• Title, Summary, Keyword: autophagy

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Genetic Control of Asexual Sporulation in Fusarium graminearum

  • Son, Hokyoung;Kim, Myung-Gu;Chae, Suhn-Kee;Lee, Yin-Won
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.15-15
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    • 2014
  • Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae) is an important plant pathogen that causes head blight of major cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and rice, as well as causing ear and stalk rot on maize worldwide. Plant diseases caused by this fungus lead to severe yield losses and accumulation of harmful mycotoxins in infected cereals [1]. Fungi utilize spore production as a mean to rapidly avoid unfavorable environmental conditions and to amplify their population. Spores are produced sexually and asexually and their production is precisely controlled. Upstream developmental activators consist of fluffy genes have been known to orchestrate early induction of condiogenesis in a model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying conidiogenesis in F. graminearum, we characterized functions of the F. graminearum fluffy gene homologs [2]. We found that FlbD is conserved regulatory function for conidiogenesis in both A. nidulans and F. graminearum among five fluffy gene homologs. flbD deletion abolished conidia and perithecia production, suggesting that FlbD have global roles in hyphal differentiation processes in F. graminearum. We further identified and functionally characterized the ortholog of AbaA, which is involved in differentiation from vegetative hyphae to conidia and known to be absent in F. graminearum [3]. Deletion of abaA did not affect vegetative growth, sexual development, or virulence, but conidium production was completely abolished and thin hyphae grew from abnormally shaped phialides in abaA deletion mutants. Overexpression of abaA resulted in pleiotropic defects such as impaired sexual and asexual development, retarded conidium germination, and reduced trichothecene production. AbaA localized to the nuclei of phialides and terminal cells of mature conidia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans AbaA and the conserved AbaA-WetA pathway demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for AbaA activity are conserved in F. graminearum as they are in A. nidulans. F. graminearum ortholog of Aspergillus nidulans wetA has been shown to be involved in conidiogenesis and conidium maturation [4]. Deletion of F. graminearum wetA did not alter mycelial growth, sexual development, or virulence, but the wetA deletion mutants produced longer conidia with fewer septa, and the conidia were sensitive to acute stresses, such as oxidative stress and heat stress. Furthermore, the survival rate of aged conidia from the F. graminearum wetA deletion mutants was reduced. The wetA deletion resulted in vigorous generation of single-celled conidia through autophagy-dependent microcycle conidiation, indicating that WetA functions to maintain conidia dormancy by suppressing microcycle conidiation in F. graminearum. In A. nidulans, FlbB physically interacts with FlbD and FlbE, and the resulting FlbB/FlbE and FlbB/FlbD complexes induce the expression of flbD and brlA, respectively. BrlA is an activator of the AbaA-WetA pathway. AbaA and WetA are required for phialide formation and conidia maturation, respectively [5]. In F. graminearum, the AbaA-WetA pathway is similar to that of A. nidulans, except a brlA ortholog does not exist. Amongst the fluffy genes, only fgflbD has a conserved role for regulation of the AbaA-WetA pathway.

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Identification of growth trait related genes in a Yorkshire purebred pig population by genome-wide association studies

  • Meng, Qingli;Wang, Kejun;Liu, Xiaolei;Zhou, Haishen;Xu, Li;Wang, Zhaojun;Fang, Meiying
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.462-469
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to identify genomic regions or genes controlling growth traits in pigs. Methods: Using a panel of 54,148 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we performed a genome-wide Association (GWA) study in 562 pure Yorshire pigs with four growth traits: average daily gain from 30 kg to 100 kg or 115 kg, and days to 100 kg or 115 kg. Fixed and random model Circulating Probability Unification method was used to identify the associations between 54,148 SNPs and these four traits. SNP annotations were performed through the Sus scrofa data set from Ensembl. Bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology analysis, pathway analysis and network analysis, was used to identify the candidate genes. Results: We detected 6 significant and 12 suggestive SNPs, and identified 9 candidate genes in close proximity to them (suppressor of glucose by autophagy [SOGA1], R-Spondin 2 [RSPO2], mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6 [MAP2K6], phospholipase C beta 1 [PLCB1], rho GTPASE activating protein 24 [ARHGAP24], cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 [CPEB4], GLI family zinc finger 2 [GLI2], neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 2 [NYAP2], and zinc finger protein multitype 2 [ZFPM2]). Gene ontology analysis and literature mining indicated that the candidate genes are involved in bone, muscle, fat, and lung development. Pathway analysis revealed that PLCB1 and MAP2K6 participate in the gonadotropin signaling pathway and suggests that these two genes contribute to growth at the onset of puberty. Conclusion: Our results provide new clues for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying growth traits, and may help improve these traits in future breeding programs.

