• Title/Summary/Keyword: amylopectin

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Starch Properties of Daehak Waxy Corn with Different Harvest Times (수확시기에 따른 대학찰옥수수의 전분특성)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Hwang, In-Guk;Kim, Hyun-Young;Lee, Ha-Kyu;Lee, Seong-Hee;Woo, Seon-Hee;Lee, Jun-Soo;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.573-579
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    • 2010
  • This study investigated starch properties of 'Daehak waxy corn (DWC)' with different harvest times. The DWCs were harvested at 4 days before suitable time (BST), suitable time (ST) and 4 days after suitable time (AST). As harvest time was delayed, starch yield and amylopectin content of DWC starch increased from 43.21 to 52.73%, and from 90.79 to 92.83% based on dry weight, respectively. As harvest time was postponed, enzymatic digestibility and water solubility of DWC starch decreased from 81.43 to 80.58%, and from 10.23 to 9.23%. However, water binding capacity and swelling power of DWC starch increased from 227.94 to 244.88%, and from 24.75 to 29.74%, respectively. Retrogradation viscosity of starch was the lowest in DWC harvested at AST. There was a high correlation coefficient among starch properties of DWC, such as starch yield, enzymatic digestibility, water binding capacity, swelling power, water solubility and retrogradation viscosity (p<0.01). As harvest time was deferred, enzymatic digestibility, water solubility and retrogradation viscosity decreased; however, amylopectin content increased, and water binding capacity and swelling power significantly increased with increasing amylopectin content.

A Study on the Gelation of Starch (전분의 젤화에 관한 연구 -강남콩 조전분 및 정제전분의 이화학적 특성-)

  • 이진영;안승요;이혜수
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 1987
  • The physicochemical properties of kidney bean crude and refined starch were investigated. The results were as follows : Amylose content of refined starch was 77%. Blue values of crude and refined starch were 0.375 and 0.410, respectively. Ferricyanide numbers of crude and refined starch were 1.00 and 1.94, respectively, and alkalinumbers of crude and refined starch were 8.67 and 6.90, respectively. Amylose had molecular weight of 18067 and degree of polymerization was 112. Amylopectin had degree of branching of 3.7 per 100 glucose units and glucose units of 27 per segment of amylopectin. Water binding capacities of crude and refined starch were 202.1% and 169.4%, respectively. Both swelling powers of crude and refined starch were increased rapidly from $70^{\circ}C$ to $90^{\circ}C$ and their curves showed a single-stage pattern. The optical transmittance of 0.2% crude starch suspension was increased rapidly from $80^{\circ}C$ to $83^{\circ}C$ and that of 0.2% refined starch suspension was increased rapidly from $77^{\circ}C$ to $83^{\circ}C$. Brabender hot-paste viscosities of crude and refined starch at 6% and 8% concentation (solid basis) showed the similar amylogram patterns of c type with no peak vircosity.

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Microstructural Changes of Starch Aqueous Solutions during Gelatinization and Retrogradation Studied through X-ray Scattering (X-선 산란을 이용한 전분의 호화와 노화 과정중의 미세구조 변화)

  • Kang, Min Kwan;Jeon, Hye-Jin;Song, Hyun Hoon
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2014
  • Microstructural changes of potato and corn starch aqueous solutions associated with their gelatinization and retrogradation processes were examined through the use of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It was found that the structural changes during these two processes were dominantly affected by the amount of phospholipids and phosphates contained in the starch. The phosphates contained in the amylopectin of the starch granule allow easy penetration of water into the structure, thus causing easy swelling or high solubility. This simultaneously allows greater freedom of chains, thus causing the recrystallization of the chains during the retrogradation process. On the other hand, in corn starch, which contains a lower amount of phosphates and a complex structure formed between phospholipid and amylose, the chain movements are much reduced, resulting in a higher gelatinization temperature and a reduction of recrystallization during retrogradation and a broad distribution of crystal size. In both starches, a micro-phase separated inhomogeneous structure was suggested in the amorphous state above the gelatinization temperature, which appears to be associated with the presence of highly branched amylopectin units.

