• Title/Summary/Keyword: amylopectin

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Studies on the Degree of Polymerization of Amylopectin and Texture Analysis Test of Brown Rice After Germination (발아에 따른 현미의 아밀로펙틴 중합도와 식감관련 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Ha;Yoon, Soon-Duck;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Won, Yong-Jae;Choi, Induck;Park, Hye-Young;Woo, Koan-Sik;Oh, Sea-Kwan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate quality properties, including amylopectin content, and texture analysis of brown rice and germinated brown rice cultivars in Korea for rice processing products. The amylopectin short chain content of germinated brown rice was significantly higher than that of brown rice. Texture analysis test showed that germinated brown rice Jinbo had the lowest hardness and toughness as well as and highest stickiness and adhesiveness. The correlation between degree of polymerization of amylopectin and texture analysis was also evaluated. In particular, germinated brown rice, short-chain amylopectin showed a negative correlation with hardness and toughness, whereas long-chain amylopectin showed a positive correlation with hardness, toughness, and adhesiveness. These results indicate that there is a relationship between degree of polymerization and texture analysis.

Influence of Harvest Time on Pasting Properties of Starch in Colored Rice

  • Kim, Sang-Kuk;Song, Young-Un;Kim, Se-Jong;Shin, Jong-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.62 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2017
  • The relationship between mean air temperature after heading and starch characteristics of colored rice grains was investigated using three colored rice cultivars. Pasting temperature within each rice cultivar with different harvest times differed. The pasting temperatures of two rice cultivars, Hongjinju and Joseongheugchal, reached the highest at 40 days after heading and decreased during the late harvest time. Distribution of amylopectin in the Hongjinju rice cultivar at the earlier harvest time contained a greater number of very short chains with the degree of polymerization (DP) between 6 and 12 and fewer chains with a DP from 13 to 24 than that of the later harvest time. However, there was little difference in the distribution of the longer chains of $25{\leq}DP{\geq}36$ and $37{\leq}DP$ for latter harvest times compared to that of the earlier ones. It was suggested that the structure of amylopectin affected the varietal differences in patterns of chain length of amylopectin during grain filling. In addition, the control of ripening was different from that causing the pigment effects in the fine structure of amylopectin in the three colored rice cultivars. Larger starch granules were observed in the Joseongheugchal rice cultivar and smaller granules occurred in the Hongjinju rice cultivar. The present study revealed that later harvest times led to a clear increase in the mean granule size of starch in the three colored rice cultivars.

Gelatinization Properties and Molecular Structure of Waxy Rice Starches Isolated from Korean Japonica and Indica Cultivars (국내산 자포니카와 인디카 품종 찹쌀전분의 호화특성과 분자구조)

  • Oh, Song Min;No, Jun Hee;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.716-725
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    • 2014
  • Gelatinization properties and the molecular structure of Korean waxy rice starchesisolated from two japonica types, Sinseonchal, and Dongjinchal, as well as an indica type, Hangangchal 1 were investigated. Sinseonchal is preferred cultivar for making Korean traditional rice cakes and cookies. Sinseonchal starch was the highest in crude protein, amylopectin, damaged starch contents, and water binding capacity among the cultivars tested. The initial pasting temperature ($72.75^{\circ}C$), peak (360.54 RVU), breakdown (162.21 RVU) and setback (30.83 RVU) viscosities of Sinseonchal had the highest values (p<0.05). Onset and peak temperatures by differential scanning calorimeter were also the highest in Sinseonchal. The molecular weight of Sinseonchal amylopectin was 5.46 107higher than those of the other cultivars, but its peak height and area were the lowest among them. The amylopectin peak by HPSEC showed a shoulder in the lower molecular weight portion and its relative area decreased in the following order; Sinseonchal > Dongjinchal > Hangangchal 1. On the branch chain length distribution of amylopectin, the proportion of DP13-24 and DP25-36 showed reverse trends, with higher japonica type amylopectin in DP13-24.

