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Scientific Analysis of the Historical Characteristics and Painting Pigments of Gwaebultaeng in Boeun Beopjusa Temple (보은 법주사 <괘불탱>의 미술사적 특징과 채색 안료의 과학적 분석 연구)

  • Lee, Jang-jon;Gyeong, Yu-jin;Lee, Jong-su;Seo, Min-seok
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.226-245
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    • 2019
  • Beopjusa Gwaebultaeng (Large Buddhist Painting), designated as Treasure No. 1259, was painted in 1766 and featured Yeorae (Buddha) at the center in the style of a single figure. It is the longest existing buddhist painting and was created by Duhun, a painter who was representative of 18th century Korean artists. His other remaining work is Seokgayeorae Gwaebultaeng (1767) in Tongdosa Temple. Considering their same iconography, they are assumed to have used the same underdrawing. Duhun had a superb ability to maintain a consistent underdrawing, while most painters changed theirs within a year. The Beopjusa painting carries significance because it was not only painted earlier than the one in Tongdosa, but also indicates possible relevance to the royal family through its records. Beopjusa Temple is also the site of Seonhuigung Wondang, a shrine housing the spirit tablet of Lady Yi Youngbin, also known as Lady Seonhui. Having been built only a year before Beopjusa Gwaebultaeng was painted, it served as a basis for the presumption that it has a connection to the royal family. In particular, a group of unmarried women is noticeable in the record of Beopjusa painting. The names of some people, including Ms. Lee, born in the year of Gyengjin, are recorded on the Bonginsa Temple Building, the construction of which Lady Yi Youngbin and Princess Hwawan donated money to. In this regard, they are probably court ladies related to Lady Yi Youngbin. The connection of Beopjusa Gwaebultaeng with the royal family is also verified by a prayer at the bottom of the painting, reading "JusangJusamJeonhaSumanse (主上主三殿下壽萬歲, May the king live forever)." While looking into the historical characteristics of this art, this study took an approach based on scientific analysis. Damages to Beopjusa Gwaebultaeng include: bending, folding, wrinkles, stains due to moisture, pigment spalling, point-shaped pigment spalling, and pigment penetration to the lining paper at the back. According to the results of an analysis of the painting pigments, white lead was used as a white pigment, while an ink stick and indigo were used for black. For red, cinnabar and minium were used independently or were combined. For purple, organic pigments seem to have been used. For yellow, white lead and gamboge were mixed, or gamboge was painted over white lead, and gold foil was adopted for storage. As a green pigment, atacamite or a mixture of atacamite and malachite was used. Azurite and smalt were used separately or together as blue pigments.

A Review on Constitutional Discordance Adjudication of the Constitutional Court to Total Ban on Abortion ('낙태죄' 헌법재판소 헌법불합치 결정의 취지와 법률개정 방향 - 헌법재판소 2019. 4. 11. 선고 2017헌바127 전원재판부 결정에 따라 -)

  • Lee, Seok-Bae
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.3-39
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    • 2019
  • Even after the Constitutional Court decided on August 23, 2012 that the provisions of abortion were constitutional, discussions on the abolition of abortion continued. The controversy about abortion is not only happening recently, but it has already existed since the time when the Penal Code was enacted, and it shares the history of modern legislation with the Republic of Korea. Legislators whom submitted amendment while insisting upon the eradication of abortion in the process of enacting criminal law at that time, presented social and economic adaptation reasons as the core reason. From then on, the abolition of abortion has been discussed during the development dictatorship, but this was not intended to guarantee women's human rights, but it was closely connected to the national policy projects of "Contraception" and "Family Planning" of the Park's dictatorship. Since then, the enactment of the Mother and Child Health Law, which restrictively allow artificial abortion, was held on February 8, 1973, in an emergency cabinet meeting that replaced the legislative power after the National Assembly was disbanded. It became effected May 10th. The reason behind the Mother and Child Health Law that included legalization of abortion in part was that the Revitalizing Reform at that time did not allow any opinion, so it seem to be it was difficult for the religious to express opposition. The "Maternal and Child Health Law" enacted in this way has been maintained through several amendments. It can be seen that the question of maintenance of abortion has been running on parallel lines without any significant difference from the time when the Penal Code was enacted. On August 23, 2012, the Constitutional Court decided that the Constitutional Opinion and the unonstitutional Opinion were 4: 4. However, it was decided by the Constitution without satisfying the quorum for unconstitutional decision of the Constitutional Court. This argument about abolition of abortion is settled for the the time being with the decision of the constitutional inconsistency of the Constitutional Court, and now, the National Assembly bears the issue of new legislation. In other words, the improved legislation must be executed until December 31, 2020, and if the previous improved legislation is not implemented, the crime of abortion (Article 269, Paragraph 1, Article 270 of the Criminal Code) Article 1 (1) will cease to be effective from 1 January 2021. Therefore, in the following, we will look into the reason of the Constitutional Court's constitutional discordance adjudication on criminal abortion(II), and how it structurally differs from the previous Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court. After considering key issues arised from the constitutional discordance adjudication(III), the legislative direction and within the scope of legislative discretion in accordance with the criteria presented by the Constitutional Court We reviewed the proposed revisions to the Penal Code and the Mather and Child Health Act of Korea(IV).

