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An Exploratory Study on Female Caregivers' Experiences of Aggression by Older Residents in Nursing Homes (노인요양시설 입소노인에 의한 여성요양보호사의 폭력 경험에 대한 탐색적 연구)

  • Yoo, Seong Ho;Kim, Bo Kyung;Moon, Yu Jin;Shim, Il Kwang;Cho, Hee Ju
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1037-1058
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to investigate the female caregivers'experiences of aggression by nursing home residents, and to identify the policy strategies for violence prevention referred by the female caregivers. A total of 121 female caregivers with more than 6 months of working experiences had participated in this study. Of these, 56.2% had experienced verbal aggression, 51.2% physical aggression, and 27.3% sexual aggression, which reveals that client violence toward caregivers in nursing homes was at an alarming level. Although, physical and verbal violences were mostly caused unintentionally, about a half of the sexual aggression were caused deliberately. Aggression occurred the most when caregivers were providing the following services: changing the diapers or clothes, giving a bath, and serving meals. It was found that 'hitting' was the most common form of physical aggression and it was 'swearing' and 'touching or physical contacting' in the case of verbal and sexual aggression, respectively. Though there was a difference depending on the type of aggression, the most frequent reactions against client violence were to start a conversation or calm down the nursing home residents, and to leave the scene or ignore the incident. This means that the caregivers are coping very passively through resolving the aggressions by themselves, or overlooking the situation. The most frequently recommended strategy to prevent resident aggression was to provide educational programs on violence prevention to nursing home residents and caregivers(42.7%). Compared to the previous studies, this study indicates some differentiated strategies to prevent violence in nursing homes, which include hiring male caregivers, assuring directors to pay closer attention toward caregivers, using refined language between caregivers and residents, and keeping caregivers to wear appropriate clothes. Based on the study results, some policy recommendations on the prevention of client violence in nursing homes were suggested.

The treatment of an edentulous patient with DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM Denture (CAD/CAM Denture를 이용한 완전 무치악 환자 수복 증례)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Cho, In-Ho;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Nowadays, CAD/CAM is broadly used in dentistry for inlays, crowns, implant abutments and its spectrum is expanding to complete dentures. Utilizing CAD/CAM to fabricate complete dentures is expected to decrease chair time and the number of visits, thus decreasing total fabrication time, expenses and errors caused during fabrication processes. One of the systems using CAD/CAM, DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM denture (DENTCA Inc. Los Angeles, USA) scans edentulous impressions, designs dentures digitally, fabricates try-in dentures by 3D printing and converts them into final dentures. Patients can wear final dentures after only 2 - 3 visits with satisfying adaptation. This case report introduces a 71-year-old male patient who visited to consult remaking of existing old dentures. Residual teeth with bad prognosis and root remnants were extracted and the patient used reformed existing mandibular denture for 2 months. And then DENTCA system started. One-step border molding was done using conventional tray of adequate size provided by DENTCA system and wash impression was taken. Gothic arch tracing was completed based on the vertical dimension of existing dentures. Both maxillary and mandibular trays were placed to the resultant centric relation and bite registration was taken. Then DENTCA scanned the bite registration, arranged the teeth, completed the festooning and fabricated the try-in dentures by 3D printing. The try-in dentures were positioned, occlusal plane and occlusal relations were evaluated. The try-in dentures were converted to final dentures. To create bilateral balanced occlusion, occlusal adjustment was done after clinical remounting using facebow transfer. The result was satisfactory and it was confirmed by patient and operator.

