• Title, Summary, Keyword: Water footprint

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Estimation of Water Footprint for Upland Crop Production in Korea (한국의 밭작물 생산에서의 물발자국 산정)

  • Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 2014
  • Water footprint is defined as the total volume of direct and indirect water used to produce a good and service by consumer or producer, and measured at the point of production based on virtual water concept. The green and blue water footprint refers to the volume of the rainwater and the irrigation water consumed, respectively. Crop water footprint is expected to be used as the basic data for agricultural water resources policies at production, consumption and trade aspect. Thus, it is necessary to estimate suitable green and blue water footprint for South Korea. The objective of this paper is to quantify the green and blue water footprint and usage of upland crops during the period 2001-2010. To estimate the water footprint, 43 upland crop production quantity and harvested area data were collected for 10 years and FAO Penman-Monteith equation was adopted for calculating crop water requirement. As the results, the water footprint of cereals, vegetables, fruits and oil crops accounted for 1,994, 165, 605, and 4,226 $m^3/ton$, respectively. The usage of water footprint for crop production has been estimated at 3,499 (green water) and 216 (blue water) $Mm^3/yr$ on average showing a tendency to decrease. Fruits and vegetables have the largest share in the green water usage, consuming about 1,200 and 1,060 $Mm^3/yr$ which are about 65 % of gross usage. The results of this study are expected to be understood by the agricultural water footprint as well as by the total water footprint from both a production and consumption perspective in Korea.

Estimation of Water Footprint for Livestock Products in Korea (한국의 축산물 물발자국 산정)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong;Yoo, Seung-Hwan;Kim, Young Deuk;Shin, Ankook
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2015
  • Since the consumption of the livestock products increased for the past 10 years in Korea, the water use for live animals has become more important in terms of water savings. Therefore, the index connecting water use and livestock products consumption should be required for sustainable water management, and water footprint concept could be suggested as the index. The aim of this study is to estimate the water footprint for livestock products; beef cattle, swine, and broiler chicken. The water footprint for livestock products is divided into direct and indirect water. The direct water includes the drinking and servicing water, and the indirect water includes the water for the cultivation of feed crops. The water footprint of beef cattle was calculated to $17,023.1m^3/ton$, and direct water was $91.2m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $16,931.9m^3/ton$. The water footprint of swine was calculated to $4,235.8m^3/ton$, and direct water was $129.7m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $4,106.0m^3/ton$. The water footprint of broiler chicken was calculated to $2,427.7m^3/ton$, and direct water was $7.6m^3/ton$, and indirect water was $2,420.1m^3/ton$. Also, we compared the water footprint to water demand of water vision 2020 which is the main report for national water management. The water vision 2020 reported only direct water for live animal, but the water footprint includes the direct and indirect water. Therefore, the water footprint could be applied to various fields relating water and food.

Apple Water-Footprint Calculation and Water Risk Action (사과의 지역별 물발자국 비교와 물 리스크 대응 -충주와 거창 지역을 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Young-Jin;Park, Seog-Ha;Kim, Hong-Jae;Kim, Chesoong
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.113-125
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    • 2013
  • According to 2012 OECD environmental report, Korea was ranked as the first country of water stress. Water footprint is a method to calculate water usage during the life cycle of a product from material procurement through production to disposal to recycle and to quantify the load to water resources. In water footprint calculation, water consumption unit is used. Agricultural water use is over 48% so it is urgent to mange that area Korea needs to spread the discussion about water footprint as quickly as possible, for the study to prevent social and environmental problems due to water shortage. This paper, through water footprint calculation and comparison in Chungju and Geochang areas, looks to counter measures for water risk, targeting domestically-produced apple.

