Chang, Leng Chee;Tan, Ghee T.;Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit;Maijaroen, Surachai;Anwised, Preeyanan;Payoungkiattikun, Wisarut;Klaynongsruang, Sompong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.28 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1007-1021
    • /
    • 2018
  • Cancer represents one of the most significant threats to human health on a global scale. Hence, the development of effective cancer prevention strategies, as well as the discovery of novel therapeutic agents against cancer, is urgently required. In light of this challenge, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of several potent bioactive peptides and proteins contained in crocodile white blood cell extract (cWBC) against LU-1, LNCaP, PC-3, MCF-7, and CaCo-2 cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that 25, 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/ml$ cWBC exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against all investigated cell lines ($IC_{50}$ $70.34-101.0{\mu}g/ml$), while showing no signs of cytotoxicity towards noncancerous Vero and HaCaT cells. Specifically, cWBC treatment caused a significant reduction in the cancerous cells' colony forming ability. A remarkable suppression of cancerous cell migration was observed after treatment with cWBC, indicating potent antimetastatic properties. The mechanism involved in the cancer cell cytotoxicity of cWBC may be related to apoptosis induction, as evidenced by typical apoptotic morphology features. Moreover, certain cWBC concentrations induced significant overproduction of ROS and significantly inhibited the $S-G_2/M$ transition in the cancer cell. The molecular mechanisms of cWBC in apoptosis induction were to decrease Bcl-2 and XIAP expression levels and increase the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and p53. These led to a decrease in the expression level of the cell cycle-associated gene cyclin-B1 and the arrest of cell population growth. Consequently, these findings demonstrate the prospect of the use of cWBC for cancer therapy.

SREBP as a Global Regulator for Lipid Metabolism (지질대사 조절에서 SREBP의 역할)

  • Lee, Wonhwa;Seo, Young-kyo
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1233-1243
    • /
    • 2018
  • Sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate lipid homeostasis and metabolism by controlling the expression of enzymes required for endogenous cholesterol, fatty acid (FA), triacylglycerol, and phospholipid synthesis. The three SREBPs are encoded by two different genes. The SREBP1 gene gives rise to SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, which are derived from utilization of alternate promoters that yield transcripts in which distinct first exons are spliced to a common second exon. SREBP-2 is derived from a separate gene. Additionally, SREBPs are implicated in numerous pathogenic processes, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis. They also contribute to obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Genome-wide analyses have revealed that these versatile transcription factors act as important nodes of biological signaling networks. Changes in cell metabolism and growth are reciprocally linked through SREBPs. Anabolic and growth signaling pathways branch off and connect to multiple steps of SREBP activation and form complex regulatory networks. SREBPs are activated through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in these processes, but the molecular mechanism remains to be understood. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of SREBPs in physiology and pathophysiology at the cell, organ, and organism levels.

Proteasome Inhibitor-Induced IκB/NF-κB Activation is Mediated by Nrf2-Dependent Light Chain 3B Induction in Lung Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Jungsil;Woo, Jisu;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.41 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1008-1015
    • /
    • 2018
  • $I{\kappa}B$, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ ($NF-{\kappa}B$), is reportedly degraded via the proteasome. However, we recently found that long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) such as PS-341 or MG132 induces $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation via an alternative pathway, lysosome, which results in $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation and confers resistance to PI-induced lung cancer cell death. To enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of PIs, elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of PI-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation is necessary. Here, we demonstrated that PI up-regulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) via both de novo protein synthesis and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) degradation, which is responsible for $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation via macroautophagy activation. PIs increased the protein level of light chain 3B (LC3B, macroautophagy marker), but not lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp2a, the receptor for chaperone-mediated autophagy) in NCI-H157 and A549 lung cancer cells. Pretreatment with macroautophagy inhibitor or knock-down of LC3B blocked PI-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. PIs up-regulated Nrf2 by increasing its transcription and mediating degradation of KEAP1 (cytoplasmic inhibitor of Nrf2). Overexpression of dominant-negative Nrf2, which lacks an N-terminal transactivating domain, or knock-down of Nrf2 suppressed PI-induced LC3B protein expression and subsequent $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. Thus, blocking of the Nrf2 pathway enhanced PI-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Nrf2-driven induction of LC3B plays an essential role in PI-induced activation of the $I{\kappa}B$/$NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway, which attenuates the anti-tumor efficacy of PIs.

Anti-proliferative Effects of Celastrol, A Quinine Methide Triterpene Extracted from the Perennial Vine Tripterygium wilfordii, on Obesity-related Cancers (미역줄나무 뿌리 추출물인 셀라스트롤의 비만관련 암증식 억제효과)

  • Park, Sunmi;Moon, Hyun-Seuk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-66
    • /
    • 2016
  • It has been generally accepted that obesity and overweight are associated with metabolic diseases and cancer incidence. In fact, obesity increased risks of cancers i.e. breast, liver, pancreatic and prostate. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Thunder god vine, was used as a Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, lupus erythematosus and Alzheimer's disease. Also, celastrol has various biological properties of chemo-preventive, neuro-protective, and anti-oxidant effects. Recent studies demonstrated that celastrol has anti-proliferation effects in different type of obesity-related cancers and suppresses tumor progression and metastasis. Anticancer effects of celastrol include regulation of $NF-{\kappa}B$, heat shock protein, JNK, VEGF, CXCR4, Akt/mTOR, MMP-9 and so on. For these reasons, celastrol has shown to be a promising anti-tumor agent. In this review, we will address the anticancer activities and multiple mechanisms of celastrol in obesity-related cancers.