Prediagnostic Smoking and Alcohol Drinking and Gastric Cancer Survival: A Korean Prospective Cohort Study (진단 전 흡연과 음주 행태와 위암 환자의 생존율: 전향적 환자 코호트 연구)

  • Kim, Shin Ah;Choi, Bo Youl;Song, Kyu Sang;Park, Chan Hyuk;Eun, Chang Soo;Han, Dong Soo;Kim, Yong Sung;Kim, Hyun Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.73 no.3
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    • pp.141-151
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    • 2019
  • Background/Aims: Behavioral factors, such as smoking and heavy alcohol consumption, increase the risk of gastric cancer (GC), but their effects on survival are not clear. We examined associations between prediagnostic smoking and alcohol drinking behavior and GC death by long-term follow-up. Methods: The participants were 508 GC patients enrolled at Chungnam University Hospital and Hanyang University Guri Hospital from 2001 to 2006. Information on clinicopathologic and behavioral risk factors was collected, and patient survival was prospectively followed until 2016 by medical chart review and telephone survey. Results: During above 10 years follow-up period, overall death was 46.2% (n=226) and GC deaths was 38.2% (n=187) among the 489 GC patients included in the analysis. No significant association was found between smoking habits and overall or GC survival. However, after stratification by histological type, the hazard ratio (HR) of GC death for current smokers tended to be higher for the diffuse type (HR 1.61, 95% CI 0.57-4.59 for current vs. never) rather than for the intestinal type (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.28-2.19 for current vs. never). Light alcohol consumption was found to be associated with a significantly lower risk of GC death (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.75 for <20 g/day for women or <40 g/day for men vs. never and past), and the effects of alcohol drinking habits had similar effects on GC death for the intestinal and diffuse types. Conclusions: These results suggest smoking and alcohol drinking behaviors before a diagnosis of GC are weakly associated with GC survival. Nevertheless, the effect of smoking behavior on prognosis appears to depend on the histological type of GC.

Importance of a Diversity Committee in Advancing the Korean Society of Gastroenterology: A Survey Analysis (대한소화기학회 발전에 있어서 다양성위원회의 중요성에 대한 설문 조사 분석)