Assessment of dust exposure and personal protective equipment among dental technicians (치과기공사의 분진노출 수준 및 개인보호구 착용 실태 - 대구지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Soo-Chul;Jeon, Man-Joong;SaKong, Joon
    • Journal of Technologic Dentistry
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.93-102
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate working environment for dental technician by measuring dust level, ventilation conditions and the use of personal protective equipment and to provide basic information required to improve working environment and develop health education programs for dental technician. Methods: A total of 240 dental technician who are registered with the Daegu Association of Dental technician and working at 34 dental laboratories participated in the study. And the dust level was measured at 21 different spots in 16 dental laboratories out of 34. Results: Of 34 dental laboratories, 31 (91.2%) were equipped with a ventilator, but the remaining 3 (8.8%) did not have a ventilator. By the number of ventilator, 1 to 3 ventilators were found in 22 dental laboratories (71.0%), 4 to 6 ventilators were in 7 laboratories (22.5%) and more than 7 ventilators in 2 laboratories(6.5%). According to the frequence of changing filters in dust collector, 20 dental laboratories (58.9%) changed filters every four weeks, 10 laboratories (29.4%) changed them every six weeks and 4 laboratories (11.7%) changed them every eight weeks. Of total respondents, 114 (61.3%) said they wore a mask all the time while working, 56 (29.6%) said they frequently wore a mask, 19 (10.1%) said they did not wear a mask. As for the type of masks, 159 (84.1%) used a disposable mask, 25 (13.2%) used a cotton mask and 5 (2.7%) used an anti-dust mask. For dust sat on their outfits while working, 102 (54.0%) shook their uniforms inside workplace to keep dust off the uniforms, 64 (33.9%) did not anything until they wash their uniforms and 23 (12.1%) shook their uniforms outside workplace to keep dust off the uniforms. Of total respondents, 182 (96.3%) had a particle in their eyes while carrying out grinding work. Based on the measurement of floating dust at workplace, 3 dental laboratories showed dust concentration exceeding the minimum level of 10 mg/$m^3$ allowed under the permit for environment. Of those, 1 laboratory had the dust concentration that was more than 1.5 times higher than the minimum level. Dust concentration was higher in laboratories that used a dust collector with 0.5 horse power and changed filters more than 3 weeks ago. Dust comprised of nickel (more than 70%), chrome (9%) and others. The mean chrome concentration was more than twice higher than the minimum permissible level of 0.5 mg/$m^3$. There were two laboratories that showed chrome concentration exceeding the level of 0.4 mg/$m^3$. Like dust concentration, chrome level was higher in laboratories that used a dust collector with 0.5 horse power and changed filters more than 3 weeks ago. There were six laboratories that had nickel concentration exceeding the minimum permissible level of 1 mg/$m^3$. Of those, one laboratory had nickel concentration that was more than three times higher than the minimum permissible level. Nickel concentration was also higher in laboratories that used a dust collector with 0.5 horse power and changed filters more than 3 weeks ago. Conclusion: It is not likely that heavy metal concentrations found in the study constitute respiratory dust. It is however necessary for health of dental technician to apply the Industrial Safety and Healthy Law to dental laboratories and make recommendations for the use of personal protective equipment, installation of a proper number of ventilators, more frequent change of filters in dust collector and improved ventilation for polishing work. At the same time, dental technician need education on how to use personal protective equipment and how to efficiently remove dust from their uniforms.

The evaluation of clinical efficacy and longevity of home bleaching without combined application of In-office bleaching (자가미백술 단독사용시 임상적 효능 및 유지력 평가)

  • Shin, Byunk-Gyu;Yang, Sung-Eun
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.387-394
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the whitening efficacy and longevity of home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 patients were divided into either experimental group (Opalescence F; 15% carbamide peroxide) or control group randomly. The patients in experimental group were instructed to wear individual trays applied with bleaching gel for 2 hours a day for 4 weeks. Any treatments weren't applied to the patients in control group. The color measurements of central incisors, lateral incisors & canines of upper and lower arch were recorded at base line, immediately after the finishment of treatmemt (4 weeks), 8 weeks and 12 weeks using Colorimeter (Chroma Meter, 2600d Konica Minolta co.) and Vitapan classical shade guide (Vita Zahnfabrik). Results: A significantly stronger color change was observed for overall teeth samples in experimental group immediately after treatment (at 4 weeks) compared to ones in control group (p < 0.05). There was also a significant difference between baseline and 8 weeks or 12 weeks separately though color rebouncing phenomenon occurred as time went by (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The clinical effecacy and longevity of home bleaching without combined application of in-office bleaching was observed through this experiment.

A Study on Fuel Quality Characteristics of F-T Diesel for Production of BTL Diesel (BTL 디젤 생산을 위한 F-T 디젤의 연료적 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Jae-Kon;Jeon, Cheol-Hwan;Yim, Eui-Soon;Jung, Choong-Sub;Lee, Sang-Bong;Lee, Yun-Je;Kang, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.450-458
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    • 2012
  • In order to reduce the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the South Korean government has announced a special platform of technologies as part of an effort to minimize global climate change. To further this effort, the Korean government has pledged to increase low-carbon and carbon neutral resources for biofuel derived from biomass to replace fossil and to decrease levels of carbon dioxide. In general, second generation biofuel produced form woody biomass is expected to be an effective avenue for reducing fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in road transport. It is important that under the new Korean initiative, pilot scale studies evolve practices to produce biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel. This study reports the quality characteristics of F-T(Fischer-Tropsch) diesel for production of BTL fuel. Synthetic F-Tdiesel fuel can be used in automotive diesel engines, pure or blended with automotive diesel, due to its similar physical properties to diesel. F-T diesel fuel was synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process with syngas($H_2$/CO), Fe basedcatalyst in low temperature condition($240^{\circ}C$). Synthetic F-T diesel with diesel compositions after distillation process is consisted of $C_{12}{\sim}C_{23+}$ mixture as a kerosine, diesel compositions of n-paraffin and iso-paraffin compounds. Synthetic F-T diesel investigated a very high cetane number, low aromatic composition and sulfur free level compared to automotive diesel. Synthetic F-T diesel also show The wear scar of synthetic F-T diesel show poor lubricity due to low content of sulfur and aromatic compounds compared to automotive diesel.

