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Informal Support as an Influential Factor in Elderly Women′s Health: The Importance of Same-Sex Friendship in US

  • Kim, Jeoung-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.59-73
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    • 1999
  • It is known that the role of informal support for elderly women is critical to their physical and mental health, adjustment in old age, and their overall life satisfaction. Elderly women's situation such as social losses, widowhood, living alone, and geographic relocation etc. may result in a need for more informal supports for elderly women's health than ever before. Particularly, women's same-sex friendships were rated higher for overall quality, intimacy, enjoyment, and nurturance. Unlike a generally accepted notion that later life for women is a time of isolation and loneliness, elderly women tend to maintain and reestablish their friendship regardless their marital status and living situation. Although studies on informal support for elderly women were inconclusive in many ways, elderly women's friendship tends to be stable despite of changing health status and life events. The relative importance between daughters and friends was also controversial. This study suggests that more research with reliable measurements is necessary for the practical prevention and intervention program of elderly women's health on this issue.

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Gender and the Welfare State: The British Feminist Critiques

  • Park Mee-Sok;Han Jeong-Won;Song In-Ja
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.73-94
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    • 2002
  • The important argument explored in this article is women's position in welfare regimes. By examining feminist critiques on the welfare state, we intend to look into whether the welfare state is designed to promote the equal status of both men and women. In the post-war period, it was believed that social provision, together with full employment and rising real wages, would improve the welfare of all citizens. However, women were inevitably treated as second class citizens by the new welfare legislation and were assumed to be economically dependent on their husbands. As a result, though welfare provision plays a significant and liberating role in women's lives in some ways, it may also serve to restrict women by defining them in certain ways. This contradictory situations is especially true in successfully developing third world countries such as Korea. This is because the western welfare state can be misconceived as an idealistic model in which men and women obtain equality in terms of social context.

Women's Health and Sexuality (여성건강과 성)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hye
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.2
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    • pp.53-63
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study is to describe how what influence sexuality has on women's health. Sex is determined by the sex chromosome: but sociocultural norms have much influence on the sex role of a woman or man. Women's sexuality has had a negative impact on them in a male-dominated society, which destroyed women's health, put women in a powerless position and forced them to live as dependent persons. Sociocultural perception of the sex role has not been very open, and very strict rules have controlled those perceptions; but currently these perceptions have been changing dramatically. Especially, women's sex role has changed, bringing about many problems: the number of women engaging in premarital sex, the number of unwed mothers, the number of pregnancies without marriage, the divorce rate, and the number of dysfunctional families have all increased. Those kinds of problems have negative effects on women, children and members of the whole family. Sexually transmitted disease because of free sex is a serious health issue for women: the number of women with AIDS has increased rapidly. Another big issue is sexual abuse, which is insulting to women, decreases women's self-esteem, increases depression, puts women in a powerless position and eventually causes women to get sick. Male-preference (among newborns) ideology raises health issues for women, such as artificial abortion. In the area of sex differentiation, therefore, we have to change people's thinking from male-preference ideology to equal sex preference. Finally, we have to use a holistic approach for women's health and increase awareness of the fact that the sex role and women's health are very important for the family, society and nation. Women's health is the nation's power.

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A Survey on the Perception of the Women in Twenties and Thirties on Traditional Korean Medical Treatment on the Leukorrhea (2, 30대 여성을 대상으로 한 대하(帶下)의 한방 치료에 대한 인식 조사)