Down-Regulation of Survivin by Nemadipine-A Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis

  • Park, Seong Ho;Park, So Jung;Kim, Joo-Oh;Shin, Ji Hyun;Kim, Eun Sung;Jo, Yoon Kyung;Kim, Jae-Sung;Park, So Jung;Jin, Dong-Hoon;Hwang, Jung Jin;Lee, Seung Jin;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Lee, Chaeyoung;Kim, InKi;Cho, Dong-Hyung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.21 no.1
    • /
    • pp.29-34
    • /
    • 2013
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines. TRAIL selectively induces apoptotic cell death in various tumors and cancer cells, but it has little or no toxicity in normal cells. Agonism of TRAIL receptors has been considered to be a valuable cancer-therapeutic strategy. However, more than 85% of primary tumors are resistant to TRAIL, emphasizing the importance of investigating how to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this report, we have found that nemadipine-A, a cell-permeable L-type calcium channel inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to this ligand. Combination treatments using TRAIL with nemadipine-A synergistically induced both the caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death, which were blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD) but not by autophagy or a necrosis inhibitor. We further found that nemadipine-A, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, notably reduced the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (IAP) family of proteins. Depletion of survivin by small RNA interference (siRNA) resulted in increased cell death and caspase activation by TRAIL treatment. These results suggest that nemadipine-A potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of survivin expression in TRAIL resistant cells. Thus, combination of TRAIL with nemadipine-A may serve a new therapeutic scheme for the treatment of TRAIL resistant cancer cells, suggesting that a detailed study of this combination would be useful.

Stem cell-secreted 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid rescues cholesterol homeostasis and autophagic flux in Niemann-Pick-type C disease

  • Kang, Insung;Lee, Byung-Chul;Lee, Jin Young;Kim, Jae-Jun;Sung, Eun-Ah;Lee, Seung Eun;Shin, Nari;Choi, Soon Won;Seo, Yoojin;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Kang, Kyung-Sun
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
    • /
    • v.50 no.11
    • /
    • pp.8.1-8.14
    • /
    • 2018
  • We previously demonstrated that the direct transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the dentate gyrus ameliorated the neurological symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1)-mutant mice. However, the clinical presentation of NPC1-mutant mice was not fully understood with a molecular mechanism. Here, we found 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolite, from hUCB-MSCs and the cerebella of NPC1-mutant mice and investigated the functional consequence of this metabolite. Our screening of the CYP2J family indicated a dysregulation in the CYP system in a cerebellar-specific manner. Moreover, in Purkinje cells, CYP2J6 showed an elevated expression level compared to that of astrocytes, granule cells, and microglia. In this regard, we found that one CYP metabolite, 14,15-EET, acts as a key mediator in ameliorating cholesterol accumulation. In confirming this hypothesis, 14,15-EET treatment reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in human NPC1 patient-derived fibroblasts in vitro by suppressing cholesterol synthesis and ameliorating the impaired autophagic flux. We show that the reduced activity within the CYP system in the cerebellum could cause the neurological symptoms of NPC1 patients, as 14,15-EET treatment significantly rescued cholesterol accumulation and impaired autophagy. We also provide evidence that the intranasal administration of hUCB-MSCs is a highly promising alternative to traumatic surgical transplantation for NPC1 patients.

Novel SIRT Inhibitor, MHY2256, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Autophagic Cell Death in HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

  • Kim, Min Jeong;Kang, Young Jung;Sung, Bokyung;Jang, Jung Yoon;Ahn, Yu Ra;Oh, Hye Jin;Choi, Heejeong;Choi, Inkyu;Im, Eunok;Moon, Hyung Ryong;Chung, Hae Young;Kim, Nam Deuk
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.28 no.6
    • /
    • pp.561-568
    • /
    • 2020
  • We examined the anticancer effects of a novel sirtuin inhibitor, MHY2256, on HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells to investigate its underlying molecular mechanisms. MHY2256 significantly suppressed the activity of sirtuin 1 and expression levels of sirtuin 1/2 and stimulated acetylation of forkhead box O1, which is a target protein of sirtuin 1. Treatment with MHY2256 inhibited the growth of the HCT116 (TP53 wild-type), HT-29 (TP53 mutant), and DLD-1 (TP53 mutant) human colorectal cancer cell lines. In addition, MHY2256 induced G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle progression, which was accompanied by the reduction of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and the decrease of cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase 6, phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, and E2F transcription factor 1. Apoptosis induction was shown by DNA fragmentation and increase in late apoptosis, which were detected using flow cytometric analysis. MHY2256 downregulated expression levels of procaspase-8, -9, and -3 and led to subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. MHY2256-induced apoptosis was involved in the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and was prevented by pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, the autophagic effects of MHY2256 were observed as cytoplasmic vacuolation, green fluorescent protein-light-chain 3 punctate dots, accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles, and upregulated expression level of light-chain 3-II. Taken together, these results suggest that MHY2256 could be a potential novel sirtuin inhibitor for the chemoprevention or treatment of colorectal cancer or both.