  • Kim, Sung Eun;Kim, Nayoung;Park, Young Sook;Kim, Eun Young;Park, Seun Ja;Shim, Ki-Nam;Choi, Yoon Jin;Gwak, Geum-Youn;Park, Seon Mee
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.3
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 2019
  • Background/Aims: The numbers of women, young doctors, and foreigners in the medical field have increased continuously. On the other hand, the environment for these minority groups has not improved, particularly in Eastern countries. The authors aimed to increase the awareness of the importance of a Diversity Committee in the Korean Society of Gastroenterology (KSG) by an analysis of a survey. Methods: From January to February in 2019, a survey was conducted on physicians and a few medical students by googling. The questionnaire consisted of the target doctors of the Diversity Committee, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of Diversity Committee to the KSG. The participants requested to respond with yes/no or a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 202 participants completed the questionnaire, and 93.5% (189/202) were medical specialists. The proportion of males was 61.9% (125/202), and 39.6% (80/202) and 36.1% (73/202) participants were in their 30s and 40s, respectively. A total of 174 participants (86.1%) agreed with the necessity of a Diversity Committee, and 180 participants (89.1%) answered this committee would help advance the KSG with significant differences between males and females (80.8% vs. 94.8%, p=0.006; 84.8% vs. 96.1%, p=0.011). Similarly, there were significant differences in the responses according to sex in most questions. Conclusions: Most participants of the survey expected a contribution of the Diversity Committee to the advancement of the KSG. On the other hand, in most of the priorities of the target, purpose, specific activities, and expected effects of the Diversity Committee, there was a difference in the perceptions between males and females. Therefore, continuous efforts are needed to reduce the differences within the KSG.

A Study on Minimum Cabin Crew Requirements for Korean Low Cost Air Carriers

  • Yoo, Kyung-In;Kim, Mun-Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.291-314
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    • 2018
  • In recent 3 years, Korea's low-cost airlines have expanded their areas of passenger transportation not only to domestic market but also to Japan, China, Southeast Asia and US territory as a total of 6 companies (8 airlines including small air operation business carriers). Currently, three more airlines have filed for air transportation business certification as future low-cost carriers, and this expansion is expected to continue. To cope with the aggressive airline operations of domestic and foreign low-cost carriers and to enhance their competitiveness, each low-cost airline is taking a number of strategies for promoting cabin service. Therefore, the workload of the cabin crew is increased in proportion to the expansion, and the fatigue directly connected with the safety task performance is increased. It is stipulated in the Enforcement Regulations of the Korea Aviation Safety Act that at minimum, one cabin crew is required per 50 passenger seating capacity, and all low cost carriers are boarding only the minimum cabin crew. Sometimes it is impossible for them to sit in a floor level emergency exit for evacuation, which is the main task of the cabin crew, and this can cause confusion among evacuating passengers in the event of an emergency. In addition, if one of the minimum cabin crew becomes incapacitated due to an injury or the like, it will become a serious impediment in performing emergency evacuation duties. Even in the normal situation, since it will be violating the Act prescription on the minimum cabin crew complement, passengers will have to move to another available airline flights, encountering extreme inconvenience. Annex 6 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation specifies international standards for the determination of the minimum number of cabin crew shall be based only on the number of passenger seats or passengers on board for safe and expeditious emergency evacuation. Thereby in order to enhance the safety of the passengers and the crew on board, it is necessary to consider the cabin crew's fatigue that may occur in the various job characteristics (service, safety, security, first aid)and floor level emergency exit seating in calculating the minimum number of cabin crew. And it is also deemed necessary for the government's regulatory body to enhance the cabin safety for passengers and crew when determining the number of minimum cabin crew by reflecting the cabin crew's workload leading to their fatigue and unavailability to be seated in a floor level emergency exit on low cost carriers.

An Analysis of Infrastructure and Provision of Forest Welfare Service in Nursing Homes for the Elderly (노인요양시설의 산림복지서비스 인프라 및 제공 실태)

  • Lee, Insook;Kim, Sungjae;Bang, Kyung-Sook;Yi, Yunjeong;Kim, Miju;Moon, Hyojeong;Yeon, Poung Sik;Ha, Ei-Yan;Chin, Young Ran
    • The Journal of the Korean Institute of Forest Recreation
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.59-69
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    • 2018
  • This is a cross-sectional study that suggests ways to activate forest welfare services (FWS) by investigating the infrastructure, service status, and perception on FWS in Korea. In August 2016, a structured email survey was conducted in nation widely. The respondents were mostly directors and general secretary (75.0%). The considerable number (16.3%) of nursing homes (NH) use some floors of the complex buildings that would be difficult to have FWS infrastructure and about 30% of those without forests near the facilities. The directors of NH recognize that FWS has positive effects on the elderly. However, FWS is not an requisite of the longterm care insurance benefit, and so costly and effort-intensive that FWS has not been activated so far. In order to activate FWS in NHs, it is necessary to develop and disseminate the guidelines on FWS that anyone can easily followed. In addition, when the National Health Insurance Corporation evaluates NHs, they should evaluate not only whether there is a wandering or walking space, but also whether it has forest healing factors such as forests. It is also necessary to create a barrier-free environment both inside and outside of NHs, increasing accessibility to the toilet in gardens, paving a passage for wheelchairs and lifts in forests near NHs. Through these efforts, it is expected that FWS will be activated to provide physical, mental rest and comfort, appropriate cognitive stimulation to the NH residents at the end of life.

