• Title, Summary, Keyword: amphibian

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Active Polypeptides in Korean Amphibian Skin Extracts (한국산 양서류피부의 생물학적활성물질에 관한 검색)

  • Cho, T.S.;Lee, W.C.;Hong, S.S.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.15-18
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    • 1975
  • The effect of skin extracts of Korean amphibian, poisonous snake and fresh-water fish were determined for their caerulein-like action on rabbit gall bladder strips. The isolated gall bladder strips were prepared according to the technique described by Amer and Becvar(1969). The strips were placed in a bath containing 100ml of Locke-Ringer solution maintained at $38^{\circ}C$. Oxygen was continuously bubbled through the solution. The tension of the muscle strip was initially adjusted to 0.7g. The contractile response was measured isometrically by a force-displacement transducer connected to a polygraph. In this rabbit gall bladder strip caerulein produced contraction of CCK-PZ type. The skin extract of Korean amphibian also elicited similar contraction as caerulein, which extracted from Australian amphibian, Hyla caerulea, by Erspamer et al. The calculated amount was approximately $2{\mu}g$ caerulein per gram of skin tissue in Korean amphibian and the potency was about 1/200 of that seen in Australian amphibian. The contraction of gall bladder strip by our amphibians occurs in decreasing order; Rana Nigromaculata coreana Okada, Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, Hyla arborea japonica Gunther and Bombina orientalis Boulenger. The skin extracts of poisonous snake and fresh-water fish produced no caerulein-like activity.

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Changes in Environmental Attitudes of Middle and High School Students after Anuran Call Monitoring (무미양서류의 음성 신호를 이용한 생물 모니터링의 수행에 따른 중. 고등학생들의 환경 인식 변화)

  • Kim Su-Kyung;Sung Ha-Cheol;Park Dae-Sik;Park Shi-Ryong
    • Hwankyungkyoyuk
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to investigate whether attitudes and recognitions of middle and high school students regarding environmental concerns were improved after anuran call monitoring. It was a step toward monitoring local environmental changes with anuran calls. Three-striped pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata), Bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana), and Narrow-mouthed toads (Kaloula borealis) were surveyed to determine local abundance and distribution of them in 12 study sites using their advertising calls. A published booklet, which contains morphological, physiological, ecological, and acoustic information on amphibian species and methods of monitoring anuran calls were provided to monitoring students for identifying the three species. Pretest-posttest were conducted before and after monitoring from 10 April to 28 August in 2005 to determine how the monitoring students changed their attitudes on environmental issues, increased knowledges on amphibians, and improved the understanding on the cause and effect of declining amphibian populations. The amphibian monitoring program was effective to improve the students' attitudes towards conserving environments as well as the students' knowledge on general behavior and ecology of various amphibian species although their understanding about various environmental problems was not. In addition, the program increased the students' understanding on the problems of declining amphibian populations.

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A Study of Creating a Biotope in Namsan Urban Natural Park (남산도시자연공원내 생물서식공간 조성에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Hyun-Kyung;Lee, Soo-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 2006
  • This study was aimed to propose the plan of creating a biotope reflecting an ecological education as well as its function as the habitats of amphibian in Namsan Urban Natural Park in Seoul. There were Cheonil mineral spring area which was located on the southern side of Namsan, wetlands which was already created on the east valley(800$m^2$) and a buffer area of the circumference(1,100$m^2$) as the biotope sites. Major fields of this study include a survey of the staus, a basic plan, a master plan; a survey of this site was focused on topography, water system, existing vegetation, wildbird, amphibian, trail; a detailed plan was focused on flow plan, planting plan, facility plan. Existing vegetation was classified into 8 types; Pinus densiflora forest, Pinus densiflora planted area, Prunus sargentii-Quercus spp. forest, Pinus rigida forest, Robinia pseudoacacia forest, artificial green space, wetlands, south beltway. There were Pinus densiflora planted area and Prunus sargentii-Quercus spp. forest as major vegetations of this site. 14 species and 33 individuals of wildbirds appeared, Rana temporaria ornativentris and Hynobius leechi were investigated in the wetlands.In particular, habitats of amphibian were divided eco-zone, buffer-zone and restore-zone, and habitats and facilities which would be suitable for the characteristics of each space were planned. As a result, environment elements of good habitats including spawn wetlands of amphibian, harbor of amphibian, water plant of wetland, wild shrubs forest, ecological landscape forest, wetland observation trail, fence of wetland protection and ramp by pebble and log were created at the site. The amphibian biotope of Namsan is rated high as an important space for conserving biodiversity. Accordingly, continuous monitoring of this biotope as a urban habitat is required as the environment changes.

