• Title/Summary/Keyword: amylopectin

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Amylase activity and characterization of Bacillus subtilis CBD2 isolated from Doenjang (된장으로부터 분리된 Bacillus subtilis CBD2의 생육특성 및 amylase 활성)

  • Yang, Su-Jin;Lee, Dae-Hoon;Park, Hye-Mi;Jung, Hee Kyoung;Park, Chang-Su;Hong, Joo-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.286-293
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    • 2014
  • In this study, one GRAS strain was screened from doenjang, a traditional Korean fermented food, as a microorganism producing amylase due to the formation of a clear zone on the medium including soluble starch. From the analysis of the gene sequence of 16S ribosomal RNA, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis and was therefore named Bacillus subtilis CBD2. When the nutrient broth medium was prepared with 3% NaCl, 5% glucose, and the initial medium pH 7.0, the B. subtilis CBD2 showed maximum growth. Among soluble starch, corn starch, maize amylopectin, and wheat starch, soluble starch was the most effective carbon source in the production of amylase by B. subtilis CBD2. The amylase from B. subtilis CBD2 showed the highest activities at pH 8.0 and $50^{\circ}C$, and corn starch was the most proper substrate for the enzyme activity. When corn starch was used as a substrate, the production of sugars through enzyme activity increased for 24 h, and then the enzyme activity became constant.

Quality Characteristics of Makgeolli of Rice Cultivars with Different Starch Compositions (전분 조성이 다양한 벼 품종별 막걸리 품질 특성)

  • Chun, Areum;Kim, Dae-Jung;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Choi, Im-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.50-58
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    • 2014
  • Makgeolli, known as takju, is a traditional alcoholic beverage which is native in Korea. It is made from various rice and other cereals. This study is carried out to compare the physicochemical characteristics and functional quality of makgeolli from various rice cultivars according to different amylose contents and amylopectin compositions. The 'Goami2', 'Goami3', and 'Goami4' have high amylose contents and lower proportional degrees of polymerization (DP) 6~12 and higher proportions of DP 13~24 in amylopectin of milled rice. Various variations are shown in pasting properties (viscosities) and gelatinization characteristics, and it is supposed to be related to both the amylose contents and the amylopectin compositions of raw rice. The makgeolli is being manufactured by using the 2-step-brewing method. The makgeolli is analyzed for alcohol contents, pH levels, total acids, Hunter color values and organic acid compositions. The makgeolli of 'Goami2', 'Goami3', and 'Goami4' have showed higher makgeolli yields, lower ethanol contents and less sweetness than other cultivars, and they also have high non-digestible carbohydrates contents which are derived from their high non-digestible carbohydrates contents in milled rice. Therefore, we are able to suggest that it is necessary to improve the makgeolli fermentation processes of 'Goami2', 'Goami3', and 'Goami4'.

Some Physical Properties of Starch Granules from Giant Embryonic Rice Endosperm (거대배 돌연변이 계통벼 쌀 배유 전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kang, Mi-Young;Lee, Yun-Ri;Koh, Hee-Jong;Nam, Seok-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.117-122
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    • 2003
  • Starches from 4 rice cultivars, including Whachungchalbyeo and Whachungbyeo, together with two correspondiug conversion mutants with giant embryonic phenotype, Whachungchal-giant embryonic rice and Whachung-giant embryonic rice, were isolated to compare its physico-chemical properties. The amylose content and the length of glucose chains in the fractionated amylose was reduced in response to conversion of the rice cultivars for developing giant embryonic phenotype. For the fine structure of amylopectin, conversion to giant embyonic rice cultivars accompanied with slight increase in the length of B chain plus decrease in the amount of A chain, and also a slight increase in average glucose chains length of amylopectin fractions could be observed. X-ray diffractogram revealed 4 cultivars to be the representative A types. We could also obtain the results that the hydrolysis rate by glucoamylase in the waxy rice cultivars decreased in response to conversion to the giant embryonic rice cultivars, while the rate increased in the non-waxy rice cultivas. Termination temperature for gelatinization was observed to decrease in response to conversion into the giant embryonic rice cultivars, however, the enthalpy for gelatinization was found to increase with the same conversion process.

Physicochemical Properties and Gel-forming Properties of corn & Red bean crude Starches (옥수수와 팥 조전분의 이화학적 특성 및 겔 형성)

  • 노정해;이혜수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1988
  • The physicochemical properties and gel-forming properties of corn & red bean crude starches were investigated. The results were as follows: 1. The shape of corn crude starch granule was polygonal and the mean value of minor axis and major axis were $11.5\mu\textrm{m}$ and $14.9\mu\textrm{m}$, respectively. In the meantime, the shape of red bean crude starch granule was oval and the mean value of minor axis and major axis were $22.3\mu\textrm{m}$ and $31.4\mu\textrm{m}$. 2. Amylose content of corn and red bean refined starch were 16.52 and 43.61% respectively. 3. Blue value of corn and red bean crude starch were 0.099 and 0.842, respectively. 4. Amylose of corn had molecular weight of 107,000 and degree of polymerization of 660. Amylopectin had degree of branching of 6.9 per 100 glucose units and glucose units of 14.6 persegment of amylopectin. Amylose of red bean had molecular weight of 118,000 and amylopectin had degree of branching of 5.2. 5. Water binding capacities of corn and red bean starch were 238.5 and 284.8. 6. Both swelling powers of corn and red bean starch were increased rapidly from $70^{\circ}C$ to $90^{\circ}C$. 7, Gelatinization of corn and red bean were 75.6 and $61.8^{\circ}C$. 8. Brabender hot-paste viscosities of corn at 6% and 8% showed the similar amylogrm patterns with peak viscosity. And red bean had no peak viscosity. 9. The difference of sensory characteristics for ‘Mook’ and kidney bean & red bean starch gels was significant.

