• Title, Summary, Keyword: WQI

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Application of Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) in Daecheong Reservoir using Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Data (대청호 내 실시간 수질측정자료를 이용한 CCME WQI의 적용)

  • Lim, Byungjin;Hong, Jiyoung;Yeon, Insung
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.796-801
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    • 2010
  • Water quality index (WQI) can be a great tool that allows experts to translate large amount of complex water quality data into a format more easily understood by the public and policy makers. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) can be calculated with the three factors (Scope: $F_1$, Frequency: $F_2$, Amplitude: $F_3$). After all, the WQI for a specific site is produced as a number between 0 to 100; the scale is also divided into five categories, i.e., Excellent, Good, Fair, Marginal and Poor. The WQI was found to be highly related to Chl-a, pH, temperature among the collected items. When the more input parameters were used, the range of variation generally became smaller. $F_3$ among the factors of WQI was influenced by algae. It showed a similar variation tendency between WQI and algal bloom in 2008.

Effect of Temperature on Water Quality Improvement of Natural Plant-Mineral Composites (PMC) in a Eutrophic Lake, Lake Shingal, Korea (부영양 신갈지에서 천연물질 혼합제(PMC)의 수질개선능: 현장수온의 영향)

  • Byun, Jung-Hwan;Hwang, Su-Ok;Mun, Sun-Ki;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Baik-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2013
  • We examined the effect of different field temperatures on water quality improvement (WQI) of natural domestic plant-mineral composites (PMCs). This method was previously used by Kim et al. (2011), to monitor the restoration of water quality of a eutrophic lake, Lake Shingal (Korea). Results indicate that PMCs on phytoplankton, BOD and phosphorus showed more than 70% WQI below $20^{\circ}C$, and less than 40% WQI over $25^{\circ}C$, respectively. The WQIs of PMCs on blue-green algae were gradually decreased with the increase of temperature, whilst diatoms exhibited more than 90% higher WQIs, regardless of water temperature. Additionally, the WQIs on bacterial biomass and total nitrogen were low at all temperatures. These results collectively indicate that water quality improvement activity of plant-mineral composites was dependent on the water temperature, and that the field application of above chemical during temperatures over $25^{\circ}C$, would be less effective in treating a cyanobacteria bloom dominated by Microcystis aeruginosa, than by diatoms.

Application of Korean Water Quality Index for the Assessment of River Water Quality in the Basin of Daecheong Lake (대청호 유역의 수질평가를 위한 종합수질지수의 적용)

  • Chung, Se Woong;Park, Jae Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.470-476
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    • 2005
  • The Korean Water Quality Index (K-WQI) was applied to the rivers located in the watershed of Daecheong Lake to assess the status of river water quality, and propose potential target constituents for better water quality management in the watershed. The estimated K-WQI value for each river was varied from 70 to 90, and Youngdongcheon showed the worst score while Mujunamdeachen showed the best score. The total nitrogen (TN) and total coliform bacteria were identified as the most significant constituents that degrade the K-WQI values in the rivers. The correlation coefficients (r) were determined between K-WQI and the delivered specific load ($kg/km^2/yr$) of BOD, TN, and TP to justify potential target constituents that have a great influence on the improvement of K-WQI values. The results showed that TN (r=-0.86) and TP (r=-0.85) have a strong negative relationships with K-WQI, but BOD have almost no effect. This implies that BOD, the surrogate parameter for organic pollutants, is no more a feasible water quality variable for the water quality management in the study site.

A Comparison Study on the Method of Pollution Evaluation of Water Quality in the Stream (하천 수질의 오염도평가 방법의 비교 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Beom;Lee, Jung-Ki;Shin, Dae-Yewn
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.398-403
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    • 2005
  • This study is undertaken to find the optimal method to make the decision on the degree of water pollution by comparison of K-WQI, KOE-WQI that is made for index with the water quality index and water quality environment standard of the Frame Act on Environment Policy as the result of survey for water quality reality on the major point of the Yeongsan river from 2002 to 2004. The water quality of major rivers has some differences depending on seasons. however, under the water quality standard by the $BOD_5$ density, most of rivers displayed the water quality level of $II{\sim}III$ grading, and on K-WQI that is classified by indexing for 10 categories of pH, DO, $BOD_5,\;COD,\;SS,\;T-N,\;NH_3-N,\;NO_{3^-}$ N, T-P, and E-Coli and classified into 5 groups from 100 points to 40 points, they displayed the score distribution of the first grade in water quality for $85{\sim}100$ points to the second grade in water quality for $70{\sim}84$ points. On KOE-WQI that is classified by indexing for 5 categories of pH, DO, $BOD_5$, COD and T-coli and classified into 5 groups from 90 points or above for outstanding and 29 points or below for very bad, and the water quality distribution is made ranged from the first grade in water quality for 90 points or more to the third grade in water quality for $69{\sim}50$ points. In addition, for the contribution of the water quality decline, the Environmental standard has significant dependency on the $BOD_5$ density, with K-WQI contributing in various water quality decline depending on the environment around the river area of $BOD_5,\;T-N,\;NH_3-N,\;NO_3-N,\;T-P$, and E-Coli, and KOE-WQI acting os the factor contributing to lower the water quality decline by $BOD_5$, COD, and T-coli. As such, the current water quality environment standard has high dependency on $BOD_5$ and KOE-WQI excludes some nitrogen and phosphorus that considers the river environment that the grade in water quality is set by some category, and K-WQI reflected well of the ecology environment of rivers with the diversity of the assessment factor as well as to have the low dependency of specific factor to be objective.