Hepatoprotective and Anticancer Activities of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae (장수풍뎅이 유충의 간보호 효능 및 항암활성)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Jo, Da-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Park, Hye-Kyung;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.25 no.3
    • /
    • pp.307-316
    • /
    • 2015
  • Beetle larvae have been used as a traditional medicine to treat various human liver diseases. To prove the liver protective function of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we induced liver damage by the intraperitoneal injection of a hepatotoxic reagent, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to C3H/HeN male mice and orally administered freeze-dried ADL powder. ADL powder lessened DEN-induced hepatotoxicity considering the reduced signs of acute and chronic hepatotoxicities, such as the ALP level in the blood serum, TUNEL-positive hepatocytes, ductural reactions, steatotic hepatocytes, and collagen deposition of the Masson’s trichrome staining. In addition to hepatoprotection, the anti-cancer activity of ADL has been examined. The ADL powder was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate, and water by a solvent partition technique. The ethyl acetate fraction showed cytotoxicity to various cancer cells through induction of apoptosis and necrosis, as well as the perturbed metabolism of the cancer cell to trigger autophagy. Collectively, ADL contains bioactive substances that can protect hepatocytes from toxic chemicals and trigger cell death in cancer cells. Thus, further purification and analyses of ADL fractions could lead to the identification of novel bioactive compounds.

Effect of Fermented Platycodon grandiflorum Extract on Cell Proliferation and Migration in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells (혈관내피세포의 성장 및 세포 이동에 영향을 미치는 발효도라지추출물의 효과)

  • Choi, Woosoung;Song, Jina;Park, Mi-Hyeon;Yu, Heui Jong;Park, Heonyong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.59-67
    • /
    • 2016
  • Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle (Korean name, ‘Doraji’) is a perennial plant containing various triterpenoid saponins. The roots of this plant have traditionally been used as a food material in Korea. Here, we prepared a fermented P. grandiflorum extract (PG). Although it was previously reported that P. grandiflorum A. extract has a variety of physiological functionalities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, little is known about its vascular functions. In this study, we executed a series of experiments to identify the effect of PG on endothelial cells. PG at a high concentration (100 μg/ml) was found to induce cell detachment, whereas PG at a low concentration (0.1 μg/ml) appeared to promote cell proliferation and migration in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The cell detachment induced by the high concentration was not associated with cell death, such as apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. In addition, we found that PG at the high concentration formed a small vesicular structure called an endothelial microparticle (EMP). The EMP was prepared by centrifugal fractionation and determined with flow cytometry and a microscope. Interestingly, PG-induced cell detachment was found to be mediated by EMP. We furthermore determined that PG at the low concentration activated Akt, a crucial cell-signaling molecule, and then controlled cell proliferation and migration. Overall, our findings suggest that PG at low doses maintains vascular stability by promoting endothelial cell proliferation, and enhances the efficacy of wound healing by cell proliferation and migration activity.

Cytotoxic Effects of Tenebrio molitor Larval Extracts against Hepatocellular Carcinoma (갈색거저리 유충 추출물의 간암세포에 대한 세포독성 효능)

  • Lee, Ji-Eun;Lee, An-Jung;Jo, Da-Eun;Cho, Ju Hyeong;Youn, Kumju;Yun, Eun-Young;Hwang, Jae-Sam;Jun, Mira;Kang, Byoung Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.44 no.2
    • /
    • pp.200-207
    • /
    • 2015
  • Various natural products or their derivatives, mostly originating from plants, fungi, and bacteria, have been exploited as therapeutic drugs to treat various human diseases. In addition to previously explored organisms, research on natural compounds has now expanded into unexamined living organisms in order to identify novel bioactive substances. Here, we determined whether or not the larval form of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle, contains cytotoxic substances that exclusively affect cancer cell viability. Ethanol extract and its solvent partitioned fractions, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions, showed anticancer effects against various human cancer cells derived from the prostate (PC3 and 22Rv1), cervix (HeLa), liver (PLC/PRF5, HepG2, Hep3B, and SK-HEP-1), colon (HCT116), lung (NCI-H460), breast (MDA-MB231), and ovary (SKOV3). Cell death induced by the fractions was a mix of apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. The hexane fraction was administered intraperitoneally to nude mice bearing a hepatocellular carcinoma SK-HEP-1 and showed inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, we concluded that worm extracts contain cytotoxic substances, which can be enriched by proper fractionation protocols, and further separation and purification could lead to the identification of novel molecules to treat human cancers.