• Title, Summary, Keyword: Virus-like particles

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Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Is Efficiently Released into the Culture Medium in Insect Cells

  • Choi, Soo-Ho;Kim, So-Yeon;Park, Kyu-Jin;Kim, Yeon-Joo;Hwang, Soon-Bong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.735-740
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    • 2004
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causal agent of the chronic liver infection. To understand HCV morphogenesis, we studied the assembly of HCV structural proteins in insect cells. We constructed recombinant baculovirus expression vectors consisting of either HCV core alone, core-E1, or core-E1-E2. These structural proteins were expressed in insect cells and were examined to assemble into particles. Neither core-E1 nor core-E1-E2 was capable of assembling into virus-like particles (VLPs). It was surprising that the core protein alone was assembled into core-like particles. These particles were released into the culture medium as early as 2 days after infection. In our system, HCV structural proteins including envelope proteins did not assemble into VLPs. Instead, the core protein itself has the intrinsic capacity to assemble into amorphous core-like particles. Furthermore, released core particles were associated with HCV RNA, indicating that core proteins were assembled into nucleocapsids. These results suggest that HCV may utilize a unique core release mechanism to evade the hosts defense mechanism, thus contributing to the persistence of HCV infection.

Studies on Ultrastructure and Virus Infection of Aspergillus ochraseus (Aspergillus ochraseus의 미세구조(微細構造) 및 바이러스 감염(感染)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Deung, Young-Kun;Lew, Young-Sern;Lee, Bae-Ham
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 1975
  • These studies were carried out to detect the presence of infected virus- like particles and also were observed the ultrastructures of Aspergillus ochraseus isolated from kokja and Korean ginseng. The results of ultrastructures of Aspergillus ochraseus are summarized as follows: 1. In fungal cells, nuclei were enclosed by a irregular double membrane and nucleoli in the nucleus. 2. In cytoplasm, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum with ribosomes and glycogen were scattering distributed and many lomasomes also observed. 3. The osmiophilic bodies of fungal cells existed in the vesicles. 4. The cell walls were composed of a low electron dense materials. 5, Conidia cell walls were extremely thick and possessed the high electron density of outer coat. The virus-like particles were observed in the hyphae of Penicillium chrysogenum Q-176. These virus-like particles measured $350{\AA}$ in diameter. But strains of Aspergillus ochraseus, showing some vesicle particles were also observed about $800{\AA}$ in diameter in the central region of young fungal hyphae. Based on the results of these experiments, it can not be determined virus particles or not. The further studies to determination of virus particles will be proceeded by the chemical, physical and biological assay methods.

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Double membrane-bound particles associated with eriophyid mite-borne plant diseases of unknown etiology : a potentially new group of plant viruses\ulcorner

  • Ahn, Kyung-Ku;Kim, Kyung-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.5-21
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    • 1997
  • Unique virus-like particles were associated with five eriophyid mite-borne plant diseases of unknown etiology; fig mosaic, redbud yellow ringspot, rose orsette, thistle mosaic, and high plains disease of corn and wheat. Quasi-spherical, double membrane-bound particles (DMPs), 120 - 200 nm in diameter, were observed in the cytoplasm of all cell types in symptomatic leaves of infected plants. No DMPs were observed in symptomless plants. The DMPs in symptomatic thistles were associated with two types of inclusions, electron-dense amorphous material and tubular aggregates. Similar amorphous inclusions were also found in corn and wheat with high plains disease, while tubular inclusions were observed in figs with mosaic symptoms. The particles and inclusions were similar in some aspects to immature particles associated with viroplasms of animal and insect poxviruses and also to the double-enveloped particles of tomato spotted wilt virus associated with viroplasms during early stages of infection, but were unique and unlike any known plant viruses. The DMPs and associated viroplasm-like inclusions in the high plains disease were specifically immunogold labeled in situ with the disease-specific antiserum. Thread-like structures, similar to tenuivirus particles, present in the partially purified virus preparations were also immunogold labeled with the antiserum. It is suggested that the thread-like structures are derived from the DMP. In many cells of symptomatic corn and wheat samples, DMPs occurred together with flexuous rod-shaped particles and cylindrical inclusions of wheat streak mosaic potyvirus (WSMV), suggesting that the disease is caused by a mixed infection of WSMV and the agent represented by the DMPs. Based on cytopathology, symptomatology and mite and/or graft-transmissibility, the five diseases described in this paper are potentially caused by virus(es) and the DMPs associated with these diseases may represent virus particles. If the DMPs are indeed viral in nature, they would comprise a new group of plant viruses.