Analysis and Application of Water Footprint to Improve Water Resource Management System - With a Focus on Seoul City - (서울시 물환경관리체계 개선을 위한 물발자국 도입 및 활용방안에 관한 연구 - 서울시 자치구 물환경관리 정책 및 제도, 관리체계 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Chun, Dong Jun;Kim, Jin-Oh
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.222-232
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    • 2016
  • Water Footprint is utilized to analyze direct and indirect water consumption for sustainable water resource management. This study aims to understand potential applicability of water footprint concept by analyzing the status of water consumption and related water policies in Seoul. We analyzed a direct gray water footprint and the blue water footprint in Seoul affected by the social and economic characteristics of the consumers in the city. In particular, in order to analyze the blue water footprint represented by both surface and underground water for the provision and consumption of products, we calculated the actual water consumptions of surface and underground water for 25 districts in Seoul. Our analysis in consideration of population and households indicates that Jung-gu has the highest blue water footprint followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, and Seocho-gu. Gray water footprint was calculated by estimating the amount of water for purifying wastewater to meet the water quality standard (above BOD 3.5ppm) for each district. As a result, Jung-gu has the highest gray water footprint, followed by Jongro-gu, Gangnam-gu, Yongsan-gu, Seocho-gu, and Youngdeungpo-gu. Our study suggests the potential value of using water footprint concept to complement the current limitations of water use management focusing on water supply control. We expect that our analysis will provide an important basis for considering water use management which is economically and socially more resilient and sustainable.

Analysis of Paddy Rice Water Footprint under Climate Change Using AquaCrop (AquaCrop을 이용한 기후변화에 따른 미래 논벼 물발자국 변화 분석)

  • Oh, Bu-Yeong;Lee, Sang-Hyun;Choi, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 2017
  • Climate change causes changes in rainfall patterns, temperature and drought frequency. Climate change impact influences on water management and crop production. It is critical issue in agricultural industry. Rice is a staple cereal crop in South Korea and Korea uses a ponding system for its paddy fields which requires a significant amount of water. In addition, water supply has inter-relationship with crop production which indicates water productivity. Therefore, it is important to assess overall impacts of climate change on water resource and crop production. A water footprint concept is an indicator which shows relationship between water use and crop yield. In addition, it generally composed of three components depending on water resources: green, blue, grey water. This study analyzed the change trend of water footprint of paddy rice under the climate change. The downscaled climate data from HadGEM3-RA based on RCP 8.5 scenario was applied as future periods (2020s, 2050s, 2080s), and historical climate data was set to base line (1990s). Depending on agro-climatic zones, Suwon and Jeonju were selected for study area. A yield of paddy rice was simulated by using FAO-AquaCrop 5.0, which is a water-driven crop model. Model was calibrated by adjusting parameters and was validated by Mann-Whitney U test statistically. The means of water footprint were projected increase by 55 % (2020s), 51 % (2050s) and 48 % (2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of $767m^2/ton$ in Suwon. In case of Jeonju, total water footprint was projected to increase by 46 % (2020s), 45 % (2050s), 12 % (2080s), respectively, from the baseline value of $765m^2/ton$. The results are expected to be useful for paddy water management and operation of water supply system and apply in establishing long-term policies for agricultural water resources.

A Study on the Applicability of Water Footprint Methodology in Korea by Analyzing Domestic Water Resources Statistics (국내 물 자원 통계자료 분석을 통한 물발자국 방법론 국내 적용 가능성 확인 연구)

  • Kim, Sun Uk;Jo, Seo Weon;Ahn, Jae Hyun;Lee, Han Woong;Yeon, Sung Mo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.146-153
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    • 2018
  • The water footprint is an important component of the Single Market for Green Product initiative based on the EU's Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe. In July 2014, the EU has established the International Standard for Water Footprint (ISO 14046) and Korea has complied with the Korean Industrial Standard (KS I ISO 14046) in April 2015. If a certification system based on the international standard (ISO 14046) is introduced, developing countries such as India and Vietnam, which are not equipped with bases, can become a trade barriers in exporting, so Korea should establish a strategy to reverse them. On the other hand, water footprints are designed to take into account local environmental impacts when compared to similar footprints (eg, carbon footprint) using LCA, so that products manufactured and manufactured in Korea will have an impact on domestic waters Should be considered. Therefore, the method of the water footprint should conform to the standard for compatibility with other countries. In order to consider the domestic water condition, it is necessary to identify suitable indicator or factor for estimating water footprint on Korea. For this purpose, this study analyzed the water footprint estimation study conducted at domestic and foreign based on international standards and through the analysis of statistical data related to domestic water resources, we confirmed the applicability of the water footprint methodology in Korea.