Long-term Variations of Water Quality Parameters in Lake Kyoungpo (경포호에서 수질변수들의 장기적인 변화)

  • Kwak, Sungjin;Bhattrai, Bal Dev;Choi, Kwansoon;Heo, Woomyung
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.95-107
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    • 2015
  • In order to identify long-term trends of water quality parameters in Lake Kyeongpo, Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator and linear regression were applied on data, with 15 parameters from three different sites and rainfall, monitored once in every two months from March to November during 1998~2013. Seasonal variation analysis only used Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator. Analysis result showed that salinity, transparency and nutrient variables (total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen) were only parameters having statistically significant trend. In linear regression analysis, salinity (surface and bottom layer of all sites) and transparency (only at site 1), were figured out with statistically significant increasing trend, while in non-parametric statistical method, salinity and transparency in all sites (surface, middle, deep) were figured out with statistically significant increasing trend. Water quality parameters showing statistically significant decreasing trends were dissolved oxygen (surface layer of site 1 and bottom layer of sites 2 and 3), total phosphorus (sites 1 and 2), dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in the linear regression analysis and, dissolved oxygen (bottom layer of all sites), total phosphorus, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen in the non-parametric method. Seasonal trend analysis result showed that salinity, turbidity, transparency and suspended solids in spring, salinity, transparency, nitrate nitrogen and suspended solids in summer and temperature, salinity, transparency and suspended solids in fall were the variables depending on the season with increasing trends. In general, rainfall during the research period showed decreasing trend. The significant reduction trends of nutrients in Lake Kyeongpo were believed to be related to lagoon restoration and water management project run by Gangneung city and under-water wear removal, but further detailed studies are needed to know the exact causes.

A Survey on the Workplace Environment and Personal Protective Equipment of Poultry Farmers (양계 농업인의 작업장 환경 및 개인보호구 착용 실태조사)

  • Kim, Insoo;Kim, Kyung-Ran;Lee, Kyung-Suk;Chae, Hye-Seon;Kim, Sungwoo
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.454-468
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the actual condition of the farm work environment and personal protective equipment as part of the effort to improve livestock work for the safety and health of poultry farmers and provide basic data for establishing plans to improve and develop personal protective equipment. Methods: For this purpose, a questionnaire survey on general information about stables, the poultry work environment, accidents, the wearing of work clothes and personal protective equipment, and the level of awareness related to personal protective equipment was conducted among 148 poultry farmers. Results: As a result, it was found that poultry workplace environment was exposed to such risks as fine dusts; organic dusts; poisonous gases; odorous substances; chicken excrement; contact with chickens, bacteria or viruses; and accidents related to machine operation. Thirteen percent of respondents suffered severe respiratory diseases, and the most frequently injured sites due to accidents were the hands (25.7%), knees (23.8%), arms (17.3%), and head (10.9%). The most frequent type of accident was collisions between the body and obstacles or machinery during movement (36.4%), followed by erroneous machine operation such as feeders and electric shocks (8.5%). Regarding the wearing of work clothes and personal protective equipment, 51.7% of the respondents wore worn-out clothing or everyday clothes, whereas only 32.0% wore work clothes. The percentage of farmers who wore proper protective equipment for the work environment during poultry work was 48.4%. The most frequently used type of protective equipment was boots (38.9%), followed by mask (36.7%), gloves (36.3%), appropriate work clothes (22.6%), quarantine clothes (17.6%), helmets (13.4%), and goggles (12.6%). The rate of wearing goggles was low because they were considered inconvenient and lowered work efficiency. Furthermore, they purchased everyday products available on the market for their personal protective equipment which were not appropriate for maintaining safety in an actual harmful environment and its consequent risks. As a result of the survey of the awareness level related to personal protective equipment, their levels of awareness of accidents and attitude proved to be average or higher, but the practice of wearing protective equipment and the level of knowledge and management of personal protective equipment were lower. Conclusion: This survey found that the wearing status of personal protective equipment among poultry farmers was insufficient even though they were exposed to risks. Most respondents were aware of the necessity of wearing personal protective equipment and of the potential for accidents, but they did not wear proper protective equipment. Their wearing rate was low due to a lack of knowledge about protective equipment, as well as the inconvenience of wearing it. Therefore there is a need to improve and develop specialized personal protective equipment for respiration, hands, and eyes, as well as work clothes that can protect farmers from major harmful matter that is generated in the poultry workplace. Based on the results of this investigation, we will conduct further studies on the required performance and design directions of personal protective equipment while collecting more objective data through field-oriented assessments.

