• Title, Summary, Keyword: ability to pay

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The comparison of household health care expenditure and income elasticity by ability to pay levels. (지불능력에 따른 가계지출 보건의료비의 차이와 소득탄력도 비교)

  • Shin Seung Ho;Kim Chang Soon;Kim Han Joong
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.75-87
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare the amount of household health expenditures (HHE) and the proportion of health care expenditure to the household expenditure by ability to pay(ATP) levels. This study has focused on the influence of household ATP on HHE, estimating elasticity of health care expenditures for different ATP groups. For the empirical analysis, the Urban Households Survey Data of 2002 have been used. Our principal findings show that HHE are sensitive to changes in household ATP levels and that the group which is most responsive to changes in A TP level is the lower ATP group. These suggest that as households have less ATP, households with lower ATP reduce expenditures on health care in a proportional manner than those with higher ATP.

A study on the pay systems of the workers at hospitals in Korea (우리나라 병원근로자의 임금체계에 대한 연구)

  • Ko, Su-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.281-295
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data for the development of new pay system of hospitals by analyzing the status and problems of current pay system. The pay systems of 20 nationwide hospitals were analyzed and compared with the average pay level in Korea. In addition, the annual trend of pay system was analyzed. Based on this study, the following suggestions can be made. First, the pay levels of hospitals are, in some types of workers, lower than average. Hospitals should take much efforts to improve the payment capability through the effective management. Second, the effort to raise the proportion of basic pay to the total pay and to simplify the pay system on the basis of basic pay rather than the allowance and bonus should be made. Third, the pay system based on the length of service should be revised into the one based on work capability, achievement and performance in case of professional, clerical and managerial jobs. Fourth, the pay system determined depending on the power relationship between the labor unions and the management should be improved into the one, with which workers can feel reliable and satisfied through the revealing of the payment ability and the management improvement.

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A Confirmatory Investigation of the Multi-dimensionality of the Pay Satisfaction (임금만족의 다차원성에 대한 확인적 연구)

  • 이광희;이선규;이욱기
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2002
  • This study investigated the multidimensionality of the pay satisfaction. A series of tests supported multidimensionality of the pay satisfaction. The items from the Pay Satisfaction Questionare(PSQ) loaded on their hypothesized dimensions and the dimensions were empirically distinct. These results supported the 4 dimensions suggested by H.G. Heneman and D.P. Schwab(1985). In this study we suggested favorable conclusions about the ability of the PSQ to measure pay satisfaction and the results are discussed in light of additional tests that may further substantiate the validity of the PSQ.

Higher Education, Productivity Revelation and Performance-pay Jobs

  • BAEK, JISUN;PARK, WOORAM
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.65-80
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    • 2018
  • This paper examines the differences between the subsequent careers of high school and college graduate workers based on a direct role of college graduation with regard to the revelation of workers' individual abilities. Using NLSY79, we document a positive relationship between off-the-job training/performance-pay jobs and ability for high school graduates at the early stages of their careers. However, this relationship is less prominent for college graduates. Moreover, we show that high ability is associated with more jobs, which reflects higher job mobility, only for high school graduates. We argue that these patterns are the result of productivity-revealing behavior of high school graduates, whose individual abilities, unlike college graduates, is not observed precisely at the beginning of their careers.

A Development of Cyber Credit Decision Support System for Banking Facilities Using Fuzzy-expert Network (퍼지전문가회로망을 이용한 금융기관의 사이버 기업여신결정 지원시스템의 개발)

  • Kwon Hyuk-Dae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2005
  • This paper is to develop the prototype of a decision making for loan granting system at banks and to evaluate the effectiveness of it. The prototype is called at FENET-LG in this paper. The decision to grant a loan is an unstructured and vagueness task because it is required a tremendous amount of data and many complex relationships among them. Evaluating these many data and relationships is a difficult task even for most experienced decision maker of bank. Therefore, where complex judgement is required, the decision maker of bank may benefit from the use of fuzzy expert network to support the evaluation of ability to pay back. Given the characteristics of decision maker of banking facilities judgement task about ability to pay back, the prototype system named FENET-LG is constructed by integration of fuzzy expert system and neural network. The FENET-LG takes advantage of both the deductive approach of fuzzy expert system and the inductive approach of a neural network to provide a decision aid designed to support and facilitate the process of conducting a judgement of ability to pay back.