Effects of different amylose to amylopectin ratios on rumen fermentation and development in fattening lambs

  • Zhao, Fangfang;Ren, Wen;Zhang, Aizhong;Jiang, Ning;Liu, Wen;Wang, Faming
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.10
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    • pp.1611-1618
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of different amylose/amylopectin ratios on rumen fermentation and development of fattening lambs. Methods: Forty-eight 7-day-old male Small-tailed Han sheep${\times}$Northeast fine wool sheep were randomly assigned to four treatments of dietary amylose/amylopectin ratios (0.12, 0.23, 0.24, and 0.48 in tapioca starch, corn starch, wheat starch and pea starch diets, respectively). Three lambs from each treatment were slaughtered at 21, 35, 56, and 77 days of age to determine the rumen fermentation and development. Results: Compared with tapioca starch diet, the pea starch diet significantly increased the concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid of lambs but significantly decreased the bacterial protein content. At 56 and 77 d, the rumen propionate concentration tended to be greatest in the tapioca starch group than in other groups. The rumen butyrate concentration was the greatest in lambs fed on pea starch compared with those fed on other starch diets. Furthermore, the pea starch diet significantly stimulated rumen development by increasing the papillae height, width and surface area in the rumen ventral or dorsal locations in lambs. However, different amylose/amylopectin ratios diets did not significantly affect the feed intake, body weight, average daily gain, the relative weight and capacity of the rumen in lambs with increasing length of trial periods. Conclusion: Lambs early supplemented with a high amylose/amylopectin ratio diet had favourable morphological development of rumen epithelium, which was not conducive to bacterial protein synthesis.

Physiological Properties of Two Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars: Odae and Ilpum

  • Cho, Hye-Jeong;Heo, Kweon;Umemoto, Takayuki;Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 2007
  • The properties of two cultivars of japonica rice, Odae (early ripening variety) and Ilpum (late ripening variety), were compared. They grew on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium but the growth of both cultivars was strongly retarded by 50 mM or more salt. There was no clear difference between the growths of seedlings of the two cultivars for the first 24 h after germination. The amylopectin chain-length profiles of the two cultivars did not differ significantly, and amylopectin content was estimated at $16.0{\pm}0.4%$ in cv. Odae and $16.4{\pm}0.4%$ in cv. Ilpum. A total of 114 RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) fragments ranging from 0.4 to 2.5 kb were isolated from the two cultivars, 61 from cv. Odae and 53 from cv. Ilpum, indicating that there is little genetic variation between them.

Growth, Feed Utilization and Blood Metabolic Responses to Different Amylose-amylopectin Ratio Fed Diets in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

  • Chen, Meng-Yao;Ye, Ji-Dan;Yang, Wei;Wang, Kun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.1160-1171
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    • 2013
  • A feeding trial was conducted in tilapia to determine the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, and postprandial blood metabolites in response to different dietary amylose-amylopectin ratios. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets containing an equal starch level with different amylose-amylopectin ratios of 0.11 (diet 1), 0.24 (diet 2), 0.47 (diet 3), 0.76 (diet 4) and 0.98 (diet 5) were formulated using high-amylose corn starch (as the amylose source) and waxy rice (as the amylopectin source). Each diet was hand-fed to six tanks of 15 fish each, three times a day over a 6-wk period. After the growth trial, a postprandial blood metabolic test was carried out. Fish fed diet 2 exhibited the highest percent weight gain and feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio, whereas fish fed with diet 5 showed the lowest growth and feed utilization among treatments. The digestibility for starch in fish fed diet 1 and 2 was higher than those in fish fed with other diets (p<0.05). The highest activities for protease, lipase and amylase were found in fish fed the diet 2, diet 1, and diet 1 respectively among dietary treatments, while the lowest values for these indexes were observed in fish fed the diet 3, diet 5 and diet 4, respectively. The liver glycogen concentrations in fish fed diets 4 and 5 were found higher than in fish fed other diets (p<0.05). The feeding rate, hepatosomatic index, condition factor, and plasma parmeters (glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) did not differ across treatments. In terms of postprandial blood responses, peak blood glucose and triglycerides were lower after 3 or 6 h in the fish fed with diets 3-5 than in the fish fed diet 1, but delayed peak blood total amino acid time was observed in fish fed with the diets 1 or 2. The lowest peak values for each of the three blood metabolites were observed in fish fed diet 5. The results indicate that high-dietary amylose-amylopectin ratio could compromise growth, but help in reducing the blood glucose stress on fish caused by postprandial starch load.

Structural Properties of Rice Starch and Its Components (쌀전분과 그 구성 성분의 분자구조적 성질)

  • Cho, Hyung-Yong;Lee, Shin-Young;Yang, Ryung;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 1987
  • The structral properties of rice starch and its components were investigated. The intrinsic viscosities of rice starch, amylose and amylopectin solutions were 1.053, 1.772 and 1.596 ml/g, respectively. ${\beta}-amlolysis$ limits of rice starch was 73% and those of amylose and amylopectin were 106 and 56%, respectively. The outer chain length $({\overline{OCL}})$ and inner chain length $({\overline{ICL}})$ of amylopectin were 1.56 and 7.7, respectivety. Debranching of rice starch with pullulanase yield two peaks on Sephadex G-75. The peak I at void volume was principally amylose components and peak II at ${\overline{dp}}$ 25-10, constituted of branched amylopectin. However, the elution profile of debranched amylopectin by pullulanase revealed a bimodal peak distribution at ${\overline{dp}}$ 35-25 hydrolyers and ${\overline{dp}}$ 25-10, and no distinct peak at void volume. The elution profile of the debranched, ${\beta}-amylase$ hydrolyrates of starch and amylopectin yielded major peak at ${\overline{dp}}$ 2-10.

