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Nutritional Characteristics and Some Bioactive Components Contents of Sophorae fructus (괴각(槐角)의 식품영양학적 접근 및 몇 가지 생리활성물질 함량 분석)

  • Choi, Young-Su;Shin, Eon-Hwan;Park, Sung-Jin;Kim, Jong-Dai
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.1154-1161
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the possibility of using Sophorae fructus as natural health food source. To accomplish this purpose, the contents of general and antioxidative nutrients of Sophora fructus were measured. The contents of carbohydrate, crude protein, crude lipid and ash are 75.9%, 16.4%, 2.41%, and 5.2%, respectively, while the calories of Sophora fructus was 337.3 kcal. Total dietary fiber was 15.07% of total carbohydrates. The percentages of water soluble dietary fiber to insoluble dietary fiber were 1.09% and 10.36%, respectively. The protein was composed of a total of 18 different kinds of amino acids. The contents of essential and non-essential amino acids were 2,310.91 mg and 5,218.52 mg. The K was the largest mineral followed by Ca, P and Mg, which means Sophorae fructus is alkali material. The contents of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 24.94%, 32.40%, and 32.86%, respectively. Therefore, the amount of the total unsaturated fatty acid was higher than that of any other plant. The content of vitamin C in Sophorae fructus was higher than that of any other plant, which suggests that it could increase blood elasticity. The content of rutin, which is responsible for capillary vessel permeability, was 1.78%. The contents of water soluble antioxidative materials in 1 mL of water-extracted Sophorae fructus were $4.95\;{\mu}g$ which is comparable to 1,560.96 mmol of vitamin C in antioxidant effect. The general nutrients and other antioxidatant bioactive materials in Sophorae fructus were also potential materials for good health food. It is expected that a follow up study on Sophorae fructus through developing processed food and evaluation of their functional properties would provide useful information as a source of medicinal foods.

Effect of Phytoncide on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis에 대한 피톤치드의 항균효과)

  • Kim, Sun-Q;Shin, Mi-Kyoung;Auh, Q-Schick;Lee, Jin-Yong;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Chun, Yang-Hyun
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.137-150
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    • 2007
  • Trees emit phytoncide into atmosphere to protect them from predation. Phytoncide from different trees has its own unique fragrance that is referred to as forest bath. Phytoncide, which is essential oil of trees, has microbicidal, insecticidal, acaricidal, and deodorizing effect. The present study was performed to examine the effect of phytoncide on Porphyromonas gingivalis, which is one of the most important causative agents of periodontitis and halitosis. P. gingivalis 2561 was incubated with or without phytoncide extracted from Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Japanese cypress) and then changes were observed in its cell viability, antibiotic sensitivity, morphology, and biochemical/molecular biological pattern. The results were as follows: 1. The phytoncide appeared to have a strong antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis. MIC of phytoncide for the bacterium was determined to be 0.008%. The antibacterial effect was attributed to bactericidal activity against P. gingivalis. It almost completely suppressed the bacterial cell viability (>99.9%) at the concentration of 0.01%, which is the MBC for the bacterium. 2. The phytoncide failed to enhance the bacterial susceptibility to ampicillin, cefotaxime, penicillin, and tetracycline but did increase the susceptibility to amoxicillin. 3. Numbers of electron dense granules, ghost cell, and vesicles increased with increasing concentration of the phytoncide, 4. RT-PCR analysis revealed that expression of superoxide dismutase was increased in the bacterium incubated with the phytoncide. 5. No distinct difference in protein profile between the bacterium incubated with or without the phytoncide was observed as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. Overall results suggest that the phytoncide is a strong antibacterial agent that has a bactericidal action against P. gingivalis. The phytoncide does not seem to affect much the profile of the major outer membrane proteins but interferes with antioxidant activity of the bacterium. Along with this, yet unknown mechanism may cause changes in cell morphology and eventually cell death.

