• Title, Summary, Keyword: Western period-style architecture in Korea

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A Case of the Early American College Building Tradition in Korea

  • Kim, Young Chul
    • Architectural research
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1999
  • During the first twenty-six years of its existence from 1954 to 1980, Keimyung University established on its Daemyung Campus a unique community of Western period-style buildings which recalls an old liberal arts college in America. During the first fifteen years, Keimyung built basically in the neo-Georgian style in accordance with the visions of the first two presidents, both of American nationality. During the next eleven years when Keimyung considerably expanded its facilities, it built in the neo-Classical style. The architecture of the Daemyung Campus is not without dynamism as it shows some efforts to integrate the expressions of the historical and the modern, culminating in the Main Library. The Daemyung Campus thus presents an interesting case study of how Western period-style architecture was assimilated in a provincial Korean city with a sense of an on-going building tradition.

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A Study of Hybrid Characteristics in Architectural Elevations Seoul, between 1876 and 1905 (개화기(開化期) 서울에서 양식적 건축 요소를 차용한 절충적 한옥(韓屋)의 입면에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-In
    • Journal of the Korean housing association
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 2015
  • There have not been many debates on the subject of Korean architecture during the transformative period of Gae Wha Gi (開化期: Enlightenment Period of Korea), when Western-style buildings first appeared in Seoul. This study begins by finding and recording those buildings in Seoul that show the gradual adoption and appropriation of Western architectural elements at the turn of the 20th century. By exploring the confluence of two different architectural styles, this paper attempts to look carefully at the hybrid conditions that resulted from encounters between the Koreans and the Westerners in the late 19th and early 20th century. Beginning with discovering the first products of the Western architectural influence in Seoul, this study explores the uneasy co-existence between the traditional Korean architectural style, and the Western architectural style. This co-existence ultimately bred new building techniques, and interior layouts; the appearance of these hybrid buildings illustrate the gradual transition from the traditional way, in which users modified, combined and appropriated various elements from both styles. Analyzing historical documents and photos, this study tries to capture a detailed image of the period when the influence of the Western architecture had an unavoidable impact and brought change to the traditional architecture of Korea.

A Study on Characteristic of the Modern Culture Space during Japanese Ruling Era of Korea (일제강점기 근대 문화공간 표현 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Keun-Hye;Oh, In-Wook
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2008
  • Most of these cultural spaces are Western architecture which is completely unrelated to our traditional style. In Japan's colonial rule of Korea these Western formation flowed in and passed on by them. Therefore before the understanding of modem cultural space built in Japan's colonial rule of Korea, it's essential to study about the background of the western period in that time, architecture and trend of interior. Due to Great Depression and other reasons the economical modernism of architecture raised in this period. In this thesis, based on such background of period, cultural space has been divided into assembly, theatre and exhibition spaces. Those spaces were studied according to its expressional characteristics and brought to following conclusion from the analysis. The cultural spaces were created around 1930 due to an increase of demand when the modernism started to establish. Like other buildings cultural space expressed modernized elevation and space formation with ferroconcrete building. However until Japan's colonial period the cultural areas were not used for public but for Japanese authority class's social gatherings only. Consequently, unlike other buildings the classical elements that could express these characters were more used in cultural spaces especially in theater and exhibition areas. This distinctiveness didn't appear separately but according to type of rooms in one space. Once more, place like assembly space was expressed with modernism, special or recreation rooms where people pursue a comfort were expressed with decorative style. Also a special theater which was used for only one person was generally expressed with western style to represent the stem character such as power.

A Study on the Acceptance of Western timber structure and the Interior space of Church buildings in the early modern period in Korea - Focused on the roof structure of church architecture in the Flowering and Japanese occupation period - (한국 근대초기 서양 목구조의 수용과 교회 내부공간형태에 관한 연구 - 개화기와 일제강점기 교회건축의 지붕틀 구조를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim Jung-Shin
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2005
  • This Study is concerned with the acceptance of Western timber structure and the interior space of church buildings in the early modern period in Korea. Timber roofs have represented a wide variety of constructional forms and have been fundamental to any technological appraisal of the evolution of both of Western and Eastern architecture. Especially the roof structure of the church buildings reflects the technological level, aesthetic sense, and spacial concepts of the age. Between Western timber structure and Korean timber structure, there are many differences in not only structural form but also form of roof, members, load, frame system and etc. And there were various types of framing technique such as timber truss, timber arch, timber vault in the western style church architecture in the early modern period in Korea. I have summarized the character of the acceptance process of Western timber structure and the influences on the interior space of church buildings.

