• Title/Summary/Keyword: amylopectin

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Changes in Amylopectin Structure and Pasting Properties of Starch as Affected by Different Transplanting Dates in Rice

  • Kim, Sang-Kuk;Shin, Jong-Hee;Ahn, Deuk-Jong;Kim, Se-Jong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.235-241
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    • 2016
  • Three different transplanting dates for two rice cultivars grown in Daegu, Republic of Korea, were examined to identify the changes in growth, rice quality, and characteristics of amylopectin. An early transplanting date caused a reduction in the number of panicles in both rice cultivars compared to that in the optimal and late transplanting dates. The 1000-grain weight in the two rice cultivars was significantly increased in the late transplanting date. The rice cultivar tolerant to high temperatures, Donganbyeo, exhibited the lowest milky grain rate in the late transplanting date. The highest rate of head grain was observed in the late transplanting date in both rice cultivars. Regarding the pattern of pasting properties, peak viscosity increased with delayed transplanting dates. With respect to changes in the amylopectin branch-chain length distribution, the amylopectin structure of the translucent Dongan rice cultivar transplanted on April 25 was characterized by a significant increase in A chains with DP > 12, and a decrease in long chains $DP{\geq}37$ compared to that transplanted on June 25. In contrast, the amylopectin structure of the chalky Dongan rice cultivar transplanted on April 25 exhibited further decrease in 13 < DP < 19 than that transplanted on June 25. In the Ungwang rice cultivar, the amylopectin structure of the translucent Ungwang rice cultivar transplanted on April 25 and June 25 was characterized by a significant decrease in the lengths of total amylopectin chains. Furthermore, the amylopectin structure of the chalky Ungwangbyeo rice cultivar transplanted on April 25 was characterized by a significant increase in 7 < DP < 30, while a significant decrease was observed in that transplanted on June 25. These results indicate that the amylopectin structure is altered by different transplanting dates depending on the characteristics of the rice cultivar.

Relationship between Molecular Structure of Rice Amylopectin and Texture of Cooked Rice (쌀의 아밀로펙틴 분자구조와 밥의 텍스쳐)

  • Kang, Kil-Jin;Kim, Kwan;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 1995
  • The relationship betwwen the molecular structure of amylopectin and the texture of cooked rice was investigated using Korean rice [3 varieties of Japonica type and 3 varieties of Tongil type(Japonica-Indica breeding type)]. The molecular structure of rice amylopectin was polymodal and distributed A chain of $\overline{DP}$ 12.4, short B chain of $\overline{DP}$ 20.6, B chain of $\overline{DP}$ 26.3, long B chain of $\overline{DP}$ 45 and super long chain of above $\overline{DP}$ 55. The super long chain of amylopectin was composed of long linear chain with poorly branched chain. Also, the super long chain of amylopectin showed positive correlated with average chain length, inherent viscosity and ${\beta}-amyloysis$ limit$({\%})$, but negative correlated with ${\lambda}max$ of iodine reaction of amylopectin. The structural properties of amylopectin in Japonica type were different from those of amylopectin in Tongil type. In relationship between molecular structure of amylopectin and texture of cooked rice, the average chain length, inherent viscosity, ${\beta}-amyloysis$ limit and super long chain of amylopectin was showed a positive correlation with hardness, but a negative correlation with adhesiveness of cooked rice. The long chain of rice amylopectin is the less, the eating quality of cooled rice was the better. These results suggest that the molecular structure of rice amylopectin could be responsible for the texture of cooked rice.

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A Study on the Molecular Weight Distribution of Starch (전분의 분자량 분포도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Kyeong-Yee
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.496-502
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    • 2004
  • Purified acorn starch was obtained from alkali precipitation method. Acorn amylose and acorn amylopectin were fractionated from purified acorn starch by butanol improvement method. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to measure molecular weight distribution of acorn starch, acorn amylose, acorn amylopectin and corn starch, corn amylose, corn amylopectin. GPC measurement diagrams were obtained by each retention time. And then, we used DMSO and DMF as solvent, pullulan as standard material. We calculated the Number-average molar mass (Mn), Weight-average molar mass (Mw) and polydispersity from molecular weight distribution of each sample. As a result of estimating molecular weight using GPC, Mw of amylose has small value than Mw of amylopectin. From this fact, the molecular structural aspects of amylose and amylopectin were predicted and it was in good agrement with the tendency of polydispersity by GPC. The polydispersity of starch had big value than amylose and amylopectin, from this result, it might be known that the range of molecular weight appeared broad by heterogeneous properties of two components. The viscosity of purified acorn starch, amylose, amylopectin seperated from acorn starch, was decreased by increasing the shear rate and raising the temperature exponentially. Acorn starch solutions exhibited pseudoplastic power law fluid behavior.