Glycoprotein Isolated from Morus indica Linne Has an Antioxidative Activity and Inhibits Signal Factors Induced by Bisphenol A in Raw 264.7 Cells (뽕잎 당단백질의 항산화능과 Raw 264.7 세포에 있어서 bisphenol A에 유도된 신호전달인자의 억제)

  • Shim, Jae-Uoong;Lee, Sei-Jung;Oh, Phil-Sun;Lim, Kye-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2007
  • The present study investigated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of glycoprotein isolated from Morus Indica Linne (MIL glycoprotein). We found that MIL glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 32 kD and consists of carbohydrate (40.03%) and protein (59.97%), and that it has a strong scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical $({\cdot}OH)$, and superoxide anion $(O_2{\cdot}\;^-)$ radicals. In addition, MIL glycoprotein had a stable character and an optimal DPPH radical scavenging activity in the alkaline and neutral pH solution, and up to at 105. However, the results indicated that it has a minimal scavenging activity in the metal ionic solution ($Ca^{2+}$, $Mn^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$) in the presence of EDTA. In addition, we further investigated whether MIL glycoprotein scavenges oxygen radicals and blocks inflammation-related signals in the bisphenol A (BPA)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The results in this study showed that it has a character to scavenge the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) dose-dependently. Also it blocked the activities of inflammation-related signals such as nuclear factor-kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). For example, it had an inhibitory effect on the activation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ (p50) and iNOS proteins at 200 ${\mu}g/mL$ MIL glycoprotein. Here, we speculate that MIL glycoprotein is one of natural antioxidants and of modulators of the BPA-induced inflammation.

Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Color Changes and Antioxidative Activities of Caesalpinia sappan L. (감마선 조사에 의한 소목추출물의 색상변화 및 항산화 활성 평가)

  • Kwon, Hyung-Jun;Jung, U-Hee;Park, Hae-Ran;Shin, Dong-Hwa;Jo, Sung-Kee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.1055-1061
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    • 2007
  • Caesalpinia sappan L. is an indeciduous tree distributed in China, India, Miyanmar and Vietnam. Its heartwood has long been used in oriental folk medicines to treat diseases. In this study, antioxidative activities of Caesalpinia sappan L. and the effect of gamma irradiation on its chemical and biological properties were investigated. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc fr.) of Caesalpinia sappan L. was irradiated with 100 kGy of gamma ray. The dark red color of EtOAc fr. was significantly (p<0.05) removed by irradiation (Hunter L and b values increased and a value decreased). The total phenolic content of EtOAc fr. was 865 mg/g and it was increased to 1195 mg/g by gamma irradiation. DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of EtOAc fr. were very high and its activities were also increased by gamma irradiation. EtOAc fr. also inhibited the irradiation-induced DNA damage of lymphocyte as determined by comet assay. In conclusion, EtOAc fr. of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract showed high antioxidative activities in vitro. Furthermore, gamma irradiation on EtOAc fr. ameliorated the color and antioxidative properties. Therefore, it can be suggested that Caesalpinia sappan L. may be a good material for antioxidant function and gamma irradiation may be applied for the improvement of chemical and biological properties of Caesalpinia sappan L.

Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Activities of Lilium Species Extracts Prepared from Different Aerial Parts (부위별 식용백합 추출물의 항산화 및 향균효과)

  • Joung, Yong-Myeon;Park, Soo-Jin;Lee, Ki-Young;Lee, Ji-Yong;Suh, Jeung-Keun;Hwang, Seong-Yun;Park, Kyoung-Eun;Kang, Myung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.452-457
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    • 2007
  • In this study, Lilium sp. were separated into bulbs, leaves, and flowers. Then, total polyphenol contents, electron donating ability (EDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity were measured from the extracts of each of the three aforementioned parts. The examination of physiologically active substances in the three parts revealed that Lilium davidii leaves had high total polyphenol contents, SOD-like activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and EDA, while the flowers of L. lancifolium showed high SOD-like activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and EDA, as well as a high level of total polyphenols in the bulb. Measurements of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against Gram positive bacteria revealed that the leaves and flowers of L. davidii and L. lancifolium caused Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella enteritidis to form clear zones greater than 10 mm. Furthermore, the flowers of L. lancifolium showed particularly high antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, and the flowers of L. davidii had high activity against S. enteritidis. For the Gram negative bacteria, the leaves and flowers of L. davidii and L. lancifolium caused Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli to form clear zones greater than 10 mm, and finally, the flowers of L. davidii and L. lancifolium showed high antibacterial activity, with inhibition exceeding 12 mm.

