• Title/Summary/Keyword: Uterine cervix

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Results of Radiotherapy for the Uterine Cervical Cancer (자궁경부암의 방사선치료성적)

  • Kim, Chul-Yong;Choi, Myung-Sun;Suh, Won-Hyuck
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 1988
  • One hundred fifty-four patients with the carcinoma of the uterine cervix were studied retrospectively to assess the result and impact of treatment at Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University, Hae-Wha Hospital from Feb 1981 through Dec. 1986. Prior to radiotherapy, the patients were evaluated and staged by recommendation of FIGO including physical examination, pelvic examination, cystoscopy, rectosigmoidoscopy, chest X-ray, IVP. Ba enema. Also, an additional pelvic CT scan was obtained for some of the patients. The patients were treated by radiotherapy alone or adjuvant postoperative irradiation; in case of radiation therapy only, whole pelvic irradiation was given with Co-60 teletherapy unit via AP and PA parallel opposing fields or 4-oblique fields, 180 cGy per day, 5 days per week and intracavitary insertion was performed. In satges Ia, Ib, and IIa with small primary lesion, external irradiation was initially given to pelvis up to $2,000\~3,000\;cGy/2frac{1}{2}\;-3frac{1}{2}$ weeks and then intracavitary insertion was performed using Fletcher-Mini-Declos Applicator with cesium-137 cources and followed by external irradiation of $1,000\~2,000\;cGy/1frac{1}{2}\;-2frac{1}{2}$weeks via AP and PA parallel opposing fields with midline shield to spare of bladder and rectum. However, if the primary lesion is large, external irradiation was given without midline shield. More than stages IIb, the patients were treated by external beam irradiation up to 5,400cGy/30f for 6 weeks via 4-oblique portals and at the dose of 5,040cGy/28f the field was cut 5cm from the top margin for spare of small bowel, and followed by intracavitary irradiation, If there was residual tumor an additional dose of $900\~l,200cGy/5\~7f$ was given to parametrium and/or residual tumor area. Total dose of radiation to A and B-point were as follows; A-point; In early stages, Ia, Ib, IIa; $8,000\~9,000$ B-point $5,000\~6,000 cGy$ A-point; In advanced stages IIb, IIIa, IIIb; $9,000\~10,000$ B-point $60,000\~7,000cGy$ The results were obtained and as fellows; 1 The patients distribution according to FIGO staging system were stage Ia 6, Ib 27, IIa 28, IIb 54, IIIa 12, IIIb 18, and stage IVa 9. 2. Value of CT scan were demonstration of cervix tumor mass, parametrial and pelvic side wall tumor spread, pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes metastases, and hydronephrosis. Three dimensional quantitative demonstration of tumor volume is also important in planning radiation therapy. Another advantage of CT scan was detection of recurrent tumor after radiation or surgery. 3. Local control rate of tumor according to the size was $91.3\%$ for less than 5cm in size and $44.6\%$ in tumor over 5cm (p<0.0068). 4. Thirty out of 50 recurrent sites has locoregional failures and 17 cases has distant metastases. And the para-aortic lymph nodes were the most common site for distant metastases. 5. The most common complication was temporal rectal bleeding which was controlled most by conservative management. However, 4 patients required for endoscopic cauterization. 6. The 5-year survival rates showed; stage la and Ib $95\%,\;stage\;IIa\;81\%\;stage\;lIb\;67\%,\;stage\;IIIa\;37.7\%,\;stage\;IIIb\;23\%$ and 3-year survival rate of stage IVa showed $11.6%$, retrospectively.

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The evaluation of dose of TSEI with TLD and diode dector of the uterine cervix cancer (열형광선량계와 반도체검출기를 이용한 전신피부전자선조사의 선량평가)