Characterization of amylopectins isolated from dry and moist type sweet potato starch (분질 및 점질 고구마 전분의 아밀로펙틴 특성)

  • Kim, Sung-Ran;Ahn, Seung-Yo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.26-31
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    • 1991
  • The physicochemical properties of starches from dry(Suwon 147) and moist type(Hwangmi) sweet potato were investigated and molecular structural properties of their amylopectins were also studied by gel chromatography. Suwon 147 starch bad lower swelling power and higher gelatinization temperature than Hwangmi starch. $\beta-Amylolysis\;limit(%)$ of Suwon 147 and Hwangmi amylopectin were 57.6% and 57.0%, respectively. Average unit chain length of amylopectins were 24.8 glucose units for Suwon 147 and 21.9 for Hwangmi. The elution profiles by Sephadex G-50 after debranched amylopectins of the two starches were similar but DPs of each peak were different.

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Legal Aspects for Quality Evaluation Standard of Plant Variety and Seed (식물 품종 및 종자의 품질평가 기준에 대한 규정현황)

  • 최근진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47
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    • pp.200-215
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    • 2002
  • There are some international standards and organization controling the quality characteristics of varieties and seeds such as UPOV, OECD, ISTA, AOSA. The National List system to check variety performance such as quality characteristics of plant varieties and seeds was established by each countries. The UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New varieties of Plant) regulates the requirement of plant variety protection that is distinctness (D), uniformity (U), stability (S) (here in after called DUS), Novelty and Denomination, and some quality characteristics are used to examine the requirement of plant variety protection by each crops. OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation Development) seed scheme regulates the seed certification for seed trade between countries. ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) and AOSA(Association for Official Seed Analyst) regulates the seed analysis standard and methods. Most of the countries in Europe has the National List system, which check the value for cultivation and use(VCU), that is to say, variety performance such as yield, quality and stress to environment. All the seeds should be enlisted in the National List before sell the seed in their country. All the quality characteristics checked variety performance are for instance, amylose and amylopectin content in rice, molting quality, $\beta$-glucan, protein in barley, protein and sugar content in soybean, sugar and amylopectin content in corn etc. Conditions for the protection of new variety of plant are DUS. Quality characteristics may be the important characteristics and used to check DUS in crop by crop. It is very important to develop a new characteristics and establish standard method fur examine the VCU and DUS test for each crop.

Varietal Variations in Physicochemical Characteristics and Amylopectin Structure of Grain in Glutinous Rice

  • Choi, Hae-Chune;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Gyu;Nahm, Baek-Hie
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1999
  • Thirty-eight glutinous rice varieties were classified into nine groups on the scatter diagram by the upper two principal components (56% contribution to the total information) based on eleven physicochemical characteristics including the viscograms and physical properties of cooked rice. The first principal component was the factor mainly associated with the viscogram characteristics of rice flour emulsion and the second was the factor chiefly related to the physical properties of cooked rice and water absorbability of rice grain. Indica glutinous rices were clearly distinguished from japonica ones by the first principal component score. Javanica glutinous rices were widely distributed on the intermediate zone between indica and japonica or on several japonica rice groups. Significant positive or negative correlations were found among water absorption rates of rice grain, physical properties of cooked rice, and viscogram characteristics of rice flour. Especially in japonica glutinous rices, the breakdown and setback viscosities of rice flour were closely associated with the alkali digestion value of milled rice and the stickiness of cooked rice. The frequency ratio of short glucose chains (A-chain) to intermediate glucose chains (B-chain), the ratio of B- chains to long glucose chains (C-chain) and the relative frequency of A- or B-chain fractions representing the amylopection structure of rice starch was closely associated with the breakdown and setback viscosities of rice flour.