Effects of Heavy Metals on Amphibian Embryos, Tadpoles, and Adults (중금속이 양서류 배아, 유생 및 성체에 미치는 영향에 관한 소고)

  • Park, Chan Jin;Ahn, Hyo Min;Gye, Myung Chan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.287-306
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    • 2012
  • Amphibian population declines globally. Environmental contamination by heavy metals has been suspected to the one of the reason for distinction of amphibian which has obligate aquatic life style during larval period. Amphibians have been widely accepted as animal model for the study of endocrine disruption in aquatic ecosystem at molecular as well as individual levels. There are increasing need for toxicological data in amphibians at multiple endpoints for management of contamination and development of safety guidelines. Here, we reviewed toxicological information about toxicity of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, zinc) on various end-point of amphibian.

Herpetofauna and habitat characteristics of 16 lagoons along the eastern coastline of South Korea

  • Lee, Jung-Hyun;Park, Dae-Sik;Lee, Heon-Joo;Kim, Ja-Kyeong;Ra, Nam-Yong
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2010
  • We conducted field surveys of amphibians and reptiles over a two-year period in 16 lagoons along the eastern coastline of South Korea, and determined the habitat characteristics correlated with the number of amphibian and reptilian species and individuals. We documented 11 amphibian species and 8 reptilian species. The dominant amphibian species was the black-spotted pond frog (Rana nigromaculata), and the dominant reptilian species was the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans), an invasive species. Among the 14 habitat characteristics, connectivity to mountainous area significantly affected the number of amphibian and reptilian individuals. Other factors, including emerged plant cover, salinity, pH, the number of birds for amphibians and connectivity to agricultural land, lagoon perimeter length for reptiles also influenced the number of species or individuals of them. Our results demonstrate that these lagoons are home to more amphibians and reptiles than has been previously known. To effectively conserve herpetofauna in the lagoon ecosystem, lagoons as well as surrounding wetlands, grasslands, and mountainous areas should be protected.

The incidence of abnormalities in the fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, in relation to nearby human activity

  • Kang, Changku;Shin, Yujin;Kim, Ye Eun;Moon, Jongyeol;Kang, Jae Yeon;Jang, Yikweon
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 2016
  • Declines in amphibian populations are occurring worldwide, and have been attributed to many factors, including anthropogenic environmental changes. One of the ramifications of such declines is abnormalities in many amphibian species. A strong association has been detected between human activities and abnormalities in amphibian populations, but studies on this association are largely focused on lentic species. In this study, it was analyzed whether the degree of local human activity was associated with the rate of abnormalities in Bombina orientalis which inhabited lotic environments. We found that the proportions of abnormalities in wild populations of B. orientalis increased, when i) the closest human land use was located within 100 m from the frogs' habitat, and ii) the proportion of human land use within a 300-m radius was high. Our findings suggest that human activity has a negative impact on the fitness of nearby amphibian populations, and that wild populations very close to human-induced disturbance are affected.