Two new triterpenoid saponins derived from the leaves of Panax ginseng and their antiinflammatory activity

  • Li, Fu;Cao, Yufeng;Luo, Yanyan;Liu, Tingwu;Yan, Guilong;Chen, Liang;Ji, Lilian;Wang, Lun;Chen, Bin;Yaseen, Aftab;Khan, Ashfaq A.;Zhang, Guolin;Jiang, Yunyao;Liu, Jianxun;Wang, Gongcheng;Wang, Ming-Kui;Hu, Weicheng
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.600-605
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    • 2019
  • Background: The leaves and roots of Panax ginseng are rich in ginsenosides. However, the chemical compositions of the leaves and roots of P. ginseng differ, resulting in different medicinal functions. In recent years, the aerial parts of members of the Panax genus have received great attention from natural product chemists as producers of bioactive ginsenosides. The aim of this study was the isolation and structural elucidation of novel, minor ginsenosides in the leaves of P. ginseng and evaluation of their antiinflammatory activity in vitro. Methods: Various chromatographic techniques were applied to obtain pure individual compounds, and their structures were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry, as well as chemical methods. The antiinflammatory effect of the new compounds was evaluated on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results and conclusions: Two novel, minor triterpenoid saponins, ginsenoside $LS_1$ (1) and 5,6-didehydroginsenoside $Rg_3$ (2), were isolated from the leaves of P. ginseng. The isolated compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for their inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and Compound 2 showed a significant inhibitory effect with $IC_{50}$ of $37.38{\mu}M$ compared with that of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine ($IC_{50}=90.76{\mu}M$). Moreover, Compound 2 significantly decreased secretion of cytokines such as prostaglandin $E_2$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$. In addition, Compound 2 significantly suppressed protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. These results suggested that Compound 2 could be used as a valuable candidate for medicinal use or functional food, and the mechanism is warranted for further exploration.

Psychiatric Symptoms Among Female Adult Victims of Sexual Molestation : Comparison with Rape Victims (성인 여성 성추행 피해자들의 정신적 증상 : 강간 피해자들과의 비교)

  • Kim, Yeon-Sue;Kim, Sung-Jin;Kong, Bo-Geum;Kang, Je-Wook;Moon, Jung-Joon;Jeon, Dong-Wook;Lee, Sang-Min;Ju, Hyun-Bin;Jung, Do-Un
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.208-216
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    • 2016
  • Objectives : According to the recent Korean National Police Agency report, rape victims were 17.1%, but sexual molestation victims were more than the rape victims by 78.0%. Despite many international reports about the occurrence of severe psychiatric symptoms in sexual molestation victims, there is no domestic research. Therefore in this study, we investigated psychiatric symptoms of sexual molestation victims, and we also compared it with psychiatric symptoms in rape victims. Methods : 58 women who visited Busan Smile Center within 3months after sexual violence were the study subjects. Questionnaire about sociodemographic and sexual violence related characteristics were retrospectively investigated. Of the psychiatric symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) for severity of depression and anxiety, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-R) to check the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) symptoms were used. Results : Of 58 sexual violence victims, sexual molestation victims were 36(62.1%) and rape victims were 22(37.9%). In sexual molestation victims, 80.6% had more than moderate severity of depression, 83.3% had more than moderate severity of anxiety, and 94.4% had significant scores at PTSD screening test. Compared with rape victims' psychiatric symptoms(each 95.5%, 95.5%, 95.5%) there were no significant difference. Conclusions : The majority of sexual molestation victims were also accompanied by depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms as rape victims. There results suggest that appropriate assessment and early treatment for psychiatric symptom must be made in the early stage of injury in sexual molestation victims.