Effects of Rapamycin on Cell Apoptosis in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

  • Tengku Din, Tengku Ahmad Damitri Al-Astani;Seeni, Azman;Khairi, Wirdatul-Nur Mohd;Shamsuddin, Shaharum;Jaafar, Hasnan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10659-10663
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    • 2015
  • Background: Rapamycin is an effective anti-angiogenic drug. However, the mode of its action remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the antitumor mechanism of rapamycin, hypothetically via apoptotic promotion, using MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MCF-7 cells were plated at a density of $1{\times}10^5$ cells/well in 6-well plates. After 24h, cells were treated with a series of concentrations of rapamycin while only adding DMEM medium with PEG for the control regiment and grown at $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ and 95% air for 72h. Trypan blue was used to determine the cell viability and proliferation. Untreated and rapamycin-treated MCF-7 cells were also examined for morphological changes with an inverted-phase contrast microscope. Alteration in cell morphology was ascertained, along with a stage in the cell cycle and proliferation. In addition, cytotoxicity testing was performed using normal mouse breast mammary pads. Results: Our results clearly showed that rapamycin exhibited inhibitory activity on MCF-7 cell lines. The $IC_{50}$ value of rapamycin on the MCF-7 cells was determined as $0.4{\mu}g/ml$ (p<0.05). Direct observation by inverted microscopy demonstrated that the MCF-7 cells treated with rapamycin showed characteristic features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, vascularization and autophagy. Cells underwent early apoptosis up to 24% after 72h. Analysis of the cell cycle showed an increase in the G0G1 phase cell population and a corresponding decrease in the S and G2M phase populations, from 81.5% to 91.3% and 17.3% to 7.9%, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that rapamycin may potentially act as an anti-cancer agent via the inhibition of growth with some morphological changes of the MCF-7 cancer cells, arrest cell cycle progression at G0/G1 phase and induction of apoptosis in late stage of apoptosis. Further studies are needed to further characterize the mode of action of rapamycin as an anti-cancer agent.

Expression profiles of circular RNAs in sheep skeletal muscle

  • Cao, Yang;You, Shuang;Yao, Yang;Liu, Zhi-Jin;Hazi, Wureli;Li, Cun-Yuan;Zhang, Xiang-Yu;Hou, Xiao-Xu;Wei, Jun-Chang;Li, Xiao-Yue;Wang, Da-Wei;Chen, Chuang-Fu;Zhang, Yun-Feng;Ni, Wei;Hu, Sheng-Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1550-1557
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    • 2018
  • Objective: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a newfound class of non-coding RNA in animals and plants. Recent studies have revealed that circRNAs play important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, autophagy and apoptosis during development. However, there are few reports about muscle development-related circRNAs in livestock. Methods: RNA sequencing analysis was employed to identify and annotate circRNAs from longissimus dorsi of sheep. Reverse transcription followed by real-time quantitative (q) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis verified the presence of these circRNAs. Targetscan7.0 and miRanda were used to analyse the interaction of circRNA-microRNA (miRNA). To investigate the function of circRNAs, an experiment was conducted to perform enrichment analysis hosting genes of circRNAs using gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Results: About 75.5 million sequences were obtained from RNA libraries of sheep skeletal muscle. These sequences were mapped to 729 genes in the sheep reference genome. We identified 886 circRNAs, including numerous circular intronic RNAs and exonic circRNAs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA sequencing analysis confirmed the presence of several circRNAs. Real-Time RT-PCR analysis exhibited resistance of sheep circRNAs to RNase R digestion. We found that many circRNAs interacted with muscle-specific miRNAs involved in growth and development of muscle, especially circ776. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that hosting genes of circRNAs was involved in muscle cell development and signaling pathway. Conclusion: The study provides comprehensive expression profiles of circRNAs in sheep skeletal muscle. Our study offers a large number of circRNAs to facilitate a better understanding of their roles in muscle growth. Meanwhile, we suggested that circ776 could be analyzed in future study.