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Consumers' preference about the attributes of Post PC: reaults of a contingent ranking study (Post PC의 속성별 소비자 선호 분석 : 조건부 순위결정법을 이용하여)

  • Lee, Ju-Seok;Yu, Seung-Hun;Gwak, Seung-Jun
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.135-153
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    • 2005
  • With an explosive growth of internet and a change of consumer's demand, Post PC is emerging as a substitute for the existing desktop computer and laptop computer. Post PC is a new computer which is portable with wireless networking, cheaper than the existing PCs and specialized in the specific function that consumers want. Furthermore, the shape and the ability of Post PC are dependent on its specific function. The rudimentary Post PCs such as PDA, web-pad and smart-phone are already usable. And in the future, owing to the progress of technologies, the heterogeneity of relate companies and the low entry barrier, various Post PCs will be developed. In this paper, we analyze consumers' willingness-to-pay for Post PC with the attributes such as the portability, the speed of CPU, the data input method (using key board, or notepad etc), the size of monitor and price. To estimating consumers' willingness-to-pay for the attributes of Post PC, we apply a contingent ranking method, which makes the respondents rank hypothetical Post the portability, the speed of CPU, the data input method (using key board, or notepad etc),the size of monitor and price. To estimating consumers' willingness-to-pay for the attributes of Post PC, we apply a contingent ranking method, which makes the respondents rank hypothetical Post PC alternatives featuring various combinations of attributes, to a survey data collected in Korea. Using the estimated willingness-to-pay, we predict the shape and the ability of future's Post PC and draw policy implications for the national and company level R&D strategies.

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Changes in Distributive Equity of Health Insurance Contribution Burden (건강보험료 부담의 형평성 변화)

  • Kang, Hee-Chung;Park, Eun-Cheol;Lee, Kyu-Sik;Park, Tae-Kyu;Chung, Woo-Jin;Kim, Han-Joong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : We analyzed the changes from 1996 to 2002 in distributive equity of the contribution burden in the Korean National Health Insurance. Methods : The study subjects were a total of 8,923 employee households and a total of 7,296 self-employed households over the period from 1996 to 2002. Those were the households meeting the two criteria as completing each annual survey and having no change in the job of head of the household during that period from the raw data of the Household Income and Expenditure Survey annually conducted by the Korean National Statistical Office. The unit of analysis was a household, and this was the standard for assessing the contribution that is now applied on a monthly basis. Deciles Distribution Ratio, Contribution Concentration Curve and Contribution Concentration Index were estimated as the index of inequality. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to compare the annual ability-to-pay elasticity of the contribution to the reference year of 1996 for three groups (all households, the employee households, and the self-employed households). Results : For the index of inequality, the distributive equity of contribution was improved in all three groups. In particular, the employee group experienced a substantial improvement. Using multiple regression analysis, the ability-to-pay elasticity of the contribution in the employee group significantly increased ($\beta$=0.232, p<0.0001) in the year 2002 as compared to the reference year of 1996. The elasticity in the self-employed group also significantly increased ($\beta$=0.186, p<0.05), although its change was smaller than that in the employee group. Conclusions : The employee group had a greater improvement for the distributive equity of the contribution burden than the self-employed group. Within the observation period, there were two important integration reforms: one was the integration of 227 self-employed societies in 1998 and the other was the integration of 139 employee societies in 2000. We expected that the equity of the contribution burden would be improved for the self-employed group since the integration reform of 1998. However, it was not improved for the self-employed group until the year 2000. This result suggests that capturing exactly the beneficiaries' ability-to-pay such as income is the precedent for distributive equity of the contribution burden, although a more sophisticated imposition standard of contribution is needed.