Antioxidative Activity and Lipid Composition from Different Part and Supplement of Codonopsis lanceolata in Rat (더덕 부위별, 첨가수준이 실험쥐의 항산화활성과 지질조성에 미치는 효과)

  • Oh, Hae-Sook;Won, Hyang-Rye
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.1128-1133
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to examine antioxidative activity and lipid composition from different parts and supplement flesh and skin of Codonopsis lanceolata in vivo. Forty six-week-old white Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups and fed with experimental diet for six weeks to measure antioxidant enzymes activities and lipid composition in blood and liver microsome. The activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood was high in all groups supplemented with Condonopsis lanceolata and the difference was observed in accordance with the supplemented part rather than the supplemented level. However, glutathione reductase activity and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood showed difference depending on the level of supplementation rather than the supplemented part. The content of liver MDA in all groups supplemented with Condonopsis lanceolata was lower than that in the control group. As the level of skin supplementation increased, an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was also observed. Only in the group that 5% of Condonopsis lanceolata skin was supplemented, the glutathione reductase activity was higher than in the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of blood in the group supplemented with Condonopsis lanceolata flesh or skin were significantly lower than those in control group. HDL-cholesterol in blood was high when the flesh of Condonopsis lanceolata was supplemented. Total cholesterol and triglyceride in liver of the group supplemented with Condonopsis lanceolata flesh or skin were significantly lower than those in control group. In summary, this animal test showed that the supplementation of Condonopsis lanceolata, flesh or skin, generally improved the antioxidative effect of diet and lipid composition.

Anti-atherogenic Effect of Green Tea Product through Hypolipidemic and Anti-oxidative Action in Ovariectomized Rats (난소절제 흰쥐에서 녹차가공품의 지질강하와 항산화 작용을 통한 항동맥경화 효과)

  • Cho, Mi-Kyung;Noh, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Jin-Ju;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.10
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    • pp.1263-1270
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    • 2007
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of green tea product (GTP) on the risk factors of atherosclerosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sprague-Dewley female rats (10 weeks) weighing approximately $279{\pm}2g$ were divided into 4 groups: sham operated control group treated with high cholesterol diet (Sham-C), OVX control group treated with high cholesterol diet (OVX-C), OVX-G 5% group treated with high cholesterol containing 5% GTP and OVX-G 20% group treated with high cholesterol diet containing 20% GTP. Serum TG concentrations was lower in OVX-G 20% group than in the OVX-C group, whereas ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (%) was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the 20% GTP supplementation group than in the Sham-C and OVX-C groups. Tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the OVX-G 20% group. Hepatic TG levels were significantly (p<0.05) lowered in OVX-G 20% group than in the other groups. Glutathione levels and antioxidant enzyme activities including glutathione-reductase and Mn-superoxide dismutase in liver were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the OVX-G 20% group in the OVX-C group. Fecal total cholesterol concentrations were increased in the GTP supplementation groups than in the OVX-C group. From the above results, it is concluded that GTP may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis via hypolipidemic action. Therefore, it may be used to possibly improve the hyperlipemia in menopausal women.

Protective effect of Codium fragile extract on fine dust (PM2.5)-induced toxicity in nasal cavity, lung, and brain cells (미세먼지(PM2.5)로 유도된 세포(비강, 폐, 뇌)독성에 대한 청각(Codium fragile)의 보호효과)

  • Kim, Gil Han;Park, Seon Kyeong;Kang, Jin Yong;Kim, Jong Min;Shin, Eun Jin;Moon, Jong Hyeon;Kim, Min Ji;Lee, Hyo Lim;Jeong, Hye Rin;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2021
  • To evaluate the protective effect of Codium fragile on fine dust (PM2.5)-induced cytotoxicity, we investigated its antioxidant activity and cell protective effect on PM2.5-exposed cells. The 40% ethanolic extract of C. fragile showed the highest total phenolic content, whereas the water extract of C. fragile showed the highest total polysaccharide content. The protective effect of the extracts on PM2.5-induced oxidative damage in nasal cavity (RPMI2650), lung (A549), brain (MC-IXC), hippocampus (HT-22), and microglia (BV-2) cells was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and cell viability. The results showed that the 40% ethanolic extract more efficiently inhibited ROS production than the water extract. In contrast, PM2.5-exposed cells treated with the water extract showed higher viability than those treated with the 40% ethanolic extract.

Protective Effect of Mixed Extract including Hovenia dulcis Thunberg against Chronic Ethanol Treatment-induced Cytotoxicity in a Brain and Liver Tissue (만성 알코올 섭취로부터 유도되는 뇌 및 간 조직 독성에 대한 지구자 혼합 추출물의 보호 효과)

