• Title, Summary, Keyword: VFA

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The Association Between Visceral Fat Area and Obesity Index (전산화 단층촬영과 생체 전기저항 분석법으로 측정한 내장지방과 비만관련 지표의 연관성)

  • Lim, Je-Yeon;Song, Yun-Kyung;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.167-179
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: In this study, we used with visceral fat area(VFA)/subcutaneous fat area(SFA) ratio(V/S ratio) and bioelectrical impedence analysis(BIA) for a comparative study between VFA measured from several abdominal computed tomography(CT) images and obesity indexes, such as body mass index(BM), waist circumference(WC), and waist-hip ratio(WHR). Methods: A group of 63 test subjects were gathered in the oriental medical hospital of Kyung-Won university. BIA for body composition and body size for obesity indexes were estimated to evaluate the obesity indexes. Pearson correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to select useful obesity index. Results: The VFA-CT was significantly related to BMI, SFA, WC, hip circumference(HC), body fat mass(BFM), basal metabolic rate(BMR), and VFA-BIA. Especially, we found that the VFA-BIA and BMI were significantly correlated to VFA-CT. Conclusions: VFA-BIA index is an optimized index for diagnosis and evaluation of obesity. Finally, we found that the BMI is optimized to represent VFA.

Enbancement of Treatement Efficiency in a Biological Nutrient Removal Process by addition of Volatile Fatty Acids (휘발성 지방산의 주입을 통한 생물학적 영양염류 제거공정의 효율증진에 관한 연구)

  • Choung, Yoon Kyoo;Ko, Kwang Baik;Kim, Sue Jin;Yim, Seong Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 1996
  • The removal efficiencies of organic substrates, nitrogen and phosphorus in the anaerobic-aerobic biological phosphorus removal process were investigated by addition of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid which are normal volatile fatty acids contained in anaerobic digester supernatants. Substrate utilization coefficients for the phosphorus release and uptake were also estimated. The effect of a VFA, which showed higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the other VFAs did, was also studied in an anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic biological nutrient removal process. For the anaerobic-aerobic process added by VFA, the phosphorus removal efficiencies were up to about 68%, 55% and 61% for the reactors of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid added, respectively, which indicates the efficiencies were increased by about 8-21%, comparing to that of 47% for the reactor with no VFA added. There were no significant difference in removal efficiencies for organic substrate and $NH_3-N$ without regard to addition of VFA. However, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen was increased in the case of VFA added, since $NO_3-N$ was less produced. For the anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic process added VFA, the removal efficiencies for $NH_3-N$ and $PO{_4}^{3-}-P$ were increased by 5% and 13%, respectively, comparing with them in the reactors not added VFA.

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Is There any Role of Visceral Fat Area for Predicting Difficulty of Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer?

  • Shin, Ho-Jung;Son, Sang-Yong;Cui, Long-Hai;Byun, Cheulsu;Hur, Hoon;Lee, Jei Hee;Kim, Young Chul;Han, Sang-Uk;Cho, Yong Kwan
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Obesity is associated with morbidity following gastric cancer surgery, but whether obesity influences morbidity after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) remains controversial. The present study evaluated whether body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat area (VFA) predict postoperative complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 consecutive patients who had undergone LG for gastric cancer between May 2003 and December 2005 were included in the present study. We divided the patients into two groups ('before learning curve' and 'after learning curve') based on the learning curve effect of the surgeon. Each of these groups was sub-classified according to BMI (<$25kg/m^2$ and ${\geq}25kg/m^2$) and VFA (<$100cm^2$ and ${\geq}100cm^2$). Surgical outcomes, including operative time, quantity of blood loss, and postoperative complications, were compared between BMI and VFA subgroups. Results: The mean operative time, length of hospital stay, and complication rate were significantly higher in the before learning curve group than in the after learning curve group. In the subgroup analysis, complication rate and length of hospital stay did not differ according to BMI or VFA; however, for the before learning curve group, mean operative time and blood loss were significantly higher in the high VFA subgroup than in the low VFA subgroup (P=0.047 and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusions: VFA may be a better predictive marker than BMI for selecting candidates for LG, which may help to get a better surgical outcome for inexperienced surgeons.

Comparison of Computed Tomography-based Abdominal Adiposity Indexes as Predictors of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Middle-aged Korean Men and Women

  • Baek, Jongmin;Jung, Sun Jae;Shim, Jee-Seon;Jeon, Yong Woo;Seo, Eunsun;Kim, Hyeon Chang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.256-265
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: We compared the associations of 3 computed tomography (CT)-based abdominal adiposity indexes with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among middle-aged Korean men and women. Methods: The participants were 1366 men and 2480 women community-dwellers aged 30-64 years. Three abdominal adiposity indexes-visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR)-were calculated from abdominal CT scans. NAFLD was determined by calculating the Liver Fat Score from comorbidities and blood tests. An NAFLD prediction model that included waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal adiposity was designated as the base model, to which VFA, SFA, and VSR were added in turn. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were calculated to quantify the additional predictive value of VFA, SFA, and VSR relative to WC. Results: VFA and VSR were positively associated with NAFLD in both genders. SFA was not significantly associated with NAFLD in men, but it was negatively associated in women. When VFA, SFA, and VSR were added to the WC-based NAFLD prediction model, the AUC improved by 0.013 (p<0.001), 0.001 (p=0.434), and 0.009 (p=0.007) in men and by 0.044 (p<0.001), 0.017 (p<0.001), and 0.046 (p<0.001) in women, respectively. The IDI and NRI were increased the most by VFA in men and VSR in women. Conclusions: Using CT-based abdominal adiposity indexes in addition to WC may improve the detection of NAFLD. The best predictive indicators were VFA in men and VSR in women.