Colonial Tourism and Modernism in Korean Modern Architecture - Focused on Railroad Station during Japanese Ruling Era - (한국근대건축에서 식민지관광주의와 모더니즘에 관한 연구 - 일제강점기 철도역사 건축을 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Chang-Mo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.7-22
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    • 2002
  • Architectural style is said to be product reflecting political, social and cultural condition. Especially, in colony, architectural style is strongly related to political condition or policy. After colonization in 1910, public buildings with western historical architectural style in Japanese version were widely built by Japanese colonial government in Korea. And in the late 1920s, modernism style in architecture became dominant in Korea as like other countries. In this situation, curious buildings in strange architectural styles came out. One example is railroad station buildings with traditional Korean architectural style and timber house station having a steep roof which is widely used in North Europe such as Alps area with good sights and mountains. Generally, the colonizer says that colonization is the only way to save the colony at crisis defined by colonizer and they insist that they can help the colony modernize. To justify colonization, the colonizer attributes the colonization to the characteristics of the nation and stagnation of the traditional culture etc.. Accordingly, the colonizer tries to depreciate colony's traditional value and culture. In case of colony which has similar cultural background historically (in this case, economical exploitation is less important than other Asian colony by European power), this depreciation of traditional value and culture in Korea was done more strongly than others. At this time, we should understand special relation between Korea and Japan historically. Even though, colony's locality is adopted by the colonizer in public fields, which is based on political purpose or exotic taste etc.. In early days of Japanese ruling period, Japan never use the Korean traditional facts in public. Therefore there is no use of Korean traditional architectural style in public field. In late 1920s, some railroad station buildings were constructed in new styles without precedence in modern Korea. One is railroad station buildings in Korean traditional architectural style, the other is railroad station buildings in timber house stations having a steep roof which is different form western historical architectural style. It was mystery that Japan had constructed railroad stations in Korean traditional style which Japan had tried to destroy together with Western style railroad station buildings. This paper is made to solve the mystery why the colonizer(Japan) constructed entirely different types of railroad stations at the same time in the late 1920s and 1930s. The key point to solve this mystery is tourism. In this paper, to solve this mystery, I try to use terminology' 'Colonial Tourism' in architecture why colonial power had constructed railroad stations with colony's traditional architectural style and Western style having a steep roof which can be seen north European region.

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The Modernization of the Korean Housing Under the Japanese Colonial Rule

  • Sohn, Sei-Kwan;Jun, Nam-Il;Hong, Hyung-Ock;Yang, Se-Hwa
    • International Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2006
  • The numerous changes made during the Japanese colonial rule became the basis of the current housing in Korea. Therefore, in order to understand the modern Korean housing, it is essential to understand what the Korean traditional life styles admitted or changed, and how the foreign culture of that time influenced the Korean housing under the Japanese colonial rule. Content analysis through literature review was utilized for the study, and specific sources were research papers, books, magazines, newspapers, and novels. The period during the Japanese invasion was the most active era of modernization in the Korean history. For the housing culture, especially, it can be considered as the most significant period that accepted new housing cultures that replaced the old traditional housing. The Japanese and the Western styles of housing were introduced, new materials and collective production methods were used, and the symbol of the current urban housing in Korea, multi-family dwelling, was constructed. In conclusion, the Koreans did not directly use the Japanese and western housing culture, which were constructed during the Japanese colonial period. They were adapted and altered into Korean style, and eventually, produced various eclectic housing styles.

A Study on the Changes and Influencing Factors fo Townscape in Korea since 1945 (解防後 韓國의 都市景觀 變遷 및 그 要因 硏究 - 서울을 중심으로 -)

  • 이경목
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study is to find out how the urban landscape of Korea, especially Seoul, changed during the last half century since 1945. The modernization of Korea, which had begun in 1960's after the chaotic period caused by Korean War, influenced the rapid growth of cities and the radical changes of its structures. But the Western-minded planning theories based on rationalism and positivism was directly applied in developing our traditional cities and consequently the modern urban landscape including urban pattern, architectural style, and commercial and residential landscape revealed disharmony, discrepancy and inconsistency in skylines, streetscape and so on. The findings are summarized as follows. 1. Because the urban structure and pattern changed in undesirable manner in terms of land use and traffic circulation, cities as a whole resulted in exclusive and heterogeneous landscape, and citizens lost their identity and felt alienated. 2. Because the architectural forms of important and monumental buildings which influenced the character of streetscape were not so successful in inventing contemporary Korean Style in true sense, we still have difficulty in creating the urban landscape of originality and legibility. 3. Because from the beginning of this era almost all highrise buildings were designed by modernism-oriented western architects, the commercial landscape of central cities did not evoke a sense of place, and after the introduction of postmodernism this tendency is ore striking even in everyday ordinary streetscape. 4. The newly formed residential landscape which was mainly composed of highly dense and highrise apartment, not only evolved very overwhelming and ugly visual impact but also exposed many social problems in living condition, neighboring and face-to-face contact. In conclusion, in ordr to define the 'Koreanness' of our urban landscape, we have to struggle to combine traditional architectural heritage and native townscape with Western shape, thought and theory, no matter how difficult it may be.

