• Title, Summary, Keyword: autophagy

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Therapeutic implication of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases

  • Rahman, Md. Ataur;Rhim, Hyewhon
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.345-354
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    • 2017
  • Autophagy, a catabolic process necessary for the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis, has recently been the focus of numerous human diseases and conditions, such as aging, cancer, development, immunity, longevity, and neurodegeneration. However, the continued presence of autophagy is essential for cell survival and dysfunctional autophagy is thought to speed up the progression of neurodegeneration. The actual molecular mechanism behind the progression of dysfunctional autophagy is not yet fully understood. Emerging evidence suggests that basal autophagy is necessary for the removal of misfolded, aggregated proteins and damaged cellular organelles through lysosomal mediated degradation. Physiologically, neurodegenerative disorders are related to the accumulation of amyloid ${\beta}$ peptide and ${\alpha}-synuclein$ protein aggregation, as seen in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively. Even though autophagy could impact several facets of human biology and disease, it generally functions as a clearance for toxic proteins in the brain, which contributes novel insight into the pathophysiological understanding of neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, several studies demonstrate that natural compounds or small molecule autophagy enhancer stimuli are essential in the clearance of amyloid ${\beta}$ and ${\alpha}-synuclein$ deposits. Therefore, this review briefly deliberates on the recent implications of autophagy in neurodegenerative disorder control, and emphasizes the opportunities and potential therapeutic application of applied autophagy.

Role of the mammalian ATG8/LC3 family in autophagy: differential and compensatory roles in the spatiotemporal regulation of autophagy

  • Lee, You-Kyung;Lee, Jin-A
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.8
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    • pp.424-430
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    • 2016
  • Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation pathway of the lysosome, is associated with many physiological and pathological processes. The hallmark of autophagy is the formation of the autophagosome that engulfs and degrades cytosolic components via its fusion with the lysosome, in either a selective or a non-selective manner. Autophagy is tightly regulated by proteins encoded by autophagy-related (atg) genes. Among these proteins, ATG8/LC3 is essential for autophagosome biogenesis/maturation and it also functions as an adaptor protein for selective autophagy. In mammalian cells, several homologs of yeast Atg8 such as MAP1LC3, GABARAP, and GABARAPL 1/2 have been identified. However, the biological relevance of this gene diversity in higher eukaryotes, and their specific roles, are largely unknown. In this review, we describe the mammalian ATG8/LC3 family and discuss recent advancements in understanding their roles in the autophagic process.

Autophagy and Longevity

  • Nakamura, Shuhei;Yoshimori, Tamotsu
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2018
  • Autophagy is an evolutionally conserved cytoplasmic degradation system in which varieties of materials are sequestered by a double membrane structure, autophagosome, and delivered to the lysosomes for the degradation. Due to the wide varieties of targets, autophagic activity is essential for cellular homeostasis. Recent genetic evidence indicates that autophagy has a crucial role in the regulation of animal lifespan. Basal level of autophagic activity is elevated in many longevity paradigms and the activity is required for lifespan extension. In most cases, genes involved in autophagy and lysosomal function are induced by several transcription factors including HLH-30/TFEB, PHA-4/FOXA and MML-1/Mondo in long-lived animals. Pharmacological treatments have been shown to extend lifespan through activation of autophagy, indicating autophagy could be a potential and promising target to modulate animal lifespan. Here we summarize recent progress regarding the role of autophagy in lifespan regulation.

Sarcopenia targeting with autophagy mechanism by exercise

  • Park, Sung Sup;Seo, Young-Kyo;Kwon, Ki-Sun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2019
  • The loss of skeletal muscle, called sarcopenia, is an inevitable event during the aging process, and significantly impacts quality of life. Autophagy is known to reduce muscle atrophy caused by dysfunctional organelles, even though the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we have discuss the current understanding of exercise-induced autophagy activation in skeletal muscle regeneration and remodeling, leading to sarcopenia intervention. With aging, dysregulation of autophagy flux inhibits lysosomal storage processes involved in muscle biogenesis. AMPK-ULK1 and the $FoxO/PGC-1{\alpha}$ signaling pathways play a critical role in the induction of autophagy machinery in skeletal muscle, thus these pathways could be targets for therapeutics development. Autophagy has been also shown to be a critical regulator of stem cell fate, which determines satellite cell differentiation into muscle fiber, thereby increasing muscle mass. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the physiological role of autophagy in skeletal muscle aging and sarcopenia.