  • Heo, Ja-Kyung;Lee, Jin-Moo;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Jang, Jun-Bock;Lee, Kyung-Sub;Cho, Jung-Hoon
    • The Journal of Korean Obstetrics and Gynecology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.68-78
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze the perception that women in 20s and 30s have on Traditional Korean Medical(TKM) treatment on the leukorrhea. Methods: We studied the perception of TKM treatment by questionnaire From October 1 to November 20, 2010. A questionnaire was given to 50 women and we studied 47 except 3 questionnaire which have inappropriate answer. Results: 1. In 47 women, 46(97.9%) women have heard about leukorrhea, 1(2.1%) woman hasn't heard about it. 2. In 32 women who suffered from the leukorrhea, 14(43.8%) women checked up for leukorrhea. 18(56.2%) women doesn't checked. 10 of 14 women took the medical treatment (drug or injection) and 2 of 14 women took the TKM treatment. 3. In 32 women, 16(50.0%) women know about TKM treatment for leukorrhea, 16(50.0%) women don't know. 4. In 32 women, 20(62.5%) women have intention of TKM treatment for leukorrhea, 2(6.2%) women don't have, and 10(31.3%) women don't know. The biggest obstacle was the high cost of TKM treatment. Conclusions: Many women are willing to take TKM treatment on the leukorrhea. We need more accumulation of data for demonstrating the efficacy and safety of TKM treatment.

Mineral Intakes and Serum Mineral Concentrations of the Pregnant and Lactating Women (임신$\cdot$수유부의 무기질 섭취와 혈청 무기질 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Wooo Ju;Ahn Hong Seok;Chung Eun Jung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the mineral intakes and serum mineral levels of pregnant and lactating women. The subjects consisted of 34 non-pregnant, 56 pregnant and 20 lactating women. Nutrients intakes were investigated by the 24-hr recall method, and serum major and trace minerals were analyzed by the ICP-spectrometry. Calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) intakes were observed lower than RDA especially for both pregnant and lactating women. Iron (Fe) intake of pregnant women was $85 - 139\%$ RDA through Fe supplementation, and that of lactating women was lower than RDA. Compared with non-pregnant women, the pregnant women had similar Ca intake and higher magnesium (Mg) intake. Comparing with the non-pregnant women, serum Ca level in pregnancy was lower, and that of lactating women was not significantly different. Serum phosphorus and Mg levels were not significantly different among the groups. Serum Fe level of pregnant and lactating women was lower than that of the non-pregnant women. Serum Zn level of pregnant women was lower than those in the lactating and non-pregnant women. Serum copper level decreased as the pregnancy progressed. Serum sodium (Na) level was higher in 2nd- and 3rd trimester and potassium (K) level was higher in 3rd trimester and lactating period than other groups. Na/K ratio was not significantly different among the groups. During all periods, there was no correlation between dietary intakes and serum levels in each minerals. Serum Ca level positively corrleated with serum Mg level, especially in 3rd trimester and lactating women. In general, serum mineral levels in pregnancy were changed compared to the levels in non-pregnancy and restored in lactation to the levels for non-pregnancy.

Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age

  • Kim, Min Ji;Kim, Jihyun;Hwang, Eun Joung;Song, YoonJu;Kim, Heon;Hyun, Taisun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid supplements along with their associated factors among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: From August 2012 to March 2013, 704 women aged 19-45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid as well as questions to identify risk of inadequate folate intake. RESULTS: Approximately 67% of women reported that they had heard of folic acid, and 23.7% had knowledge of both the role of folic acid in preventing birth defects and appropriate time for taking folic acid supplements to prevent birth defects. However, only 9.4% of women took folic acid supplements at the time of the survey. Women aged 19-24 years, unmarried women, and women who had never been pregnant were less likely to be aware and knowledgeable of folic acid or take folic acid supplements. In addition, women at high risk of inadequate folate intake were less likely to take folic acid supplements. In a multivariate analysis, women aged 19-24 years, women with a high school diploma or lower education level, and unmarried women were less likely to be aware and have knowledge of folic acid. The percentage of women taking folic acid supplements was significantly higher among knowledgeable women than among unknowledgeable women. CONCLUSIONS: These results support our hypothesis that women with knowledge of folic acid are more likely to take folic acid supplements. Therefore, educational programs or campaigns to improve knowledge regarding the importance of folic acid and to promote consumption of folic acid supplements as well as folate-rich foods are needed to target young, less educated, and unmarried women.