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Molecular Structural Properties of Chindo Black Rice Starch (진도산 검정쌀 전분의 분자구조적 특성)

  • Park, Jong-Hoon;Oh, Keum-Soon;Kang, Kil-Jin;Kim, Kwan
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2000
  • In order to investigate structural properties of Chindo black rice(grown in Chindo, Chonnam) starch and its amylopectin, Chindo black rice was investigated in comparison to Shinsun waxy rice. The maximum absorbance wave and intrinsic viscosity of Chindo black rice starch and Shinsun waxy rice starch were 523 nm, 521 nm and 183 ml/g, 178 ml/g, respectively. ${\beta}-amylolysis$ limit(%) of Chindo black rice and Shinsun waxy rice starch were 62.8% and 60.3%, respectively. Chindo black rice was determined to be a waxy rice due to the results of iodine reaction and elution profile on Sephroce CL-2B. The chain of amylopectins in Chindo black rice distributed fraction 1$(F_1)$ of above degree of polymerization$({\overline{DP}})$ 55, fraction 2$(F_2)$ of ${\overline{DP}} $40{\sim}50$ and fraction 3$(F_3)$ of ${\overline{DP}} $15{\sim}20$, and the ratio of $F_3$ to $F_2$ for Chindo black rice was higher than that for Shinsun waxy rice. The super long chain of amylopectin in Chindo black rice was consisted much more than that of Shinsun waxy rice. ${\beta}-limit$ dextrins in Chindo black rice amylopectin distributed $F_1$ of above ${\overline{DP}} 55, $F_2$ of ${\overline{DP}} $30{\sim}45$ and $F_3$ of ${\overline{DP}} $10{\sim}20$. Little difference was shown between elution patterns of the pullulanase treated ${\beta}-limit$ dextrins of Chindo black rice amylopectin and Shinsun waxy rice amylopectin. These results suggest that Chindo black rice starch was similar to Shinsun waxy rice starch.

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Effects of harvesting times on pasting properties of starch in colored rices

  • Kim, Sang Kuk;Song, Young Un;Shin, Jong Hee;Kim, Se Jong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.329-329
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    • 2017
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different harvesting time on pasting properties of starch in three colored rices. Seven major parameters of starch pasting properties, peak viscosity (PKV), hot pasting viscosity (HPV), cool pasting viscosity (CPV), setback (CPV minus PKV), breakdown (PKV minus HPV), peak time, and pasting time were determined by Rapid Visco Analyzer. The peak viscosity, hot viscosity, cool viscosity and peak time were influenced by different harvesting times. Pasting time was delayed slightly with prolonged harvesting time in all rice cultivars. Pasting temperature in each rice cultivar differed from each harvesting time, and pasting temperature of the two rice cultivars, Hongjinju and Joseongheugchal, showed the highest at the 40 days after heading and then it decreased at the final harvesting time. With the delay of the harvesting time, peak viscosity, hot viscosity, cool viscosity, setback value and pasting temperature did not exhibit a regular trend depending on their genetic characteristics. Branch chain length distribution of amylopectin was demonstrated a distinct difference among these colored rices. In changes of amylopectin branch chain-length distribution, the amylopectin structure of Hongjinju rice cultivar as affected by different harvesting time, the shortest chain length of amylopectin in rice starch harvested at 20 days after heading was characterized by the significant increase in A chains with $DP{\geq}12$ and remarked decrease in long chains $37{\leq}DP$ compared to that of 30, 40, and 50 days after heading. In particular, when harvesting time is delayed the distribution percentage of short chain (A chains with $DP{\geq}12$) was increased except for the rice which harvested 20 days after heading. The similar results were also observed in Sintoheugmi rice cultivar like that of Hongjinju rice cultivar. Otherwise, distribution percentage of the shortest chain length of amylopectin in rice starch harvested at 20 days after heading was characterized by the significant decrease in A chains with $DP{\geq}12$ and remarked increase in B chains $13{\leq}DP{\geq}24$ compared to that of 30, 40, and 50 days after heading.

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