Dual Roles of Autophagy and Their Potential Drugs for Improving Cancer Therapeutics

  • Shin, Dong Wook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.503-511
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    • 2020
  • Autophagy is a major catabolic process that maintains cell metabolism by degrading damaged organelles and other dysfunctional proteins via the lysosome. Abnormal regulation of this process has been known to be involved in the progression of pathophysiological diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Although the mechanisms for the regulation of autophagic pathways are relatively well known, the precise regulation of this pathway in the treatment of cancer remains largely unknown. It is still complicated whether the regulation of autophagy is beneficial in improving cancer. Many studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a dual role in cancer by suppressing the growth of tumors or the progression of cancer development, which seems to be dependent on unknown characteristics of various cancer types. This review summarizes the key targets involved in autophagy and malignant transformation. In addition, the opposing tumor-suppressive and oncogenic roles of autophagy in cancer, as well as potential clinical therapeutics utilizing either regulators of autophagy or combinatorial therapeutics with anti-cancer drugs have been discussed.

Arginine Supplementation Recovered the IFN-γ-Mediated Decrease in Milk Protein and Fat Synthesis by Inhibiting the GCN2/eIF2α Pathway, Which Induces Autophagy in Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

  • Xia, Xiaojing;Che, Yanyi;Gao, Yuanyuan;Zhao, Shuang;Ao, Changjin;Yang, Hongjian;Liu, Juxiong;Liu, Guowen;Han, Wenyu;Wang, Yuping;Lei, Liancheng
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.410-417
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    • 2016
  • During the lactation cycle of the bovine mammary gland, autophagy is induced in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) as a cellular homeostasis and survival mechanism. Interferon gamma ($IFN-{\gamma}$) is an important antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor that has been shown to induce autophagy in multiple cell lines in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether $IFN-{\gamma}$ can induce autophagy and whether autophagy affects milk synthesis in BMECs. To understand whether $IFN-{\gamma}$ affects milk synthesis, we isolated and purified primary BMECs and investigated the effect of $IFN-{\gamma}$ on milk synthesis in primary BMECs in vitro. The results showed that $IFN-{\gamma}$ significantly inhibits milk synthesis and that autophagy was clearly induced in primary BMECs in vitro within 24 h. Interestingly, autophagy was observed following $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment, and the inhibition of autophagy can improve milk protein and milk fat synthesis. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy decreased milk synthesis. Furthermore, mechanistic analysis confirmed that $IFN-{\gamma}$ mediated autophagy by depleting arginine and inhibiting the general control nonderepressible-2 kinase (GCN2)/eukaryotic initiation factor $2{\alpha}$ ($eIF2{\alpha}$) signaling pathway in BMECs. Then, it was found that arginine supplementation could attenuate $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced autophagy and recover milk synthesis to some extent. These findings may not only provide a novel measure for preventing the $IFN-{\gamma}$-induced decrease in milk quality but also a useful therapeutic approach for $IFN-{\gamma}$-associated breast diseases in other animals and humans.

Induction of cytoprotective autophagy by morusin via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

  • Park, Hyun-Ji;Park, Shin-Hyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.478-489
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Morusin, a marker component of Morus alba L., possesses anti-cancer activity. The objective of this study was to determine autophagy-inducing effect of morusin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and investigate the underlying mechanism. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Autophagy induction and the expression of autophagy-related proteins were analyzed by LC3 immunofluorescence and western blot, respectively. The role of autophagy and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was determined by treating NSCLC cells with bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor, and compound C, an AMPK inhibitor. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction were determined by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion assay, annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) double staining assay, and cell cycle analysis. RESULTS: Morusin increased the formation of LC3 puncta in the cytoplasm and upregulated the expression of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), Atg12, beclin-1, and LC3II in NSCLC cells, demonstrating that morusin could induce autophagy. Treatment with bafilomycin A1 markedly reduced cell viability but increased proportions of sub-G1 phase cells and annexin V-positive cells in H460 cells. These results indicate that morusin can trigger autophagy in NSCLC cells as a defense mechanism against morusin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that AMPK and its downstream acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were phosphorylated, while mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) were dephosphorylated by morusin. Morusin-induced apoptosis was significantly increased by treatment with compound C in H460 cells. These results suggest that morusin-induced AMPK activation could protect NSCLC cells from apoptosis probably by inducing autophagy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that combination treatment with morusin and autophagy inhibitor or AMPK inhibitor might enhance the clinical efficacy of morusin for NSCLC.