Microstructure of Recombinated Gels of Amylose and Amylopectin Isolated from Rice Starch (쌀전분으로부터 분리한 아밀로오스와 아밀로펙틴 혼합겔의 형태학적 구조)

  • Baek, Man-Hee;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.1171-1177
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    • 1999
  • The changes on microstucture of recombinated gels with different ratio of amylose(A) and amylopectin(AP) which were isolated from nonwaxy rice starch were investigated by scanning electron microscope(SEM) and X-ray diffractometer. As the concentration of amylose was above 3%(1.08% of soluble amylose) in the amylose suspension, gel matrix became like a three-dimensional network. The microstructure of amylose gels showed a network including macroporous structure, but the higher the ratio of amylopectin content were, the firmer network were formed. In case of A/AP mixed gels(15%) with different amylose/amylopectin percent ratios ; 0/5, 5/10, 10/5, 15/0%, as the storage time of gels and the percent ratio of amylose content were increased, network was formed harder with thick films. While X-ray diffractograms of waxy rice starch which contained 100% amylopectin showed A type, those of purified amylose and amylopectin showed V type and amorphous patterns, respectively. Amylose(3%) gels added $2{\sim}3%$ amylopectin and A/AP mixed gels(15%) showed peak at $2{\theta}\;=\;17.0^{\circ}$which were shown B type crystallinity similar af retrograded starches. Also as the percent ratio of amylose content in mixed gels was increased, peak intensity wat increased.

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Enzymatic Production of Amylopectin Cluster Using Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase (Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase를 이용한 아밀로펙틴 클러스터의 생산)

  • Lee, Hye-Won;Jeon, Hye-Yeon;Choi, Hyejeong;Shim, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.9
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    • pp.1388-1393
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    • 2014
  • To enzymatically prepare amylopectin cluster (APC), cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase I-5) and its mutant enzyme from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. I-5 were employed, after which the hydrolysis patterns of CGTase wild-type and its mutant enzyme toward amylopectin were investigated using multi-angle laser light scattering. CGTase wild-type dramatically reduced the molecular weight of waxy rice starch at the initial reaction, whereas the mutant enzyme degraded waxy rice starch relatively slowly. Based on the results, the molecular weight of one cluster of amylopectin could be about $10^4{\sim}10^5g/mol$. To determine production of cyclic glucans from amylopectin, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed. CGTase I-5 produced various types of cyclic maltooligosaccharides from amylopectin, whereas the mutant enzyme hardly produced any.

Characteristics of Wheat Flour Dough and Noodles with Amylopectin Content and Hydrocolloids (아밀로펙틴 함량 변화와 하이드로콜로이드 첨가에 의한 밀가루 반죽 및 국수의 특성)

  • Cho, Young-Hwa;Shim, Jae-Yong;Lee, Hyeon-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2007
  • The effects of amylopectin and hydrocolloid (locust bean gum and guar gum) content on wheat flour dough and noodle properties were investigated. As the amount of amylopectin increased, the water absorption rate (farinograph), the tension (tension test), the gel stability (freeze-thawing treatment), and the springiness and the cohesiveness (TPA) increased, but the pasting temperature (RVA), the lightness and yellowness (color measurement), and the hardness (TPA) tended to decrease. In sensory evaluations, the scores for cohesiveness, springiness, and acceptability of cooked noodle increased as the proportion of amylopectin increased. The proper combination of amylose/amylopectin ratio and hydrocolloids improved the freeze-thaw stability and the sensory acceptability of wheat flour dough and noodle.