Accounting for the Water Footprint Impact of Food Waste within Korean Households

  • Adelodun, Bashir;Kim, Sang Hyun;Choi, Kyung Sook
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.119-119
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    • 2020
  • Globally, the demand for food and water resources are increasing rapidly with the growing concerns of meeting the projected population upsurge, specifically by 2050. The global population is projected to hit 9.8 billion in 2050 while the food demand is expected to increase by 77% from the 2007 base year. Moreover, the already scarce water resources, especially in the food-producing regions, expected to be significantly affected as food production already accounts for over 70% of the global water resources. However, the estimated food demand encapsulated the actual demand for both human consumption and animal feed in addition to the exuberant food waste at the consumption stage of the supply chain, notably in the developed countries. Managing the food consumption demand and food waste can have across-the-board benefits on water resources and other associated food production impacts. This study assessed the water-saving potentials through food waste in Korean households using the food waste data obtained from the direct weighing analysis. The household food waste collection and characterization were carried out during the summer (July), fall (September), and winter (December) seasons of 2019. The water footprint related to the food waste within Korean households was based on the water footprint concept, i.e. indirect water use. The results of our estimation showed that an average Korean household wasted 6.15 ± 4.36 kg daily, amounting to 12.53 ± 11.10 m3 of water resources associated with the waste. On the per capita basis, an average of 0.024 ± 0.017 kg/capita/day of food was wasted resulting to 0.049 ± 0.044 m3/capital/day of water resources wasted. The food waste types that accounted for the principal share in the water footprint were beef, soybean, rice and pork with values 30.7, 10.1, 9.6, and 7.5%, respectively. Considering that the production of meat and meat products are water intensive and the agricultural water use in Korea is largely for rice production, addressing the food waste of these two important agricultural products can be a hotspot for water saving potential in the country. This study therefore provides an insight to addressing the water scarcity in the country through reducing household food waste.

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A Study on the Evaluation of Water Consumption in Electric Appliances using Water Footprint - Focusing on Washing Machine - (Water Footprint 개념을 이용한 가전제품의 수자원 사용량 산정 (세탁기를 중심으로))

  • Jo, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Ram;Park, Ji-Hyoung;Hwang, Young-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.691-697
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    • 2011
  • In this study, by using the Water footprint technique, the water consumption by washing machines, which holds higher ranks in using water than any other electric appliances, was analyzed during their life cycle. The life cycle is defined as raw materials production step, manufacturing step, and using step. In raw materials production step, Input materials were researched by using LCI DB(Life Cycle Inventory Database) and the water consumption was calculated with consideration of approximately 65% Input materials which were based weight. In manufacturing step, the water consumption was calculated by the amount of energy used in assembly factories and components subcontractors and emission factor of energy. In using step, referring to guidelines on carbon footprint labeling, the life cycle is applied as 5 years for a washing machine and 218 cycles for annual bounds of usage. The water and power consumption for operating was calculated by referring to posted materials on the manufacture's websites. The water consumption by nation unit was calculated with the result of water consumption by a unit of washing machine. As a result, it shows that water consumption per life cycle s 110,105 kg/unit. The water consumption of each step is 90,495 kg/unit for using, 18,603 kg for raw materials production and 1,006 kg/unit for manufacturing, which apparently shows that the using step consume the most water resource. The water consumption by nation unit is 371,269,584tons in total based on 2006, 83,385,649 tons in both steps of raw material production and manufacturing, and 287,883,935 tons in using step.

Citation Relationship Trend Analysis of Virtual Water and Water Footprint Studies in Korea (국내 가상수 및 물발자국 산정 연구의 인용관계 동향 분석)

  • Park, Sungje;Lee, Minhyeon;Ju, Yena;Park, Kyeyoung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.21 no.spc
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2019
  • South Korea is a nation highly reliant on virtual water imports, which raises concerns of water crisis and food crisis at the national level. Virtual water and water footprint studies that consider the environment, social, and economic issues have been consistently addressed. However, there is a lack of Korean research, so the calculation method and comparison analysis are greatly dependent on foreign research results. The calculation results for Korean domestic agricultural products have been released in earnest since 2014. Thus, there has been an increase in comparison studies using domestic virtual water and water footprint results. This study identified the Korean agricultural and livestock water footprint research direction to determine the citation relationship trends. Domestic and foreign research results were analyzed from Korean water footprint related literature from the past 10 years. Therefore, a citation relationship diagram was formed from the literature analysis results. Virtual water and water footprint related research performance are provided in the appendix so researchers can utilize the various information related to this field in the future. In addition, national strategy policy making is expected to be presented for effective water resources management.