Effects of Deforestation Practice on the Distribution and Abundance of Herpetofauna in Mt. Gariwang, South Korea

  • Choi, Woo-Jin;Park, Il-Kook;Kim, Jong-Sun;Koo, Kyo-Soung;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Park, Chan-Woo;Yang, Hee-Moon;Park, Dae-Sik
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.188-191
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    • 2018
  • To know if deforestation practice affects the distribution and abundance of herpetofauna in Mt. Gariwang, South Korea, we conducted field surveys over 12 times both at deforested (n=9 sites) and un-touched (control, n=12 sites) forest areas from March to October, 2017. Each survey site was approximately $100m\;long{\times}20m$ wide area, which in the middle of the site, mountain road presented. During each survey, we recorded the species and the number of amphibians and reptiles which identified. To compare environments between the two areas, we analyzed eight environmental variables, extracted from digital sources. Overall, we found one amphibian and four reptile species at deforested area, while each five amphibian and reptile species at un-touched area. The number of amphibian species significantly tended to be smaller at deforested area. The number of the survey sites where amphibians found and the number of amphibian individuals showed the same trend. For reptiles, although the number of reptile individuals showed some increases, all variables investigated were not significantly changed by deforestation practice. Our results imply that deforestation practice negatively affects amphibians, but effects of that on reptiles are not evident.

Amphibian and Reptilia Fauna in Chuwangsan National Park (주왕산국립공원의 양서.파충류상)

  • 박병상
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 1995
  • Amphibian and Reptilian fauna in Chuwangsan National Park was carried out both Apr. 28, 1994 - Apr. 30, 1994 and Aug. 4, 1994-Aug. 5, 1994. 7 species in 5 Families in Amphibia and 7 species in 3 Families in Reptilia were observed in this survey. Rana dyhowskii in Amphibia and Rhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus in Reptilia were revealed dominant species in Chuwangsan National Park. The results in this survey would be use to baseline data significantly after the project of construction works in Chuwangsan National Park.

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Amphibian Biotope Planning to Research on Reproduction of Bombina orientalis (무당개구리(Bombina orientalis) 번식 연구를 위한 양서류 바이오톱(amphibian biotope) 조성)

  • Yoon, Seong-Il;Park, Chan-Jin;Bhan, Young-Ho;Gye, Myung-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2008
  • Bombina orientalis, or Korean fire-bellied toad is belonging to Class Amphinia, Order Anura, Family Bombinatoridae, Genus Bombina. Ecological characteristics, such as small size, slow moving and swimming, gentle attitude to other species, under laboratory and/or wild condition lead the toad as suitable experimental animals with easy handling. Seasonal reproductive biology except breeding season (usually from Apr. to late Jun.) are unknown still caused by sampling methods for hibernating specimens have not been established yet. Most species of amphibian, include B. orientalis, are declined around the world related with global warming, therefore, wild caught specimen for any purposes must be limited controled soon. Even though, some pre-studies of biotope for increasing biodiversity have been reported, construction of an artificial biotope to get natural breeding cycling specimen for study of amphibian reproduction is unique modelling and only trial. In an effort to set year-round sampling for study of reproduction of B. orientalis, we suggest protocols for planning, construction manual and SOP(Standard Operation Process) to manage amphibian biotope. During pilot operation of a designed and constructed biotope, the seasonal acclimation during winter hibernation of B. orientalis were successful. It will be helpful for studying the reproductive biology of wild amphibians in temperate region and allow to get reasonable research conditions in amphibian laboratory.

Amphibian Fauna in the Mt. Myungji (명지산 일대의 양서류)

  • 계명찬
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.203-207
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    • 2003
  • Amphibian biodiversity, community structure and habitats were surveyed in the Mt. Myungji area from April 2002 to March 2003. During the survey period 2orders, 4 families, 7 species of amphibians were observed. Bombina orientalis (DI =45.1%) was dominant and Bufo stejnegeri (DI = 12.8%), Rana rugosa and Rana dybowskii (DI = 9.9% each) Rana nigromaculata and Rana huanrenensis (DI 1.4% each), and Onycodactylus fisheri (DI = 7.0%) followed. Frequency of occurrence of O. fisheri and B. stejnegeri was largely different according to the altitude and human residence in their habitats.R. nigromaculata and R. huanrenensis showed low frequency of occurrence (<10%) suggesting the decrease in habitation density in this area. The species richness (R'), general diversity (H'), and evenness (E') of amphibians in this area were 0.98, 2.12, and 0.76, respectively, suggesting relatively healthy condition of amphibian community in this area.