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Campus Plan's Paradoxa: Frank Lloyd Wright's Florida Southern College and Mies van der Rohe's Illinois Institute of Technology (캠퍼스 계획의 모순: 프랭크 로이드 라이트의 플로리다 남부대학과 미스 반 데어 로에의 일리노이 공과대학)

  • Seo, Myengsoo
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2018
  • This research examines pioneering works of two representative Western modern architects which played a significant role in constructing modernity in the early 20th century: Frank Lloyd Wright's Florida Southern College and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Illinois Institute of Technology. These two campuses were constructed and developed at the similar period by two named architects, and these were considered the collections of iconic modern buildings in the States. However, design approaches and principles of these buildings were totally opposite ways: Frank Lloyd Wright's Florida Southern College was in the roof of organic architecture drawn from a great Chinese sage, Laotze, which have more five hundred years history. On the other hand, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Illinois Institute of Technology was well embodied the International Style which originated from European tradition in the early 20th century, and Mies was one of the leaders of the International Style. These different approaches could be understood in the discussion of the meaning of the Greek concept of paradoxa which was mentioned by a German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Comparing the paradoxical gestures of these two campuses can reveal the truth of each campus master plans and expand the discourse of modern architectures.

A Study on the Change of Spacial Form of Korean Detached House after 1980s (1980년대 이후 한국 단독주택 공간 형태 변화 연구)

  • Lee, Sun-Min;Hur, Bum-Pall
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.254-263
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    • 2012
  • This study found out the change of spacial form of detached house in Korea on a 10-year basis from 1980s though analysis on the architecture of each period. For the subject houses of this study, the detached houses introduced repeatedly as excellent cases in technical journals for architecture were collected among those completed by architects who designed numerous houses and a survey was conducted on 18 detached houses of 18 architects among the in urban style houses in Seoul and suburban style houses in the suburbs of Seoul. Through this study, it could be found that, as the morphological application of traditional architecture was settled with spatial concept, the external spatial form of the detached houses in Korea after 1980s was changed to westernized form but the internal spacial form had been continuously changing suitable to our emotion by reflecting the living habit and taste with the traditional attitude to perceive and accept the nature. As for the change in the forms of interior space, vertical space with more than two floors became common. Front porch and stair hall, which were located at the center of a house and became an important spacial element that overlapped family's moving line, changed to open and bright space that used transparent glass and increased the space to contact the open air, reflecting our living habit and taste that preferred the feeling of internal openness. A Private space, main room, was more segmented and luxurious, and a public space, living room, secured the independency by getting close to symbolic yard. As for the change in the form of exterior space, the form of façade window has been changing in its location and size and brought free images due to the advancement of technology and material. The shape of roofs was borrowed from western style and a lot of geometrical forms that break away from the concept of angle rater and eaves are appearing.

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Ways of Remodeling from the Traditional Hanok to the Modern Local Governmental Facility in 1910s - Focused on Architectural Drawings of the National Archives of Korea - (1910년대 근대적 지방관립시설로 사용된 한옥의 개조 방식 -국가기록원 소장 건축 도면의 분석을 통하여-)

  • Joo, Sang-Hun
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to identify ways of remodeling from the traditional hanok to the modern local governmental facility in 1910s. Analysing architectural drawings in the National Archives of Korea, 58 hanok remodeling cases of 52 facilities were verified like the provincial office, county office, county court from 1907 to 1910s. Using hanok as the local governmental building, exterior walls were all changed to the scaled-wooden wall like one of western-wooden building in 1910s and the western-style entrance was set. Change of the plan caused by remodeling interior walls had an intention of the centralized closed plan. Remodeled semi-outer corridor using the space of the eave became changed to the inner corridor with expansion of space. Expansion of hanok for spatial demand was in three ways. First was the expansion towards the eave space, second was direct extension from hanok, and last was the use of external corridor to the new building. Using the eave space was simple but had limitation of space, it was planed with other expansion ways. The way of direct extension was usually used than the one with the corridor, because it was more economical way.