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African women's hairstyles as communication media - A comparison between young and old women's hairstyles -

  • Lorraine, Kindavyi;Suk, Kwon Young
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.1051-1060
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the different communication messages behind African women's hairstyles, and to compare young and old African women's hairstyles. The contents of this research are: the hairstyle as communication media, the types of African women's hairstyles, and the difference between young and old women's hairstyles. We used a review of literature and an empirical study as the research methods for this study. For the literature review, we used papers on African hairstyles, and we linked hairstyles to corresponding communication. For the empirical study, we took a database of 240 pictures (120 pictures of young women and 120 pictures of old women) from websites related to African hairstyles and we analyzed the pictures to differentiate between young and old African women's hairstyles. The results of this study reveal that African women's hairstyles express messages of power, ceremony, and status and identification communication. Within the 240 pictures, we found out which hairstyles are preferred by young and old women. Young African women prefer long, straight hairstyles and artificial hair (wigs), while old women keep short, natural hairstyles. The result of this research will be useful for understanding African women's hairstyles as well as contribute to the field of hair design.

Analysis of body shape and anthropometric measurements of US middle-aged women using 3D body scan data

  • Kim, Dong-Eun
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.726-736
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    • 2015
  • The apparel industry has recently been recognizing the important target market of middle-aged women. The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics of US women of 46 to 65 years of age and identify distinctive body shape characteristics of US middle-aged women. A total of 1915 middle-aged women whose ages ranged from 46 to 65 were selected from the SizeUSA database. The age range was divided into two groups: 46-55 and 56-65. Twenty-four body measurements important for apparel development were chosen. Four factors-Girth Factor, Height Factor, Hip Drop Factor, and Bust Drop Factor-accounted for the US middle-aged women's body measurements. The body shapes were classified into four body shapes, which were Y-Shape in the overweight range, S-Shape in the overweight range, H-Shape in the overweight range, and the A-Shape in obese range. H-Shape, which was the least-defined waist in relation to the bust and hips with a short height, existed more in older middle-aged women than in younger middle-aged women. Y-Shape, S-Shape, and A-Shape existed more in the group of younger middle-aged women than in the group of older middle-aged women. In addition, compared with the younger middle-aged women, older middle-aged women had narrower shoulders, a larger waist, thinner legs, and a longer distance between side neck to bust point. The findings from the current study may be applied in the apparel industry for developing clothing sizing systems for US middle-aged women.

Comparison of Prenatal Health Management State and Educational Needs for Pregnant Women with Advanced Maternal Age and Under the Age of 35 (고령임부와 35세 미만 임부의 산전 건강관리 실태와 교육요구 비교)

  • Wang, Hee-Jung;Park, Hye-Sook;Kim, Il-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.230-241
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study was done to confirm prenatal health management and educational needs for pregnant women with advanced maternal age (AMA) and pregnant women under 35 years of age. Methods: This study was a descriptive research in which self-report questionnaires were used. Participants were 279 pregnant women (83 AMA and 196 less than 35). Results: Only 32.5% of AMA women had received prenatal education and 51.8% reported wanting internet education. AMA women, compared to the under 35 women, had higher levels of self-awareness of health problems and possibility of health problems but lower levels of alcohol experience before pregnancy. For prenatal health management, scores were low for prenatal exercise, prenatal education and nutrition. For prenatal health management education, AMA women reported high levels of need for education on health problems. Conclusion: The results indicate that prenatal health management education must be given considering differences in age-related requirements by emphasizing health care and obstetric complications during pregnancy for AMA women and anemia and information on substance use during pregnancy for women under 35. Reliable internet-based education programs need to be developed using available information and communication technology for the increasing number of employed pregnant women.

Comparison of Health Behaviors, Disease Prevalence between One-person women and Multiple households women in Korea (우리나라 여성 1인가구와 다인가구 여성의 건강행태 및 질병이환율 비교 : 2013년 지역사회 건강조사를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Eun-gyeong;Park, Sook-kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.483-494
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study compared health behaviors and disease prevalence between one-person women and multiple-household women in Korea. Methods: This study used the 2013 data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). A total of 89,807 women, aged 19-64 years were included in this study. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Moreover, statistical processing was performed using the SPSS 21.0. Results: Among adult women, one-person households women was 6.2%. One-person household women were older than multiple-households women, and multiple-households women were less likely to exercise regularly. And disease prevalence was higher in one-person household women than in multiple-household women. Conclusion: Residence characteristics should be considered in developing a public health program to reduce or increase modifiable health behaviors and disease prevalence. The findings from this study suggest that policies to improve the support for healthcare of one-person household women is necessary.