Particulate Matter-Induced Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Regulates Autophagy in Keratinocytes

  • Jang, Hye sung;Lee, Ji eun;Myung, Cheol hwan;Park, Jong il;Jo, Chan song;Hwang, Jae Sung
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.570-576
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    • 2019
  • Particulate matter (PM), which refers to the mixture of particles present in the air, can have harmful effects. Damage to cells by PM, including disruption of organelles and proteins, can trigger autophagy, and the relationship between autophagy and PM has been well studied. However, the cellular regulators of PM-induced autophagy have not been well characterized, especially in keratinocytes. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is expressed in the epidermis and is activated by PM. In this study, we investigated the role of the AhR in PM-induced autophagy in HaCaT cells. Our results showed that PM led to AhR activation in keratinocytes. Activation of the AhR-target gene CYP1A1 by PM was reduced by co-treatment with ${\alpha}$-naphthoflavone (${\alpha}-NF$), an AhR inhibitor. We also evaluated activation of the autophagy pathway in PM-treated keratinocytes. In HaCaT cells, treatment with PM treatment led to the induction of microtubules-associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3) and p62/SQSTM1, which are essential components of the autophagy pathway. To study the role of the AhR in mediating PM-induced autophagy, we treated cells with ${\alpha}-NF$ or used an siRNA against AhR. Expression of LC3-II induced by PM was decreased in a dose dependent manner by ${\alpha}-NF$. Furthermore, knockdown of AhR with siAhR diminished PM-induced expression of LC3-II and p62. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of the AhR decreases PM-induced autophagy. We confirmed these results using the autophagy-inhibitors BAF and 3-MA. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to PM induces autophagy via the AhR in HaCaT keratinocytes.

Overview of Autophagy in Plant Cells (식물 세포의 자식작용에 대한 개요)

  • Lee, Han Nim;Chung, Taijoon
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 2014
  • In a variety of eukaryotic cells, autophagy sequesters a portion of the cytoplasm and targets it to a lytic compartment for degradation in bulk. Autophagy is a dynamic process for degrading cytoplasmic cargoes with various degrees of selectivity, and its activity is tightly regulated in a nutrient- and development-dependent manner. Autophagy research has drawn much attention since autophagy not only is an interesting cell biological phenomenon but also has great potential for medical and agricultural applications. For example, autophagy is associated with cancers and neurodegenerative diseases in human and mammalian cells and is also suggested in remobilization of nutrients during the senescence of plant leaves. In this general review, we describe genetic components of the core autophagic machinery conserved among yeast, animals, and plants and briefly explain how these components are responsible for major steps in plant autophagy. We discuss four common features of autophagic processes: (i) autophagy as a degradation pathway, (ii) the concept of flux in autophagy research, (iii) dependency on developmental and nutritional cues, and (iv) diversity of autophagy, focusing on selective types of autophagy. We also summarize cell biological and physiological functions of plant autophagy. Our intention is to provide a quick guide to autophagy for those who are new to autophagy research.

Effects of Platycodon grandiflorum on the Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis in HCT-116 Human Colon Cancer Cells (길경 추출물에 의한 HCT-116 대장암 세포주에서의 autophagy와 apoptosis 유발 효과)

  • Hong, Su Hyun;Park, Cheol;Han, Min Ho;Kim, Hong Jae;Lee, Moon Hee;Choi, Yung Hyun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.11
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    • pp.1244-1251
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    • 2014
  • Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) has been known to possess many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy activity and anti-obesity and hyperlipidemia effects. However, little research has been conducted regarding its anticancer effects, with the exception of its ability to stimulate apoptosis in skin cells. There has also been no study regarding PG-induced autophagy. The modulation of autophagy is recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. Depending on the type of cancer and the context, autophagy can suppress or help cancer cells to overcome metabolic stress and the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether or not extracts from PG-induced cell death were connected with autophagy and apoptosis in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. PG stimulation decreased cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, which was partially dependent on the activation of caspases. PG treatment also resulted in the formation of autophagic vacuoles simultaneously with regulation of autophagy-related genes. Interestingly, a PG-mediated apoptotic effect was further triggered by pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenin and bafilomycin A1. However, cell viability recovered quite well with bafilomycin A1 treatment. These findings show that PG treatment promotes both autophagy and apoptosis and that PG-induced autophagic response might play a role in the autophagic cell death of HCT-116 cells.