Expectation and Satisfaction with Internship Program of Undergraduate Students Majoring in Culinary Studies (조리학 전공 대학생들의 인턴쉽 기대와 만족에 관한 연구)

  • 정효선;윤혜현
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.299-309
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    • 2004
  • This study investigated the degree of expectation and satisfaction with internship program of undergraduates majoring in culinary studies, and suggested improvements in satisfaction for training programs. Differences between expectation and satisfaction were significant in all 21 items including pay for internship program, rest spaces, and break time during working. Expectation questions were extracted to five factors. Factor 1 circumstances of kitchen Factor 2 staff's ability and attitude Factor 3 working environment Factor 4 working hours and pay and Factor 5 rotation, period, and placement of jobs. Five factors were also obtained from factor analysis of satisfaction. Factor 1 working hours and rest Factor 2 staff's attitude and pay Factor 3 facilities and sanitation Factor 4 circumstances of kitchen and Factor 5 period and placement of jobs. Overall satisfaction values showed significant differences depending on gender, school-year system, grade, age, and school. The working hours and rest factor had the most significant influence on the overall satisfaction with internship program of undergraduates majoring in culinary studies.

The Financial Burden of Catastrophic Health Expenditure Among Older Women Living Alone (여성독거노인가구의 과부담 의료비 지출에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Serah
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.17-34
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    • 2019
  • Older women who live alone are among society's most vulnerable people, since they experience increased risk of multiple chronic diseases and have limited financial protection. This can lead older women living alone to catastrophic health expenditure(CHE), which is defined as a healthcare expenditure that exceeds a certain portion of a household's ability to pay. Using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing(KLoSA), this study investigated the incidence of CHE among older women living alone and identified the factors related to this incidence. Applying health expenditure thresholds of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of ability to pay, the proportions of those with CHE were 41.3%, 22.9%, 14.6%, and 9.4%, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors related to CHE incidence, which include demographics, income, the number of chronic diseases, perceived health status, and health insurance type. The results show that the health care safety net in South Korea is insufficient for older women living alone. The findings can guide policymakers in improving healthcare and welfare policies to protect people from catastrophic payments. Particularly, welfare policies should be established for poor non-recipients who are not included within the benefits scope of the National Basic Livelihood Security System due to the unrealistic criteria of income recognition and family support obligation.

Equity in urban households' out-of-pocket payments for health care (도시가계 의료비 지출의 형평성)

  • Lee Weon Young
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.30-56
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    • 2005
  • This paper used two threshold approaches to measure the equity in urban households' out-of-pocket payments for health care from 1997 to 2002, which developed by Wagstaff and van Doorslaer. One approach used catastrophic health expenditure, which means that payments exceed a 'pre-specified proportion' of total consumption expenditures or ability to pay and the other used impoverishment that they did not drive households into poverty. Indicies for 'catastrophic expenditure' captured intensity as well as its incidence and also the degree of which catastrophic payments occur disproportionately among poor households. Measure of poverty impact also captured both intensity and incidence. The methods applied with data on out-of-pocket payments from the Urban Household Expenditure Survey Incidence and intensity of catastrophic payments - both in terms of total household consumption as well as ability to pay - increased between 1997 and 2002, and that both incidence and intensity of 'catastrophic expenditure' became less concentrated among the poor, but more concentrated in 2001 than in 1997. The incidence and intensity of the poverty impact of out-of-pocket payments increased between 1997 and 2002. Health security system may not have provided financial protection against catastrophic health expenditure to low-income households, because of high user fee policy not considering income level. The policies alleviating catastrophic health payments among the poor need to be more developed, and two threshold approaches further evaluated on our policy context.