Kinematic Mechanism of Gait on Different Road Conditions in Older Women (보행 지면 상태에 따른 노인의 운동학적 보행 메카니즘)

  • Hah, Chong Ku;Ki, Jae Sug;Jang, Young Kwan;Lee, Eun Young
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.163-171
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate kinematic mechanism of gait different road conditions(dry vs. oil) in order women. For this study, twenty older women and ten young women participated in this research. twelve infrared cameras were used to collect data. It appeared that the gait strategies of older women were slower velocity and higher CoM than young women. Depending on road conditions, gait velocities of dominant muscle older women on dry surface were faster than dominant sense older women, but those of them were inverse on oil surface. The slip displacement of dominant muscle older women was less than young women, but the slip displacement of dominant sense older women was greater than young women. In case of blind during stance phase on oil surface, the rotational motion of the ankle and knee joints were increased. In conclusion, older women were subjected to self-organization theory and phase shift in dynamic theory.

Comparison of Needs for Pregnancy and Postpartum Adaptation of Chinese Immigrant Women and Vietnamese Immigrant Women in South Korea (중국과 베트남 결혼이주여성의 임신과 산후적응 요구 비교)

  • Jeong, Geum Hee;Kim, Kyung Won;Baik, Sunghee
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To identify needs for pregnancy and postpartum adaptation of Chinese immigrant women and Vietnamese immigrant women in South Korea. Methods: A descriptive research design was employed. Data were collected from 244 Chinese immigrant women and Vietnamese immigrant women from 3 provinces, 20 health care centers, and multi-cultural family support centers. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test and ANOVA. Results: An average score for needs perceived by Chinese immigrant women was significantly higher than that perceived by Vietnamese immigrant women. There were significantly differences in physical and emotional adaptation after childbirth, nutrition during pregnancy, cross cultural understanding and personal respect, and adaptation daily activity during pregnancy between the 2 groups. The highest score of needs in Chinese immigrant women was for nutrition during pregnancy and that in Vietnamese immigrant women was for baby rearing and family support. Conclusion: Based on needs of pregnancy and postpartum adaption, nursing intervention program in consideration of cultural characteristics of Chinese immigrant women and Vietnam immigrant women need to be developed for their pregnancy and postpartum health care.

Reproductive Health Promotion Behavior of Infertility Women and Normal Women (난임 및 정상 여성의 생식건강증진행위)

  • Lee, Chaenam;Lee, Naeyoung
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.207-218
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: To compare reproductive health promoting behaviors (RHPBs) of infertile women with those of normal women and identify effects of RHPB on infertility. Methods: A total of 148 females (73 infertile women and 75 normal women) were enrolled in this study. Measurements included their general characteristics and RHPB using self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, ${\chi}^2$ test, ANCOVA, and hierarchical logistic regression using SPSS. Results: There were significant difference in incomes, number of family, number of term deliveries, and number of abortions according to infertility diagnosis. Mean duration of infertility was 32.16 months. Only 12.32% women had known cause of infertility. The most common cause of infertility was unknown. Mean RHPB score was 3.98 for infertile women and 4.41 for normal women. In logistic regression, total RHPB (odds ratio [OR], 0.21) and safe sex of RHPB (OR, 0.66) were significant factors influencing infertility. Infertile women's total RHPB and subcategories of RHPB (safe sex behavior and sexual transmitted disease [STD] prevention) were lower than those of normal women. Conclusion: For infertility women, RHPB-related intervention programs are needed, especially information about safe sex behavior and STD prevention.

Factors Affecting Women Micro and Small-Sized Enterprises' Success: A Case Study in Jordan

  • THAHER, Lubna Mohammad;RADIEAH, Nor Mohd;WAN NORHANIZA, Wan Hasan
    • The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business
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    • v.8 no.5
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    • pp.727-739
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    • 2021
  • Over the past decades, the Jordanian government has made great efforts to help poor women start small businesses by providing microcredit and facilitating financial services. Although in Jordan almost hundreds of thousands of women have the ability to contribute more fully to their economy, they are reluctant to do so. Women's participation in economic activities in 2016 was only 13.2%, while the unemployment rate for Jordanian women was 24.1%. The decline in women's participation in small business management has gradually become an important issue following the trial of more than 13,000 Jordanian women for non-payment of their micro-loans. This study aims to identify the factors that hinder Jordanian women from achieving job stability. In this qualitative study, a semi-structured interview method with sixteen open-ended questions was used to collect relevant data. A purposeful sampling method is also used to select participants. To analyze the data, this study used NVivo 11 software as a method. Using System Theory, this study showed that women's failure depends on three factors: women entrepreneurs, the environment around women entrepreneurs, and micro-financial institutions. Findings of this study suggest that strengthen women's entrepreneurship sustainability and minimize the risk of failure should be done through integrated strategies include these three domains.