Effect of Noise in Human Body (소음이 인체에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영노
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.7-8
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    • 1972
  • The effects of noise exposure are of two types: Nonauditory effects and auditory effects. Nonauditory effects of noise exposure are interference with communication by speech, sleeping and emotional behavior. The noise will cause the high blood pressure and rapid pulse, also that decrease the salivation and gastric juice. in experimentaly showed that the Corticoid hormon: Gonatotropic hormone were decrease and Thyrotropic hormoone is increase. Auditory effect of noise exposure. when the normal ear is exposed to noise at noise at hamful intensities (above 90㏈) for sufficiently long periods of time, a temoral depression of hearing results, disappearing after minutes or hours of rest. When the exposure longer or intesity greater is reached the Permanent threshold shift called noise-induced hearing loss. Hearing loss resulting from noise exposure presents legal as well as medical problems. The otologist who examines and evaluates the industrial hearing loss cases must be properly informed, not only concerning the otologic but also about the physical and legal aspects of the problems. The measurement of hearing ability is the most important part of a hearing conservation, both preplacement and periodic follow-up tests of hearing. The ideal hearing conservation program would be able to reduce or eliminate the hazardous noise at its source or by acoustic isolation of noisy working area and two ear protections (plugs and muff type) were developed for personal protection.

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Chinese Influences on Traditional Korean Costume (우리 복식에 중국복식이 미친 영향)

  • 김문숙
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.123-133
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    • 1981
  • If we are to define that the traditional costume is a comprehensive expression of the culture, thoughts, and arts of a country, it is needless to say that the traditional costume would have always reflected the social and cultural aspects of the times. In order words, the cultural contemplation of a certain people at some point the history is only possible when we observe the distintive features of the costume worn by the people of respective times. Although the Korean people had the native costume of its own from the times of the Ancient Choson to the Three Kingdoms of Koguryo, Paekche, and Silla, the Chinese influence on Korean traditional costume became somewhat pronounced ever since the Silla strenghtened the political ties with the T'ang dynasty in China, and it came to a climax when the dual structure in Korean native costume, being compounded with the Chinese touch, continued to be prevailed from the era of the Unified Silla to the Koryo and throughout the succeeding Yi dynasty, thereby copying the typical aspects of Chinese pattern in clothing and dresses worn by the ruling classes, namely the goverment officials including the Kings. Therefore, it is our aim to study the pattern of Chinese influence on our traditional costume, as well as social and cultural aspects by way of contrasting and comparing our official outfit system, which had been developing in dualism since the era of the Unified Silla, with that of China, and to trace in part the Korean traditional costume. In comparing our traditional official outfit system with that of China, we have basically concentrated on the comparison of the official outfit systems during the periods of the Three Kingdoms, the Koryo, and The Yi dynasty with that of corresponding era of Chinese history, namely the dynasties of T'ang, Sung, and Ming, and followed the documentary records for the comparison. Koreans had fallen into the practice of worshipping the powerful in China and begun to adopt the culture and institutions of the T'ang dynasty since the founding of the Unified Silla. From this time forth, Korean people started to wear the clothes in Chinese style. The style of clothing during the period of the Koryo Kingdom was deeply influenced by that of the T'ang and Sung dynasties in China, and it was also under the influenced of the Yuan dynasty(dynasty established by the Mongols) at one time, because of the Koryo's subordinative position to the Yuan. At the close of the Koryo dynasty, the King Kongmin ordered the stoppage on the use of 'Ji-Joung', the name of an era for the Yuan dynasty, in May of the eighteenth year of his rule in order to have the royal authority recognized by a newly rising power dominating the Chinese continent, the Mind. Kind Kongmin presented a memorial, repaying a kindness to the Emperor T'aejo of the Ming dynasty in celebration of his enthronement and requested that the emperor choose an official outfit, thereby the Chinese influence being converted to that of the Ming. As a matter of course, the Chinese influence deepened all the more during the era of the Yi dynasty coupled with the forces of the toadyic ideology of worshipping the China, dominant current of the times, and the entire costume, from the imperial crown and robe to the official outfit system of government officials, such as official uniforms, ordinary clothes, sacrificial robes, and court dresses followed the Chinese style in their design. Koreans did not have the opportunity of developing the official outfit system on its own and they just wore the official outfit designated on separate occasions by the emperors of China, whenever the changes in dynasty occurred in the continent. Especially, the Chinese influence had greatly affected in leading our consciousness on the traditional costume to the consciousness of the class and authority. Judging from the results, Koreans had been attaching weight to the formulation of the traditional outfit system for the ruling classes in all respective times of the history and the formulation of the system was nothing more than the simple following of the Chinese system.