Status and its Improvement of Comprehensive Water Quality Evaluation (물환경 종합평가의 현황과 선진화 방안)

  • Choi, Ji Yong;Lee, Jee Hyun;Lee, Jae Kwan;Kim, Chang Su
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.748-756
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    • 2006
  • Accurate and timely information on status and trends in the environment is necessary to shape sound water quality management policy and to implement water quality improvement programs efficiently. One of the most effective ways to communicate information on water quality trends to policy-makers, scientists, and the general public is with comprehensive water quality indices. The derivation and structure of a water quality index (WQI) for the classification of surface water quality is discussed. The WQI generally developed through the selection, transformation and weighting of determinants with rating curves based on legal standards and quality directives or guidelines. The representative pollutants should be included in the index, and the relationship between the quantity of these pollutants in the water and the resulting quality of the water should be based on scientific results. The WQI be simply and meaningfully formulated that nonscientifically trained users can easily become familiar with the framework of the system and use the output data to evaluate their own pollution problems.

Assessment of Water Quality in the Lower Reaches Namhan River by using Statistical Analysis and Water Quality Index (WQI) (통계분석 및 수질지수를 이용한 남한강 하류 유역의 수질 평가)

  • Cho, Yong-Chul;Choi, Hyeon-Mi;Ryu, In-Gu;Kim, Sang-hun;Shin, Dongseok;Yu, Soonju
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.114-127
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    • 2021
  • Water pollution in the lower reaches of the Namhan River is getting worse due to drought and a decrease in water quantity due to climatic changes and hence is affecting the water quality of Paldang Lake. Accordingly, we have used a water quality index (WQI) and statistical analysis in this study to identify the characteristics of the water quality in the lower reaches of the Namhan River, the main causes of water pollution, and tributaries that need priority management. Typically, 10 items (WT, pH, EC, DO, BOD, COD, SS, T-N, T-P, and TOC) were used as the water quality factors for the statistical analysis, and the matrix of data was set as 324 × 10·1. The correlation analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and T-P with a high statistical significance (r=0.700, p<0.01). Furthermore, the result of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main factors affecting the change in water quality were T-P and organic substances introduced into the water by rainfall. Based on the Mann-Kendall test, a statistically significant increase in pH was observed in SH-1, DL, SH-2, CM, and BH, along with an increase in WQI in SH-2 and SM. BH was identified as a tributary that needs priority management in the lower reaches of the Namhan River, with a "Somewhat poor" (IV) grade in T-P, "Fair" grade in WQI, and "Marginal" grade in summer.

Estimation of Water Quality Index for Coastal Areas in Korea Using GOCI Satellite Data Based on Machine Learning Approaches (GOCI 위성영상과 기계학습을 이용한 한반도 연안 수질평가지수 추정)

  • Jang, Eunna;Im, Jungho;Ha, Sunghyun;Lee, Sanggyun;Park, Young-Gyu
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.221-234
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    • 2016
  • In Korea, most industrial parks and major cities are located in coastal areas, which results in serious environmental problems in both coastal land and ocean. In order to effectively manage such problems especially in coastal ocean, water quality should be monitored. As there are many factors that influence water quality, the Korean Government proposed an integrated Water Quality Index (WQI) based on in situmeasurements of ocean parameters(bottom dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a concentration, secchi disk depth, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus) by ocean division identified based on their ecological characteristics. Field-measured WQI, however, does not provide spatial continuity over vast areas. Satellite remote sensing can be an alternative for identifying WQI for surface water. In this study, two schemes were examined to estimate coastal WQI around Korea peninsula using in situ measurements data and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite imagery from 2011 to 2013 based on machine learning approaches. Scheme 1 calculates WQI using estimated water quality-related factors using GOCI reflectance data, and scheme 2 estimates WQI using GOCI band reflectance data and basic products(chlorophyll-a, suspended sediment, colored dissolved organic matter). Three machine learning approaches including Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and a modified regression tree(Cubist) were used. Results show that estimation of secchi disk depth produced the highest accuracy among the ocean parameters, and RF performed best regardless of water quality-related factors. However, the accuracy of WQI from scheme 1 was lower than that from scheme 2 due to the estimation errors inherent from water quality-related factors and the uncertainty of bottom dissolved oxygen. In overall, scheme 2 appears more appropriate for estimating WQI for surface water in coastal areas and chlorophyll-a concentration was identified the most contributing factor to the estimation of WQI.