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The Joseon Confucian Ruling Class's Records and Visual Media of Suryukjae (Water and Land Ceremony) during the Fifteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (조선 15~17세기 수륙재(水陸齋)에 대한 유신(儒臣)의 기록과 시각 매체)

  • Jeong, Myounghee
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.184-203
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    • 2020
  • The Confucian ruling class of the Joseon Dynasty regarded Buddhist rituals as "dangerous festivals." However, these Buddhist ceremonies facilitated transitions between phases of life from birth till death and strengthened communal unity through their joint practice of the rites. Ritual spaces were decorated with various utensils and objects that transformed them into wondrous arenas. Of these ornaments, Buddhist paintings served as the most effective visual medium for educating the common people. As an example, a painting of the Ten Kings of the Underworld (siwangdo) could be hung as a means to illustrate the Buddhist view of the afterlife, embedded in images not only inside a Buddhist temple hall, but in any space where a Buddhist ritual was being held. Demand for Buddhist paintings rose considerably with their use in ritual spaces. Nectar ritual paintings (gamnodo), including scenes of appeasement rites for the souls of the deceased, emphasized depictions of royal family members and their royal relatives. In Chinese paintings of the water and land ceremony (suryukjae), these figures referred to one of several sacred groups who invited deities to a ritual. However, in Korean paintings of a nectar ritual, the iconography symbolized the patronage of the royal court and underlined the historicity and tradition of nationally conducted water and land ceremonies. This royal patronage implied the social and governmental sanction of Buddhist rituals. By including depictions of royal family members and their royal relatives, Joseon Buddhist paintings highlighted this approval. The Joseon ruling class outwardly feared that Buddhist rituals might undermine observance of Confucian proprieties and lead to a corruption of public morals, since monks and laymen, men and women, and people of all ranks mingled within the ritual spaces. The concern of the ruling class was also closely related to the nature of festivals, which involved deviation from the routines of daily life and violation of taboos. Since visual media such as paintings were considered to hold a special power, some members of the ruling class attempted to exploit this power, while others were apprehensive of the risks they entailed. According to Joseon wangjo sillok (The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), the Joseon royal court burned Buddhist paintings and ordered the arrest of those who created them, while emphasizing their dangers. It further announced that so many citizens were gathering in Buddhist ritual spaces that the capital city was being left vacant. However, this record also paradoxically suggests that Buddhist rituals were widely considered festivals that people should participate in. Buddhist rituals could not be easily suppressed since they performed important religious functions reflecting the phases of the human life cycle, and had no available Confucian replacements. Their festive nature, unifying communities, expanded significantly at the time. The nectar ritual paintings of the late Joseon period realistically delineated nectar rituals and depicted the troops of traveling actors and performers that began to emerge during the seventeenth century. Such Buddhist rituals for consoling souls who encountered an unfortunate death were held annually and evolved into festivals during which the Joseon people relieved their everyday fatigue and refreshed themselves. The process of adopting Buddhist rituals-regarded as "dangerous festivals" due to political suppression of Buddhism in the Confucian nation-as seasonal customs and communal feasts is well reflected in the changes made in Buddhist paintings.

Clinical Characteristics of Chronic Cough in Korea

  • An, Tai Joon;Kim, Jin Woo;Choi, Eun Young;Jang, Seung Hun;Lee, Hwa Young;Kang, Hye Seon;Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung;Lee, Jong Min;Kim, Sung-Kyung;Shin, Jong-Wook;Park, So Young;Rhee, Chin Kook;Moon, Ji-Yong;Kim, Yee Hyung;Lee, Hyun;Kim, Yong Hyun;Kim, Je Hyeong;Lee, Sang Haak;Kim, Deog Kyeom;Yoo, Kwang Ha;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck;Kim, Hui Jung;Yoon, Hyoung Kyu;Cough Study Group of the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.83 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2020
  • Background: Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines. Methods: This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, exsmokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines. Results: Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response. Conclusion: The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.