Correlation between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Visceral Adipose Tissue in Non-Obese Chinese Adults: A CT Evaluation

  • Yu, Ai-Hong;Duan-Mu, Yang-Yang;Zhang, Yong;Wang, Ling;Guo, Zhe;Yu, Yong-Qiang;Wang, Yu-Sheng;Cheng, Xiao-Guang
    • Korean Journal of Radiology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.923-929
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    • 2018
  • Objective: To investigate the correlation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and visceral adipose tissue in non-obese Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: The study included 454 subjects undergoing abdominal CT scan. Degree of CT attenuation in liver and spleen, and the degree of fat infiltration in liver were evaluated according to three indices: the attenuation value of liver parenchyma ($CT_{LP}$), the attenuation ratio of liver and spleen ($LS_{ratio}$) and the attenuation difference between liver and spleen ($LS_{dif}$). Visceral fat area (VFA) and total fat area (TFA) at L2/3 and L4/5 levels were measured, and the abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SFA) was calculated. Bivariate correlation analysis was carried out to determine the correlation among these factors. Results: In men, VFA, SFA and TFA at L2/3 and L4/5 levels showed significant differences in terms of the three indices to distinguish fatty liver from non-fatty liver (all, p < 0.001). In men, all the three indices showed negative correlation with TFA, SFA and VFA (all, p < 0.001). The negative correlation between the three indices and VFA at the L2/3 level was higher than at L4/5 level (r = -0.476 vs. r = -0.340 for $CT_{LP}$, r = -0.502 vs. r = -0.413 for $LS_{ratio}$, r = -0.543 vs. r = -0.422 for $LS_{dif}$, p < 0.001, respectively). The negative correlation between $LS_{ratio}$, $LS_{dif}$ and VFA at L2/3 and L4/5 levels was higher than SFA at the corresponding level. In women, all the three indices showed negative correlation with VFA and TFA at L2/3 and L4/5 levels, and the negative correlation between $CT_{LP}$ and VFA was higher at L2/3 level than at L4/5 level (r = -0.294 vs. r = -0.254, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In non-obese Chinese adults, the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration showed a strong correlation with abdominal fat on CT. VFA at L2/3 level was more closely related to fatty liver compared with VFA at L4/5 level.

산란계의 Ceramics 급여 효과

  • 손장호
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.103-104
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    • 2004
  • This study was evaluated the dietary affect of ceramics on laying performance, intestinal microflora population, NH$_3$ and VFA gas emission from excreta and fatty acids composition of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 180 layer at 34 weeks of age were fed the experimental diets containing 0.0 % (Control), 0.4 % and 0.8 % of ceramics powder for 6 weeks. It is concluded that 0.4 % ceramics powder supplementation in the 34 to 40 weeks laying hens diet, improves the laying performance and ratio of egg yolk n-6/n-3 fatty acids contents and decreasing emission of NH$_3$ and VFA gas from excreta.

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Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Cellulose Degradation and Fermentation Characteristics by Mixed Ruminal Microbes

  • Hwang, I.H.;Kim, H.D.;Shim, S.S.;Lee, Sang S.;Ha, J.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.501-506
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) on fermentation characteristics, especially on gas production, cellulose degradation and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration by mixed ruminal microorganisms. In order to attain this objective, unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid (C 18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and arachidonic acid (C22:4) were added at varying level. Mixed ruminal microbes used in this experiment were obtained from the rumen of a cannulated Holstein cow. Medium pH values after 7 d incubation were significantly affected by type and level of unsaturated fatty acids (p<0.01). All of UFA inhibited total gas production, and especially treatment of arachidonic acid at the levels of 0.01% gave the lowest gas. production after 7 d incubation (p<0.01). Comparison of the population of protozoa revealed that UFA did not have any significant effect on the total protozoa number. The addition of UFA did not effect dry matter degradation. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition of the culture was influenced little by UFA, although the considerable amount of iso-type VFA were detected in UFA supplemented incubations. The ratio of acetic acids to propionic acids, however, was lower than control in all the treatments after 7 d incubation (p<0.01).

Effects of Dietary Acidogenicity Values on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nutrients Digestibility

  • Choi, Y.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Song, J.Y.;Choi, N.J.;Sung, H.G.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1625-1633
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe effects of dietary acidogenicity value (AV) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility. The AV of feedstuffs was based on the dissolution of Ca from $CaCO_3$ powder added at the end of a 24 h in vitro fermentation. Three diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with different AV. Two experiments were involved in this study. In experiment 1, it appears that pH, $NH_3-N$ concentration and A:P ratio tended to decrease, but gas production, VFA production and DM disappearance tended to increase with increasing dietary AV. In experiment 2, the rumen pH tended to decrease in order of high AV>medium AV>low AV treatment, respectively. There were no significant effects of dietary AV on $NH_3-N$ concentration, enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. In addition, total VFA and individual VFA concentrations tended to increase with increasing dietary AV without significance. In fact, we hypothesized that different dietary AV would affect rumen fermentation and nutrients digestibility because dietary AV was adjusted with fermentable carbohydrate sources. The present results indicate that differences in dietary AV between treatments were too small to affect rumen fermentation and its effects were minimal.