Siamese Crocodile White Blood Cell Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Promotes Autophagy in Multiple Cancer Cell Lines

  • Phosri, Santi;Jangpromma, Nisachon;Chang, Leng Chee;Tan, Ghee T.;Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit;Maijaroen, Surachai;Anwised, Preeyanan;Payoungkiattikun, Wisarut;Klaynongsruang, Sompong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1021
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    • 2018
  • Cancer represents one of the most significant threats to human health on a global scale. Hence, the development of effective cancer prevention strategies, as well as the discovery of novel therapeutic agents against cancer, is urgently required. In light of this challenge, this research aimed to evaluate the effects of several potent bioactive peptides and proteins contained in crocodile white blood cell extract (cWBC) against LU-1, LNCaP, PC-3, MCF-7, and CaCo-2 cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that 25, 50, 100, and $200{\mu}g/ml$ cWBC exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against all investigated cell lines ($IC_{50}$ $70.34-101.0{\mu}g/ml$), while showing no signs of cytotoxicity towards noncancerous Vero and HaCaT cells. Specifically, cWBC treatment caused a significant reduction in the cancerous cells' colony forming ability. A remarkable suppression of cancerous cell migration was observed after treatment with cWBC, indicating potent antimetastatic properties. The mechanism involved in the cancer cell cytotoxicity of cWBC may be related to apoptosis induction, as evidenced by typical apoptotic morphology features. Moreover, certain cWBC concentrations induced significant overproduction of ROS and significantly inhibited the $S-G_2/M$ transition in the cancer cell. The molecular mechanisms of cWBC in apoptosis induction were to decrease Bcl-2 and XIAP expression levels and increase the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and p53. These led to a decrease in the expression level of the cell cycle-associated gene cyclin-B1 and the arrest of cell population growth. Consequently, these findings demonstrate the prospect of the use of cWBC for cancer therapy.

SREBP as a Global Regulator for Lipid Metabolism (지질대사 조절에서 SREBP의 역할)

  • Lee, Wonhwa;Seo, Young-kyo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1233-1243
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    • 2018
  • Sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate lipid homeostasis and metabolism by controlling the expression of enzymes required for endogenous cholesterol, fatty acid (FA), triacylglycerol, and phospholipid synthesis. The three SREBPs are encoded by two different genes. The SREBP1 gene gives rise to SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, which are derived from utilization of alternate promoters that yield transcripts in which distinct first exons are spliced to a common second exon. SREBP-2 is derived from a separate gene. Additionally, SREBPs are implicated in numerous pathogenic processes, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis. They also contribute to obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases. Genome-wide analyses have revealed that these versatile transcription factors act as important nodes of biological signaling networks. Changes in cell metabolism and growth are reciprocally linked through SREBPs. Anabolic and growth signaling pathways branch off and connect to multiple steps of SREBP activation and form complex regulatory networks. SREBPs are activated through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in these processes, but the molecular mechanism remains to be understood. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of SREBPs in physiology and pathophysiology at the cell, organ, and organism levels.

Proteasome Inhibitor-Induced IκB/NF-κB Activation is Mediated by Nrf2-Dependent Light Chain 3B Induction in Lung Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Jungsil;Woo, Jisu;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.12
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    • pp.1008-1015
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    • 2018
  • $I{\kappa}B$, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$ ($NF-{\kappa}B$), is reportedly degraded via the proteasome. However, we recently found that long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) such as PS-341 or MG132 induces $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation via an alternative pathway, lysosome, which results in $NF-{\kappa}B$ activation and confers resistance to PI-induced lung cancer cell death. To enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of PIs, elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of PI-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation is necessary. Here, we demonstrated that PI up-regulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) via both de novo protein synthesis and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) degradation, which is responsible for $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation via macroautophagy activation. PIs increased the protein level of light chain 3B (LC3B, macroautophagy marker), but not lysosome-associated membrane protein 2a (Lamp2a, the receptor for chaperone-mediated autophagy) in NCI-H157 and A549 lung cancer cells. Pretreatment with macroautophagy inhibitor or knock-down of LC3B blocked PI-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. PIs up-regulated Nrf2 by increasing its transcription and mediating degradation of KEAP1 (cytoplasmic inhibitor of Nrf2). Overexpression of dominant-negative Nrf2, which lacks an N-terminal transactivating domain, or knock-down of Nrf2 suppressed PI-induced LC3B protein expression and subsequent $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation. Thus, blocking of the Nrf2 pathway enhanced PI-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Nrf2-driven induction of LC3B plays an essential role in PI-induced activation of the $I{\kappa}B$/$NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway, which attenuates the anti-tumor efficacy of PIs.