Assessment of Ecosystem Health during the Freshwater Discharge in the Youngsan River Estuary (영산강 하구둑 담수 방류에 따른 하구 건강성 평가)

  • Lee, Dahye;Park, Gunwoo;Lee, Changhee;Shin, Yongsik
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.46-56
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    • 2017
  • The Youngsan River estuary was physically changed by the construction of a sea embankment at near the mouth of estuary. Weirs were also constructed recently in the freshwater zone and it was reported that algal blooms occur more frequently. The freshwater introduced into saltwater zone from sluice gates of the embankment affects water quality but it has not been addressed that how the freshwater inputs influence the health of marine ecosystem. In this study, we used the data of water properties and phytoplankton communities collected at three stations for 4 days including before the freshwater discharge, during the discharge and after 1 and 2 days of discharge events. WQI(water quality index), TRIX (trophic status index) and P-IBI(phytoplankton index of biotic integrity) were used to evaluate the ecosystem health and long-term data were also utilized to determine the criteria for P-IBI. The results showed that grades of the ecosystem health assessed by the indices were low at the station near the gates and increased as downstream. However, the temporal pattern of grades was different depending on methods. Grades of WQI and TRIX decreased during the discharge and restored after the discharge whereas the grades of P-IBI decreased slightly even after the discharge. This suggests that P-IBI is more applicable to estuarine systems where experience extreme change of water properties than WQI and TRIX since P-IBI includes phytoplankton that can respond quickly to the change.

Improvement of the Environmental Impact Assessment and Post-environment Impact Survey Reports Using Marine Environment Assessment Indices (해양환경 평가지수를 활용한 환경영향평가서 및 사후환경영향조사결과 통보서 개선 방안 연구)

  • Lee, Eojin;Kim, Taeyun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 2021
  • In this study, we used marine environment assessment indices to evaluate impacts of various development projects on the marine environment. TheWaterQuality Index (WQI) was applied in the field of marine water quality and the Cleanup Index of Harmful Chemicals (CIHC), the Cleanup Index of Eutrophication (CIET), the Enrichment Factor(EF) were used in the field of marine sediment. In the field of marine benthic organisms, the Benthic Health Index (BHI) and the Benthic Pollution Index (BPI) were utilized. Each assessment index was calculated using the data observed in the development project, and its characteristics and usefulness were evaluated. The assessment method and criteria were clearly defined for WQI, CIHC, and BHI. Furthermore, through these indices, an integrated environment impact analysis was possible. Apart from the indices presented in this study, there are various indices that can be used for evaluating the marine environment. Therefore, it is important to utilize appropriate indices according to the characteristics of each project.

Estimation of Water Quality Environment in Youngsan and Seumjin River Basins (영산강과 섬진강 유역의 하천 수질환경 평가)

  • 양해근;최희철
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.16-31
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    • 2003
  • The water quality environment in Youngsan and Seumjin river basins was investigated based on the concept of the comprehensive Water Quality Index (WQI) and a spacial pollution source. Artificial factors influencing to river water quality have been analyzed. The specific delivery load of Youngsan river basin was found to be 8.34~97.25 kg/day/$\textrm{km}^2$, Gomagwon stream and Gwangju stream showed the relatively high rates as 97.25 kg/day/$\textrm{km}^2$ and 86.06 kg/day/$\textrm{km}^2$, respectively. The specific delivery load in Seumjin river basin was estimated to be 10.98∼19.51 kg/day/$\textrm{km}^2$, Suggesting no Significant Contribution of pollution. WQI of Youngsan watershed revealed 1.36~3.45, whereas Seumjin watershed showed a relatively low value of 0.5~1.47 And it is concluded that the specific delivery load suggested in this study provides the essential core data of the upper limit of pollutants receptor in the watershed area studied. From this study, it is suggested that the integrated environmental management of river basin requires the analysis of pollutants generation rate of the basin and the receptor capability for the self-purification.