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Fluorescence-labelling for analysis of protein in starch using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4)

  • Yoo, Yeongsuk;Choi, Jaeyeong;Zielke, Claudia;Nilsson, Lars;Lee, Seungho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2017
  • Starch is a mixture of amylose (AMY) and amylopectin (AMP) which are different in physical properties such as molar mass (M), rms radius ($R_g$) and hydrodynamic diameter ($d_H$). The rheological and functional properties of starch are influenced by various factors including the molecular size, molar mass distribution (MD) and the concentration ratio of AMY and AMP. It is also important to analyze proteinaceous material in starch as they affect the flavor and texture of food to which starch is added. In this study, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) was employed for separation and quantitation of AMY and AMP in starches (Amaranth, potato, taros and quinoa). AF4 was coupled with a multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and a refractive index (RI) detector for determination of the absolute M, MD and molecular structure. It was found that AMP has the M and $R_g$ ranging $3.7{\times}10^7{\sim}6.5{\times}10^8g/mol$ and 84 ~ 250 nm, respectively. Also the existence of branch was confirmed in higher M. In addition, proteinaceous material in starch was analyzed by AF4 coupled with a fluorescence detector (FS) after fluorescence-labeling. AF4-FS with fluorescence-labelling showed a potential for investigation on existence of proteinaceous material and the interaction between proteinaceous material and polysaccharide in starch.

Physicochemical Properties of Starches in Japonica Rices of Differenct Amylose Content (아밀로스 함량이 다른 자포니카 벼 품종의 전분 특성)

  • Song, Jin;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Deog-Su;Lee, Choon-Ki;Youn, Jong-Tag;Kim, Sun-Lim;Suh, Sae-Jung
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to find out starch properties of rice grains in three varieties with different amylose content, Ilpumbyeo (non-waxy), Goami2 (high amylose), and Hwasunchalbyeo (waxy rice). There was no difference among physico-chemical characteristics of rice grains, but Goami 2 showed $2{\sim}3$ folds higher crude fat (1.36%) than Ilpumbyeo. Pasting properties of RVA showed the highest values of maximum viscosity, breakdown, and final viscosity in Ilpumbyeo. A similar chain length distribution of amylopectin was found in Ilpumbyeo and Hwasunchalbyeo, indicating that DP 12 had the highest distribution. Goami 2 had the highest distribution in DP 14, and showed the lower percent (14.1%) than other rice cultivars. Thermal properties of DSC showed that the values of Tc and Tp of Hwasunchalbyeo were similar to Ilpumbyeo, whereas a slightly higher Tc was observed. The absorbtion enthalpy was also the highest (11.1 mJ/mg) in Hwasunchalbyeo. Goami 2 showed higher To, but the lowest enthalpy (6.52 mJ/mg) compared to Ilpumbyeo (7.92 mJ/mg). Retrogradation properties, which were measured with the gelatinized rice sample used for DSC, and stored in $4^{\circ}C$ during 6 days, indicated that retrogradation absorbtion peak was the first peak at $52.6{\sim}55.2^{\circ}C$, and the second peak above $95^{\circ}C$. Retrogradation enthalpy of Goami 2 was the highest value (5.12 mJ/mg).

A Study on the Physicochemical Properties of Buckwheat Starches (메밀 전분의 이화학적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Mi-Sook;Sohn, Kyung-Hee
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 1992
  • The physicochernical properties of Korean buckwheat starches were investigated. The results were as follows; 1. Water binding capacity of kangwon hull buckwheat starch was 106.55% and that of Kangwon rice buckwheat was 99.35%. 2. The pattern of change in swelling power of hull buckwheat starch for increasing temperature started to increase at 60$^{\circ}C$ and increased rapidly from 80$^{\circ}C$, and that of rice buckwheat increased slowly from 60$^{\circ}C$ to 90$^{\circ}C$. 3. The ranges of gelatinization temp. of hull buckwheat and rice buckwheat starches were 70~75$^{\circ}C$ and 75~85$^{\circ}C$, respectively. 4. The blue value of hull buckwheat starch and rice buckwheat starch were 6.25 and 0.62, respectively. 5. The alkali number of hull buckwheat starch and rice buckwheat starch were 1.28 and 3.68 respectively. 6. The amylose content of hull buckwheat and rice buckwheat starch were 32.26% and 38.09%. 7. Periodate oxidation of hull buckwheat starch resulted that amylose had me average molecular weight of 103, 004, degree of polymerizatlon of 572 and amylopectin had me degree of branching of 7.64, glucose unit per segment of 13.09, and periodate oxidation of rice buck wheat starch resulted mat amylose had me average molecular weight of 125, 654, degree of polymerization of 698 and amylopectin had degree of branching of 6.59, glucose unit per segment of 15.16.

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Some Physicochemical Properties of Large and Small Starch Granules of Barley (보리 전분의 대.소입자에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 1989
  • Large and small starch granules were isolated and characterized from kernels of Hiproly barley. Average size of large granules were $28-30{\mu}m$ and that of small granules were $6{\mu}m$. The small granules consist of 95% of total starch granules. Large granules contained more amylose than small granules. Distribution of isoamylase-debranched starch components, X-ray diffraction patterns, gelatinization characteristics by differential scanning calorimetry, and starch-granule susceptibility to acid were investigated. Large granules contained more long B chains of amylopectin and had the lower ratios of Fr. III to Fr. II , which represent one of the structural characteristics of amylopectin, than those of small granules. Small granules had higher conclusion temperature and smaller heat of gelatinization than those of large granules by D.S.C.. Both granules had A-type pattern of X-ray diffractopgrams, but hydrolysis of granules with acid showed different A-type patterns between large and small granules.

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