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Effect of Protein and Degree of Oxidation on Viscoelastic Behavior of Corn Starch Gel (산화정도와 단백질 첨가에 따른 산화 옥수수 전분 겔의 유동특성)

  • 한진숙;박귀선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1046-1052
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    • 2003
  • Viscoelastic behavior of oxidized starch gel, modified with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and the adding effects of protein in oxidized starch gel was studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurement. The storage modulus(G′) of starch gel increased with the increase of starch concentration. They showed higher value when starch suspension was treated to 95$^{\circ}C$ rather than 85$^{\circ}C$. Consistency of starch gel was decreased over 1.0% active Cl/g starch when heated to 95$^{\circ}C$, which means that the swelling of starch granules increased with concentration of NaOCl and showed more sensitive against shear. As the extent of oxidation increased, starch granules were easily destroyed. Therefore, it is hard to separate between compartment of leached-out amylose and that of amylopectin, which means that the ability of gel formation was reduced. When oxidized starches were gelatinized in presence of soy protein and sodium caseinate, it was found that G′ decreased, and frequency dependence of G′ and G" increased with the increased degree of oxidation in starch. The reduce of starch-protein interaction was thought to be through the dissociation of the branched amylopectin, which playa leading role in protein interaction, with the oxidation of starch.

Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Properties of (8-Cholesteryloxycarbonyl)heptanoated Polysaccharides ((8-콜레스테릴옥시카보닐)헵타노화 다당류들의 열방성 액정 특성)

  • Jeong Seung-Yong;Ma Yung-Dae
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.338-349
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    • 2006
  • Fully or nearly fully(8-cholesteryloxycarbonyl)heptanoated polysaccharide derivatives were synthesized by reacting cellulose, amylose, chitosan, chitin, alginic acid, pullulan or amylopectin with (8-cholesteryloxycarbonyl)heptanoyl chloride (CH8C), and their thermotropic liquid crystalline behaviors were investigated. Like in the case of CH8C, all the polysaccharide derivatives formed monotropic cholesteric phases with left-handed helicoidal structures whose optical pitches $({\lambda_m}'s)$ decrease with increasing temperature. Amylopectin derivative also formed a monotropic cholesteric phase with lefthanded helicoidal structures but, in contrast with the other derivatives, did not display reflection colors over the full cholesteric range, suggesting that the helicoidal twisting power of the cholesteryl group highly depends on the branched structure in amylopectin. The thermal stability and degree of order in the mesophase, the magnitude of ${\lambda}_m$ at the same temperature, and the temperature dependence of the ${\lambda}_m$ observed for polysaccharide derivatives were entirely different from those reported for the polymers in which the cholesteryl groups are attached to flexible or semiflexible backbones through flexible spacers. The results were discussed in terms of the difference in the chemical structures of the main and side chains and flexibility of the main chain.

Structural Characteristics of Kidney Bean Starch (강낭콩 전분의 분자구조적 특성)

  • Kim, Kwan;Kang, Kil-Jin;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.521-527
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    • 1996
  • Some structural characteristics of kidney bean starches (3 varieties : Pink kidney bean, Red kidney bean and White kidney bean) were investigated. The amylose content and the ${\beta}$-amylolysis limit of kidney bean starches were $32.6{\sim}34.5%$ and $69.9{\sim}71.0%$, respectively. The kidney bean amylopectin was composed of super long chain of ${\overline{DP}}$ above 60 ($5.28{\sim}12.62%$), B chain of ${\overline{DP}}$ $45{\sim}60\;(29.85{\sim}33.65%)$ and A chain of ${\overline{DP}}\;10{\sim}20(22.94{\sim}29.85%).$ The chain distribution of kidney bean starches were different from variety to variety. The acid (2.2 NHCI) hydrolysis of kidney bean starches showed, as hydrolysis time increased, the patterns of three stages. The acid hydrolysis rate and iodine reaction of acid treated starches were different from variety to variety As acid hydrolysis time increased, the amylose and the ${\alpha}$-1.6-glucosidic linkage of amylopectin of amorphous state were gradually hydrolyzed. Finally, the chain of ${\overline{DP}}$ 20 of crystalline state was left in the acid treated starches.

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