Comparative Study on Social Support and Perceived Health between Obese Women and Normal Weight Women (비만여성과 정상체중 여성의 사회적지지 및 건강지각의 비교)

  • Kim, Jeong-Ah;Wang, Myoung-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.587-599
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare abdomen-fat rate, life style and social-support between normal weight women and obese women. Method: 304 women objectives from their 30 to 59 years of age were selected living in Je-chon city, Chung-Buck province and their height and weight were measured from April 1st to June 30th, 2003. Data were classified into low-weight group ($18.5kg/m^2$), normal-weight group ($18.5{\sim}22.9kg/m^2$), over weight group ($23{\sim}24.9kg/m^2$), and obese group ($25kg/m^2$) following the Korean Conference of Obesity, 2001. in which 119 people in the normal weight group and 91 people in the obese group, i.e. total 210 people were analyzed in sequence. Using SPSS Win 10.1 Program, frequency and percentile, and by ANOVA, $X^2-test$ and t-test were treated. Results: The average age of obese women was 46.68 distributing 40.7% of forties and 39.6% of fifties while normal-weight women were average 41.73-year old distributing 53.8% of forties and 34.5% of thirties, which revealed aged in obese women. The body fat rate of obese women averaged $37.52{\pm}4.17%$, in which 98.9% of obese women and 21.0% of normal weight women with a more than 30% of body-fat rate resulted in a higher body-fat rate in obese women. The waists of obese women averaged $88.37{\pm}8.22cm$, in which more than 85cm showed in obese women of 68.2% and normal weight women of 7.6% indicating a higher waist-fat rate in obese women. The abdomen-fat rate of more than 0.85 of waist vs hip-fat showed 74.7% in obese women and 58.4% in normal weight women, indicating a higher abdomen-fat rate in obese women. Obese women and normal weight women showed significant differences in education level, number of children, religion, menstrual status, and mother's weight. Especially, obese women ate hotter or saltier food than normal weight women preferring meat. However, no significant differences appeared in marital status, social economic status. occupation. eating habits. smoking. drinking and physical exercise. Social support levels showed a lower rate in obese women than in normal weight women, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<.05). Observing areas of social support, obese women showed lower rates in attachment/intimacy, social integrity, opportunity of foster and confidence in value except help and instruction, which indicated a statistically significant difference (p<.05). Social support for obese women showed significant differences in age, education level, social hierarchy, religion and menstrual status. Obese women were more negative than normal weight women in health recognition, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<.01). Normal weight women showed higher health recognition when provided high social support and significantly low (p<.01) health recognition when provided low social support. However, there was no significant difference in health recognition in obese women whether high or low social support was given. The health recognition of obese women showed significant differences in age, education level, social hierarchy, number of children, menstrual status, physical exercise, eating habits, eating taste and preference of food. Conclusion: Obese women showed elder than normal-weight women, higher body-fat rate and abdomen-fat rate, lower social support, and a tendency to more negative health recognition. Therefore, providing weight-control programs for the treatment of obesity and prevention of recurrence for obese women to prevent progressing to adult disease and promote a healthy life, we suggest that better eating habits and the encouragement of regular physical exercise should be included, as well as total approachment on change of health recognition and social support would be needed.

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A Study on Health Status of Elderly Women in Urban Area (도시 여성노인의 주관적 건강상태)

  • Cho, Dong-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: The study was done to identify the perceived health status of elderly women and men, and define the difference between the two groups. Method: The subjects of this study were 209 elderly people over 60 years living in urban areas. The data was collected through personal interviews using questionnaires from September to October 2002. Data was categorized by content analysis and then data was analyzed with the SPSS program by frequency and Chi-square tests. Result: Elderly women complained of types of pain(leg pain, arthritis, lumbago, headache) more than elderly men. Elderly men complained about decreased levels of activities such as walking and general weakness. Elderly men and women have discomforts in daily living such as walking and doing household chores. First, elderly men and women want good health and improvement of health status. Second, women want happiness for their offspring, but men want to improve the government and the laws. Conclusion: Elderly women want relief from pain, but elderly men want an increased level of activity. The findings of this study give useful information to conduct health education and care for elderly women.

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