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Virus-like Particles Containing Cytokine Plasmid DNA (사이토카인 유전자 함유 바이러스 유사입자의 제조)

  • Oh, Yu-Kyoung;Son, Tae-Jong;Sin, Kwang-Sook;Kang, Min-Jeong;Kim, Jung-Mogg;Kim, Nam-Keun;Ko, Jung-Jae;Kim, Chong-Kook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 2001
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause cervical cancers. Human papillomavirus-like particles (VLP) have been studied as preventive vaccines of cervical cancers. To develop VLP as a therapeutic gene carrier, we studied the method to encapsulate cytokine genes in virus-like particles. HPV type 16 capsid L1 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into T vector. L1 gene was then inserted into baculovirus transfer vector. The clone of baculovirus encoding L1 gene was isolated and used to express L1 protein in Sf 21 insect cells. VLP were purified by CsCl density gradient and ultracentrifugation. VLP were disassembled to capsomer units by treatment of a reducing agent. Given that interleukin-2 (IL-2) genes have been used in anticancer gene therapy and as a molecular adjuvant, IL-2 cytokine plasmids were chosen as a model gene. IL-2 plasmids were incubated with the disassembled capsomer suspension. To reassemble the particles, the mixture of capsomers and cytokine plasmids was dialyzed. The disassembly and reassembly of VLP were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The entrapment of cytokine plasmids in reassembled VLP was tested by the stability of plasmids against DNase I. After treatment of reassembled virus-like particles with DNase I, discrete IL-2 DNA band was observed. Our results indicate that IL-2 cytokine plasmid (3.5 kb size) can be encapsulated in the virus-like particles, suggesting the potential of VLP as a gene delivery system. Moreover, VLP containing the adjuvant cytokine plasmids might function as more effective subunit vaccines.

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Biological Assay and Cytopathological Characteristics of Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 virus (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ran;Park, Yong-Mun;Chung, Bong-Nam;Park, Gug-Seoun;Kim, Jeong-Soo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 2002
  • Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 virus (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are important viral diseases of grapevine in the world. In this study, the most reliable woody indicator plants were selected for virus indexing. Two grapevines, LN33 (Couderc 1613x vitis berlandieri) and Vitis riparia Gloire, were selected for CLRaV-3 and CFLV graft indexing, respectively. The specific characteristics of Closterovirus isolated from grapevines cultivated in Korea were identified. filamentous virus-like particles only existed in the phloem parenchyma cell. In particular, the vesiculation of mitochondria was observed. This mitochondrial vesicu-lation was considered to be one of the most reliable cytopathic features of Closterovirus. During observation of GFLV-infected Chenopodium quinoa sections, virus-like particles arranged consistently were found forming several layers in cytoplasm. Moreover, virus-like particles in tubules were observed and were associated with plasmodesmata in cytoplasm. This is the first report on cytopathological characteristics of Closterovirus and Nepovirus identified from grapevines in Korea.

Production of virus-like particles of nervous necrosis virus displaying partial VHSV's glycoprotein at surface and encapsulating DNA vaccine plasmids

  • Yang, Jeong In;Bessaid, Mariem;Kim, Ki Hong
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2020
  • In order to use nervous necrosis virus (NNV) virus-like particles (VLPs) as a delivery tool for heterologous antigens or plasmids, we attempted to produce red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) VLPs displaying a partial region of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) glycoprotein at the surface and VLPs that are harboring DNA vaccine plasmids within the VLP. A peptide encoding 105 amino acids of VHSV glycoprotein was genetically inserted in the loop region of NNV capsid gene, and VLPs expressing the partial part of VHSV glycoprotein were successfully produced. However, in the transmission electron microscope analysis, the shape and size of the partial VHSV glycoprotein-expressing NNV VLPs were irregular and variable, respectively, indicating that the normal assembly of capsid proteins was inhibited by the relatively long foreign peptide (105 aa) on the loop region. To encapsulate by simultaneous transformation with both NNV capsid gene expressing plasmids and DNA vaccine plasmids (having an eGFP expressing cassette under the CMV promoter), NNV VLPs containing plasmids were produced. The encapsulation of plasmids in the NNV VLPs was demonstrated by PCR and cells exposed to the VLPs encapsulating DNA vaccine plasmids showed fluorescence. These results suggest that the encapsulation of plasmids in NNV VLPs can be done with a simple one-step process, excluding the process of disassembly-reassembly of VLPs, and NNV VLPs can be used as a delivery tool for DNA vaccine vectors.

Study of Cell-mediated Response in Mice by HPV16 L1 Virus-like Particles Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Woo, Mi-Kyung;Hur, Sook-Jin;Park, Sue-NIe;Kim, Hong-Jin
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1738-1741
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    • 2007
  • The first vaccine against human papillomaviruses (HPV) formulated with HPV16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in yeast was approved by the FDA in June 2006. Nevertheless, there have been few studies of the immunogenicity in mice of VLPs. In this study, we evaluated the cell-mediated immune response to VLPs produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After immunization of mice with HPV16 L1 VLPs, we measured splenocytes proliferation and the levels of IFN$_{\gamma}$, IL2, IL4, and IL5. Splenocytes proliferation was significantly increased and a mixed Th1/Th2 response was indicated. IgG subtype immunoresponses were strongly induced and IgG1 titers were higher than those of IgG2a.