  • Je Young Wan;Na Keyung Su;Yoon IL Kyu;Park Heung Deuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : To evaluate radiation dose and accuracy with TLD and diode detector when treat total skin with electron beam. Materials and Methods : Using Stanford Technique, we treated patient with Mycosis Fungoides. 6 MeV electron beam of LINAC was used and the SSD was 300 cm. Also, acrylic speller(0.8 cm) was used. The patient position was 6 types and the gantry angle was 64, 90 and $116^{\circ}$. The patient's skin dose and the output were detected 5 to 6 times with TLD and diode. Result : The deviations of dose detected with TLD from tumor dose were CA $+\;6\%$, thigh $+\;8\%$, umbilicus $+\;4\%$, calf $-\;8\%$, vertex $-\;74.4\%$, deep axillae $-\;10.2\%$, anus and testis $-\;87\%$, sole $-\;86\%$ and nails shielded with 4mm lead $+4\%$. The deviations of dose detected with diode were $-4.5\%{\sim}+5\%$ at the patient center and $-1.1\%{\sim}+1\%$ at the speller. Conclusion : The deviation of total skin dose was $+\;8\%{\sim}-\;8\%$ and that deviation was within the acceptable range(${\pm}\;10\%$). The boost dose was irradiated for the low dose areas(vertex, anus, sole). The electron beam output detected at the sootier was stable. It is thought that the deviation of dose at patient center detected with diode was induced by detection point and patient position.

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In Vitro Intrinsic Radiosensitivity Of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Primary Culture (인체 상피 세포암의 일차 배양을 이용한 방사선 민감도 측정)

  • Choi Eun Kyung;Yang Kwang Mo;Yi Byong Yong;Chang Hyesook;Kim Sang-Yoon;Nam Joo-Hyun;Yu Eunsil;Lee Inchul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1994
  • There are a number of reports suggesting that there may be a correlation between the clinical response to radiotherapy in various tumors and the clonogenic survival of cell lines derived from these tumors following exposure to 2 Gy(SF2). Authors conducted this study to determine SF2 for cells in primary culture from surgical specimens. The tumor tissues with squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix and head and neck were obtained. The tumor tissues were disaggregated to single cells by incubating with collagenase type w for 2 hours with constant stirring. Single cell suspensions were inoculated in four 24-well plates precoated with cell adhesive matrix. After 24 hours of incubation at 37$ ^{\circ}C $, rows of four wells were then irradiated, consisting of control set and five other sets each receiving doses of 1,2,3,4, and 6 Gy. After incubation for a total of 13 days, the cultures were stained with crystal violet and survival at each dose was determined by quantitative image analysis system, To determine whether cell growth was of epithelial origin, immunocytochemical staining with a mixture of cytokeratin and epithelial monoclonal antibodies were performed on cell cultures. During the period of this study, we received 5 squamous cell carcinoma specimens of head and neck and 20 of uterine cervical carcinoma. Of these, 15 yielded enough cells for radiosensitivity testing. This resulted an overall success rate of 60$ \% $. The mean SF2 value for 15 tumours was 0.55$\pm$0.17 ranging from 0.20 to 0.79. These results indicate that there is a broad range of sensitivities to radiation in same histologic type. So with a large patient population, we plan to determine whether a different SF2 value is associated with tumours that are controlled with radiotherapy than those that are not.

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Rectal Bleeding and Its Management after Irradiation for Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암 환자에서 방사선치료 후에 발생한 직장출혈과 치료)

  • Chun Mison;Kang Seunghee;Kil Hoon-Jong;Oh Young-Taek;Sohn Jeong-Hye;Jung Hye-Young;Ryu Hee Suk;Lee Kwang-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.343-352
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Radiotherapy is the main treatment modality for uterine cervix cancer. Since the rectum is in the radiation target volume, rectal bleeding is a common late side effect. This study evaluates the risk factors of radiation induced rectal bleeding and discusses its optimal management. Materials and Methods : total of 213 patients who completed external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and intracavitary radiation (ICR) between September 1994 and December 1999 were included in this study. No patient had undergone concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Ninety patients received radiotherapy according to a modified hyperfractionated schedule. A midline block was placed at a pelvic dose of between 30.6 Gy to 39.6 Gy. The total parametrial dose from the EBRT was 51 to 59 Gy depending on the extent of their disease. The Point A dose from the HDR brachytherapy was 28 Gy to 30 Gy $(4\;Gy\times7,\;or\;5\;Gy\times6)$. The rectal point dose was calculated either by the ICRU 38 guideline, or by anterior rectal wall point seen on radiographs, with barium contrast. Rectal bleeding was scored by the LENT/SOMA criteria. For the management of rectal bleeding, we opted for observation, sucralfate enema or coagulation based on the frequency or amount of bleeding. The median follow-up period was 39 months $(12\~86\;months)$. Results : The incidence of rectal bleeding was $12.7\%$ (27/213); graded as 1 in 9 patients, grade 2 in 16 and grade 3 in 2. The overall moderate and severe rectal complication rate was $8.5\%$. Most complications $(92.6\%)$ developed within 2 years following completion of radiotherapy (median 16 months). No patient progressed to rectal fistula or obstruction during the follow-up period. In the univariate analysis, three factors correlated with a high incidence of bleeding an icruCRBED greater than 100 Gy $(19.7\%\;vs.\;4.2\%)$, an EBRT dose to the parametrium over 55 Gy $(22.1\%\;vs.\;5.1\%)$ and higher stages of III and IV $(31.8\%\;vs.\;10.5\%)$. In the multivariate analysis, the icruCRBED was the only significant factor (p>0.0432). The total parametrial dose from the EBRT had borderline significance (p=0.0546). Grade 1 bleeding was controlled without further management (3 patients), or with sucralfate enema 1 to 2 months after treatment. For grade 2 bleeding, sucralfate enema for 1 to 2 months reduced the frequency or amount of bleeding but for residual bleeding, additional coagulation was peformed, where immediate cessation of bleeding was achieved (symptom duration of 3 to 10 months). Grade 3 bleeding lasted for 1 year even with multiple transfusions and coagulations. Conclusion : Moderate and several rectal bleeding occurred in $8.5\%$ of patients, which is comparable with other reports. The most significant risk factor for rectal bleeding was the accumulated dose to the rectum (icruCRBED), which corrected with consideration to biological equivalence. Prompt management of rectal bleeding, with a combination of sucralfate enema and coagulation, reduced the duration of the symptom, and minimized the anxiety/discomfort of patients.