Physicochemical Properties of Starch Affected by Molecular Composition and Structures: A Review

  • Srichuwong, Sathaporn;Jane, Jay-Iin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.663-674
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    • 2007
  • Starches from different botanical sources differ in the ratio of amylose to amylopectin contents, molecular structures of amylose and amylopectin, granule morphology, and minor-component contents. These structural features result in different gelatinization, pasting, retrogradation properties, and enzyme digestibility of starch granules. In this review, compositions and molecular structures of starches and their effects on the physicochemical properties are summarized and discussed.

Effect of Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate on Complex Formation with Amylopectin and on Gelatinization and Retrogradation of Wheat Starch (Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate가 아밀로펙틴과의 결합물 형성 및 밀전분의 호화와 노화에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jae-Kweon;Lee, Yun-Hyung;Lee, Seok-Hoon;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.500-506
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    • 2000
  • The effects of sodium stearoyl lactylate(SSL) on the thermal properties of wheat starch and amylopectin, and the crystallinity properties of amylopectin were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and X-ray diffractometer. On the rescan(second heating), amylopectin produced the featureless thermogram shown at the second heating, and SSL alone melted at $40{\sim}55^{\circ}C$, while the mixture of amylopectin containing 8% water and SSL(10:1), presenting the evidence of AP-SSL complex, showed differentiate melting temperature(other crystallinity) from SSL alone. Also, the melting enthalpy of AP and SSL mixture by subsequent heating and cooling were continuously increased. Further, the mixtures of wheat starch: SSL (5:1, w/w) and amylopectin: SSL(5:1, w/w), indicated AP-SSL complex, showed the reversible melting peak at temperature range of $60{\sim}70^{\circ}C$ together with melting peak of SSL observed at temperature range of $40{\sim}55^{\circ}C$. AP-SSL complex in the X-ray diffraction, compared V-form of amylose-lipid complex, exhibited characteristic peaks($2{\theta}$, 5.57, 20.903, 23.227). The gelatinization enthalpy value of wheat starch in the presence of SSL, observed at temperature range of $50{\sim}70^{\circ}C$, was decreased at total water content 60%, whearas had no significant effect at total water content 40, 50%, and also, SSL increased melting enthalpy of amylose-lipid complex. The extent of AP and wheat starch retrogradation wasreduced significantly by SSL.

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Molecular Structure of Sorghum and Waxy Sorghum Starches

  • Han, Young-Joo;Park, Jong-Tae;Le, Quang Tri;Shim, Jae-Hoon;Nguyen, Van Dao;Kim, Yong-Ro;Park, Kwan-Hwa
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.176-179
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    • 2008
  • Amylose contents and amylopectin chain architecture of sorghmn and waxy sorghum starches were determined and compared with those of other common cereal and tuber starches. Also, in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch was estimated using a novel methodology. The absolute amylose content of sorghum starch was similar to that of com and wheat starches. The side chain length distribution patterns for sorghum and waxy sorghum amylopectin were very similar to those of com and waxy com, respectively. The $k_{cat}/K_m$ values for sorghum and potato amylopectin did not show a significant difference. The kinetic parameters could be used as novel indicators for starch digestibility.

Influence of Different Transplanting Dates on Amylopectin Branch-chain-length and Pasting Properties of Rice Flour Varieties

  • Han, Chae-Min;Shin, Jong-Hee;Kim, Sang-Kuk;Kwon, Tae-Young;KIM, Jong-Sang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.210-218
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to examine the influence of different transplanting dates on rice quality and starch properties (morphology and pasting properties) of rice varieties that may be used for the production of rice flour. Three rice flour varieties, 'Seolgaeng', 'Hangaru', and 'Milyang317', were transplanted on May 20, May 30, June 10, and June 20. The peak viscosity decreased with a delay in the transplanting date. However, the amylose content increased with a delay in the transplanting date, whereas that of protein decreased. Amylopectin short-branch chain content increased in the rice varieties that were transplanted on May 30. The morphology of the starch granule of the varieties was determined by SEM. No apparent external difference in the starch granules was observed for the different transplanting dates. These results indicate that the transplanting date influenced the amylopectin structure and pasting properties, which led to changes in the physicochemical characteristics of rice starch.