  • Kim, Jong-Min;Park, Seon-Kyeong;Guoa, Tian-Jiao;Kang, Jin-Yong;Ha, Jeong-Su;Lee, Du-Sang;Kwon, O-Jun;Lee, Uk;Heo, Ho Jin
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.125-138
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    • 2016
  • To assess the industrial possibility of mixed-extracts containing Hovenia dulcis Thunberg and 12 different botanical ingredients, a protective effect was confirmed in the chronic ethanol-induced the liver, brain, and blood injury in mouse. Blood glucose levels of the normal control group(NG) and ethanol administration group(EG) were respectively 119.43mg/dL and 305.25mg/dL, and the mixed-extracts administration group(100, 200mg/kg body weight + 25% ethanol 5g/kg body weight respectively; ME100 & ME200) were decreased to 272.76mg/dL and 234.60mg/dL. Blood ethanol contents were decreased in ME100 and ME200(3.85mg/dL, 3.08mg/dL) compared to EG(4.08mg/dL), and blood acetaldehyde contents were also decreased in ME(15.76mg/dL, 15.16mg/dL) compared to EG(18.72mg/dL). The contents of hepatotoxic indicators such as glutamine pyruvic transaminase(GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), nephrotoxic indicators such as blood urea nitrogen(BUN), and creatine(CRE), and total cholestero(TCHO), and triglyceride(TG) in mouse blood serum were significantly decreased in the ME compared to EG. The acetylcholinesterase(AChE) activity of ME(109.00% and 108.47%, respectively) in mouse brain tissues was decreased in ME compared to EG(116.10%). Finally, ME was remarkable in vivo antioxidant activities in the mouse liver and brain tissues by superoxide dismutase(SOD), oxidized glutathione(GSH)/total GSH ratio and the malondialdehyde (MDA) assay. Therefore, the mixed-extracts was considered to be effective a high value food with protective effect against chronic ethanol traetment-induced cytotoxicity in liver and brain tissues.

A study on the Effects of Rehmannia Radix and Eukmigihwangtang (EMGHT) on Antioxidation Activity in Aging Rats (숙지황(熟地黃)과 육미지황탕(六味地黃湯)이 노화과정(老化過程) 흰쥐에서의 항산화(抗酸化) 기전(機轉)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Ahn, Sang-Won;Lee, Cheol-wan
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.593-623
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    • 1999
  • This experimental study was designed to verify the anti-aging efficacy of Eukmigihwangtang (EMGHT) and Rehmannia Radix, and determine the specific role and actions of Rehmannia Radix. Normal rat (2 months old), aging rat (8 months old), and pathologically induced rat (2 months old, injected 30mg/kg of streptozotocin) are observed to study the aging eliciting factors such as peroxide contents and enzyme activities. The following results were obtained in this study: 1. For the body weight changes, normal group given Rehmannia Radix showed decrease in the body weight compared to the control group, aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the body weight, and STZ injected group showed suppression to the body weight loss when given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix. 2. For the content changes in serum lipid peroxide, normal group showed increasing level as the rat gets older. Aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the lipid peroxide level compared to the control group. Decrease was more prominant in the group given EMGHT. 3. For the changes in serum hydroxyl radical, normal group did not show significant changes, but aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the hydroxyl radical level compared to the control group. Decrease was more prominant in the group given EMGHT. 4. For the changes in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, normal group did not show significant changes, but aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase in the SOD activity compared to the control group. STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the SOD activity compared to the control group. 5. For the content changes in hepatic lipid peroxide, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease in the lipid peroxide level compared to the control group. 6. For the changes in hepatic cytochrome P-450 activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. Cytochrome b5 activity was significantly decreased only in the STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix. 7. For the changes in hepatic aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase activity, aging group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase in the aminopyrine demethylase activity, and showed significant decrease in the aniline hydroxylase activity compared to the control group. 8. For the content changes in hepatic protein bound-SH and nonprotein bound-SH, againg group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group. 9. For the content changes in hepatic glutathione level, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group. 10. For the changes in hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase and decrease, respectively, compared to the control group. 11. For the changes in hepatic glutathione reductase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant increase compared to the control group, while $\gamma$-Glutamylcystein synthetase activity did not show significant changes. 12. For the changes in hepatic superoxide dismutase activity, aging group and STZ injected group given EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix showed significant decrease compared to the control group. From the above results, the antioxidant effects of EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix were proved, as well as the role of Rehmannia Radix, a chief of EMGHT, was examined. In addition, since no change was reconized as the quantity of Rehmannia Radix and the order herbs increased, the reasonableness on EMGHT was proven with respect to its composition and quantity. Thus, the significance of EMGHT could be objectively exmined in terms of its composition and quantity. Considering animals used in the experiment, there were obvious changes in aging rats and pathologically induced rats than in normal rats. Consequently, it was noticeable that EMGHT and Rehmannia Radix were working selectively on the subjects.

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