Factors of Intention to take Hormone Replacement therapy in korean Menopausal Women (폐경기 여성의 호르몬 대체요법 선택의도에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Chung, Chae-Weon
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.369-378
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: To identify factors influencing women's intention to take hormone replacement therapy(HRT). Method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilized. A total of 116 married women aged 40 to 60 were recruited from women's groups in communities. They completed a structured questionnaire containing demographic characteristics, Orientation to Life Questionnaire, Menopausal Symptom Checklist, Health Belief of Korean Adult, Sexrole Idea of Kim, Dong-il, chronic illnesses, and a single item measuring marital satisfaction. Result: Thirteen percents of the women were currently taking HRT and 28.4% had intention to take HRT. Education, sense of coherence, and sex role attitude were related to women's susceptibility to menopause. Hysterectomy status and the level of sense of coherence explained women's perception of seriousness regarding menopause. In addition, chronic health conditions accounted for the variances of benefits and barriers to HRT. Factors influencing women's intention to take HRT were education, menopausal symptoms, and perceived benefits of HRT. Conclusion: Women's chronic health conditions, psychosocial characteristics as well as menopausal discomforts were associated with women's choice regarding HRT. Other factors related to decision making process of women's health seeking behaviors need to be explored.

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The Relationship Among Mother-Daughter Relationship, Husband-Wife Relationship and Prenatal Attachment according to Pregnant Women's Internal Working Model (임부의 내적 작동모델에 따른 산전애착과 친모와의 관계 및 배우자와의 관계)

  • Jeong, Young-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship among mother-daughter relationship, husband-wife relationship, and prenatal attachment according to pregnant women's internal working model. Method: A convenience sample of 68 pregnant women was recruited from two OBGYN hospitals in M city. Data collection was conducted through the use of an Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires. This study used a descriptive correlational design and the period of investigation was from July 3-20, 2002. 41 of the 68 women were in a secure pregnant women's internal working model and 27 of the 68 in insecure ones. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test, t-test, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Result: The results of this study were as follows: Mean score of the prenatal attachment of the secure pregnant women and mean score of the mother-daughter relationship of the secure pregnant women was significantly higher than that of insecure ones. 3) Prenatal attachment was negatively and significantly related to mother-daughter attachment and husbandwife attachment in the secure pregnant women's internal working model. However it was not significantly relationship in insecure pregnant women's internal working model. Conclusion: It is found in this study that there is an intergenerational attachment relationship during pregnancy. Further findings support the development of creative strategies to enhance positive attachment relationships for pregnant women. It is recommended to develop nursing education of attachment for the insecure pregnant women's internal working model.

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The Study of Correlations between Body Compositions and Bone Mineral Density in Young Women and Postmenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density (젊은 여성과 대퇴경부 저골밀도 폐경기 여성의 신체조성과 골밀도의 상관관계 연구)

  • Shin, Seung-Sub
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between body compositions and bone mineral density in young women and postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density. Methods : Eleven young women (age, $25.85{\pm}1.96yrs$; height, $160.28{\pm}2.16cm$; weight, $56.89{\pm}9.66kg$) and ten postmenopausal women (age, $25.85{\pm}1.96yrs$; height, $160.28{\pm}2.16cm$; weight, $56.89{\pm}9.66kg$) with low bone density on femur neck were participated in this study. All subjects performed the measure of body composition and BMD on lumbar body and femur neck. Results : The results were as follows. Percent body fat, waist-hip ratio and body mass index(BMI) were significantly increased in postmenopausal women. BMD in lumbar body and femur neck were significantly decreased in postmenopausal women. There were negative strong correlation between BMD of the femur and age in young women. There were negative strong correlation between BMD of the femur and age or the years of menopause in postmenopausal women. There were positive strong correlation between BMD of the femur and BMD of lumbar body. Conclusion : Percent body fat and BMI were more increased in young women than in postmenopausal women. And there were negative strong correlation between BMD and age or the years of menopause in postmenopausal women.

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