Anti-proliferative Effects of Celastrol, A Quinine Methide Triterpene Extracted from the Perennial Vine Tripterygium wilfordii, on Obesity-related Cancers (미역줄나무 뿌리 추출물인 셀라스트롤의 비만관련 암증식 억제효과)

  • Park, Sunmi;Moon, Hyun-Seuk
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2016
  • It has been generally accepted that obesity and overweight are associated with metabolic diseases and cancer incidence. In fact, obesity increased risks of cancers i.e. breast, liver, pancreatic and prostate. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Thunder god vine, was used as a Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, lupus erythematosus and Alzheimer's disease. Also, celastrol has various biological properties of chemo-preventive, neuro-protective, and anti-oxidant effects. Recent studies demonstrated that celastrol has anti-proliferation effects in different type of obesity-related cancers and suppresses tumor progression and metastasis. Anticancer effects of celastrol include regulation of $NF-{\kappa}B$, heat shock protein, JNK, VEGF, CXCR4, Akt/mTOR, MMP-9 and so on. For these reasons, celastrol has shown to be a promising anti-tumor agent. In this review, we will address the anticancer activities and multiple mechanisms of celastrol in obesity-related cancers.

Down-Regulation of Survivin by Nemadipine-A Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis

  • Park, Seong Ho;Park, So Jung;Kim, Joo-Oh;Shin, Ji Hyun;Kim, Eun Sung;Jo, Yoon Kyung;Kim, Jae-Sung;Park, So Jung;Jin, Dong-Hoon;Hwang, Jung Jin;Lee, Seung Jin;Jeong, Seong-Yun;Lee, Chaeyoung;Kim, InKi;Cho, Dong-Hyung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2013
  • The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines. TRAIL selectively induces apoptotic cell death in various tumors and cancer cells, but it has little or no toxicity in normal cells. Agonism of TRAIL receptors has been considered to be a valuable cancer-therapeutic strategy. However, more than 85% of primary tumors are resistant to TRAIL, emphasizing the importance of investigating how to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this report, we have found that nemadipine-A, a cell-permeable L-type calcium channel inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to this ligand. Combination treatments using TRAIL with nemadipine-A synergistically induced both the caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death, which were blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD) but not by autophagy or a necrosis inhibitor. We further found that nemadipine-A, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, notably reduced the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (IAP) family of proteins. Depletion of survivin by small RNA interference (siRNA) resulted in increased cell death and caspase activation by TRAIL treatment. These results suggest that nemadipine-A potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of survivin expression in TRAIL resistant cells. Thus, combination of TRAIL with nemadipine-A may serve a new therapeutic scheme for the treatment of TRAIL resistant cancer cells, suggesting that a detailed study of this combination would be useful.

Stem cell-secreted 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid rescues cholesterol homeostasis and autophagic flux in Niemann-Pick-type C disease

  • Kang, Insung;Lee, Byung-Chul;Lee, Jin Young;Kim, Jae-Jun;Sung, Eun-Ah;Lee, Seung Eun;Shin, Nari;Choi, Soon Won;Seo, Yoojin;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Kang, Kyung-Sun
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.50 no.11
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    • pp.8.1-8.14
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    • 2018
  • We previously demonstrated that the direct transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) into the dentate gyrus ameliorated the neurological symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1)-mutant mice. However, the clinical presentation of NPC1-mutant mice was not fully understood with a molecular mechanism. Here, we found 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-EET), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolite, from hUCB-MSCs and the cerebella of NPC1-mutant mice and investigated the functional consequence of this metabolite. Our screening of the CYP2J family indicated a dysregulation in the CYP system in a cerebellar-specific manner. Moreover, in Purkinje cells, CYP2J6 showed an elevated expression level compared to that of astrocytes, granule cells, and microglia. In this regard, we found that one CYP metabolite, 14,15-EET, acts as a key mediator in ameliorating cholesterol accumulation. In confirming this hypothesis, 14,15-EET treatment reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in human NPC1 patient-derived fibroblasts in vitro by suppressing cholesterol synthesis and ameliorating the impaired autophagic flux. We show that the reduced activity within the CYP system in the cerebellum could cause the neurological symptoms of NPC1 patients, as 14,15-EET treatment significantly rescued cholesterol accumulation and impaired autophagy. We also provide evidence that the intranasal administration of hUCB-MSCs is a highly promising alternative to traumatic surgical transplantation for NPC1 patients.