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A Study on Angels' Costumes in Religious Paintings (종교화에 나타난 천사의 복식에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Hae Jon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 1979
  • This is a study on angels' costumes in religious paintings, especially as this relates to the questions of concepts and theological symbolism. Angels, as spiritual creatures in Christian thought, play the role of praising God's glory, as messengers of God, the role of guarding Israel and the Church, and protecting or punishing human beings. Sometimes the angels appear in incarnate form. They display no sexual differences and are not able to procreate. The angels' funtional classification being thus; nevertheless, they are pictured in various costumes and appearances according to characteristics of the paintings. The angel Michael appears as a man of dignity when pictured as a guard; the angel Gabriel in the annunciation is often portrayed as a woman of mystical beauty. Under the Renaissance, the mighty cherubim and seraphim at Yahweh's throne are degraded as plump child-angels, or winged child-heads looking alike Eros or Cupid. They have become playful and all too obviously non-heavenly chrubs, accepted features of the Temple decorations. However, cherubim are often depicted as naked or wrapped around with a piece of cloth and accompanied with wind, which symbolizes the Glory of God. The angels, costumes without seam are hung over or wrapped around the body, and when sewn they are simple and ample enough that they fall in a great many folds. However, by the 14C. angels are mostly dressed in costumes common to all Europe, and after that angels gradually appear in folk costumes; for example Italian, Flemish, etc. Dalmatic, the typical costume of Byzantine often shows up as angels' dresses even after the period. Originally the dalmatic was the Roman tunic to which Eastern influences added. The Roman clavus on the tunic had gradually lost distinction until, by the Imperial epoch, it was worn by the lowest servants. It was proudly therefore, as 'The servants of God', that the early Christians are shown wearing the clavus on their wide, ungirdled, sleeved dalmatics. In addition to their costume, angels have some other distinct charateristics. First, angels have a halo around their head; this symbolizes their holiness. Second, angels wear a narrow diadem or a queen's crown that seems to denote their glorious status close to God's throne. Third, the cloth band across the breast resembles a priest's stole, which suggests the sacred role of a priest and symbolizes the grace santified. Fourth, lilies in the annunciations are symbols of Mary's virginity. chastity, innocence and heavenly bliss. Angels hold palms or olives in their hands. The former denote prosperity. beauty and the Christians' reward after death; the latter represent peace and amity. the imperial crown made of olives means victory. Fifth, angels in paintings always have a pair of wings, which can be traced to scripture where cherubim and seraphim are described as having pairs of wings. Angels' wings often have colors of the rainbow, and the rainbow is compared to God's glory. Sixth, generally artists paint angels' costumes as white, blue, green, gold and purple. Other colors such as red rarely appear. According, to scriptures it is believed that angels should be depicted 'as white as snow'. According to the biblical expressions of angels as lightning, sun or a pillar of fire, angels should be described as creatures of light. Nevertheless being a form of art, religious paintings may differ in their presentation according to an artist's inspiration and intention. Since religious paintings illustrated above were almost all done before the Reformation, symbols of colors used in the Catholic Church will also be mentioned. The white color symbolizes chastity, purity, brightness, delight and divinity. Green represents new birth, eternal life, spiritual revival and the expectance of the grace of God. Blue, the color of sapphires, denotes chastity and truth. Red, the color of rubies, represents divinity, love and religious passion. Violet is the color of dignity, indicating the sovereign, royal or imperial power and the great Sacrifice of Christ. As mentionad above, angels' costumes were expressed in accordance with contemporary patterns or as indicated in the Bible, and accesories and colors correspond with Christian symbols. Therefore these facts should be taken into consideration when it comes to the study of costume history.

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