Mature HIV-like Particles Produced from Single Semliki Forest Virus-Derived Expression Vector

  • KIM EUN;POO HAR-YOUNG;SUNG MOON-HEE;KIM CHUL-JOONG
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.1229-1239
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    • 2005
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-like particles (HIVVLPs) with native conformations similar to that of the wild-type virion could be valid candidates for vaccine development. To this end, we used a Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) expression system to produce HIV- VLPs containing high quantities of native envelope proteins. Here, we described a single SFV replicon containing the HIV gagpol and env genes under the control of separate subgenomic promoters. Mature VLPs incorporating the Gag and Env proteins were detected in the supernatant of replicon-expressing cells by Western blot analysis. The HIV-VLPs showed the expected molecular density (1.14-1.18 g/ml) on a $20-60\%$ sucrose gradient; the particles were 100-120 nm in diameter and Env proteins were observed on their surfaces by immunogold electron microscopy. RT-PCR analysis of VLP-associated RNAs in mature HIV-VLPs revealed two SF V-derived RNA species (full-length and subgenomic). Immunization studies in Balb/c mice showed that these HIV-VLPs were capable of inducing both HIV-specific antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses. Taken together, our results indicate that the SFV replicon system is useful for the production of HIV-VLPs, which may be valuable candidates for an HIV vaccine.

Studies on the rabbit viral hepatitis I. Electron microscopic observation of the acute hepatic lesions in experimentally infected rabbit (토끼의 바이러스성(性) 간염(肝炎)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) I. 실험적(實驗的) 감염토(感染兎)의 급성간염조직(急性肝炎組織)의 전자현미경적(電子顯微鏡的) 관찰(觀察))

  • Lee, Cha-soo;Park, Cheong-kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.531-540
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    • 1989
  • A new sudden death in rabbits appeared in China and Korea in 1984 and 1985, respectively, and was recognized to be an acute infectious disease caused by a virus. The disease was reported as a "new viral disease," and thereafter, a tentative name of "viral hemorrhagic disease", "hemorrhagic pneumonia" or "viral hemorrhagic pneumonia" has been described in the case reports. But authors had called the viral disease "rabbit viral hepatitis" due to picornavirus infection, because the principal lesion of the disease was an acute hepatitis. The purpose of this report is to describe the electron microscopic findings on the livers in experimentally infected rabbits. All the livers of the affected rabbits were shown to have degenerative changes of a type that is characteristic of acute hepatitis. In the liver cells, there were dilation of rER and mitochondria, vacuole formation of various sizes, and appearances of many virus-like particles in the vicinity of rER, granular bodies and crystalline arrays of viral particles in the cytoplasm with necrotic changes of the nucleus. Clusters of virus-like particles and viral crystals appeared in the cytoplasm of sinusoid endothelial cells and Kupffer's cells with morphological changes of organelles. Also viral crystals were demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages among the liver cells. On the whole, the liver cells had many virus-like particles and a few crystalline arrays of viral particles. Therefore, this implies that the liver cells are the main site of the viral replication in inducing the viremia. It was concluded that the liver was the primary target organ of this viral disease, and the pathological and the ultrastructural evidence suggest that the virus may be belong to genus enterovirus.

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Production of Nucleocapsid Protein of Newcastle Disease Virus in Escherichia coli and its Assembly into Ring-and Nucleocapsid-like Particles

  • Kho, Chiew-Ling;Tan, Wen-Siang;Khatijah Yusoff
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2001
  • The nucleocapsid(NP) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and its derivative (NP$\sub$cfus)containing the myc region and six histidine residues fused to its C-terminus were pcpressed aboundantly in Escherichia coli. The proteins were purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Both the NP and NP$\sub$cfus/ proteins self-assem- bled into ring-like particles stacked together to from nucleocapsid-like structure which are heterogeneous in length with a diameter of 20${\pm}$2 nm and central holow of 5${\pm}$1 nm. Only a very small amount of the monomers in the particles was linked by inter-molecular disulfide bonds. Fusion of the C-terminal end to 29 amino acids inclusive of the myc epitope and His tag did not impair ring assembly buy inhibited the formation of the long herringbone structures. Immunogold lableing of the particles with the anti-myc antibody showed that the C-terminus of the NP$\sub$cfus/ protein is exposed on the surface of these ring-like particles.

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