Radiotherapy in Small Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix (자궁경부 소세포암종의 방사선치료)

  • Chung Eun Ji;Lee Yong Hee;Kim Gwi Eon;Suh Chang Ok
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 1997
  • Purpose : This study was Performed to identify the histopathologic feature by the reevaluation of the Pathologic specimen of the cervical tumors and to evaluate the clinical findings and the treatment results of the patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiotherapy. Materials and Methods : 2890 patients with cervical carcinoma received radiotherapy at the Department of Radiation Oncology. Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine between October 1981 and April 1995. Of the 2890 patients in this data base, sixty were found to have small cell carcinomas $(2.08\%)$. Among them thirty six patients were transferred from other hospitals. the biopsy specimens of those Patients were not available. So we could review the slides of the other twenty four patients who were diagnosed at our hospital. Twenty four patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix were analyzed retrospectively based on the assessment of H & E staining and other four immunohistochemical stains for neuroendocrine differentiation (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin. synaptophysin and Grimelius stain). And we also evaluate the Patients and tumor characteristics. response to radiation. patterns of failures, 5 year overall and disease free survival rates. Results : Thirteen tumors were neuroendocrine carcinomas(13/24 = $54.2\%$) and eleven tumors were squamous carcinomas, small cell type (11/24 = $47.8\%$) based on the assessment of H & E staining and other four neuroendocrine marker studies. So we classified the Patients two groups as neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell type of squamous carcinoma, Among the 13 neuroendocrine carcinomas, five were well to moderately differentiated tumors and the other eight were Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated ones. The median age was 54 years old (range 23-79 years). Eight Patients had FIGO stage IB disease, 12 had stage 11, 3 had stage III and one had stage IV disease, Pelvic lymph node metastases were found in five Patients $(20.8\%)$. three of them were diagnosed by surgical histologic examination and the other two were diagnosed by CT scan. There was no difference between two histopathologic groups in terms of patients and tumor characteristics. response to radiation. 5 year overall and disease free survival rates. However the distant metastases rate was higher in neuroendocrine carcinoma Patients (6/13:$46.2\%$) than in small cell type of squamous carcinoma Patients (2/11:$18.2\%$), but there was no statistically significant difference because of the small number of patients (P>0.05). Conclusion : More than half of the small cell carcinoma of the cervix patients were neuroendocrine carcinoma (13/24 : $54.1\%$) by reevaluation of the biopsy specimen of the cervical tumors. The tendency of distant metastases of the neurolndocrine carcinoma was greater than those of the small cell type of squamous carcinoma $(46.2\%\;vs.\;18.2\%)$. But there were no differences in the patients and tumor characteristics and other clinical treatment results in both groups. These data suggest that radical local treatment such as radiotherapy or radical surgery combined with combination systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy might provide these patients with the best chance for cure.

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Comparison of the Result of Radiation Alone and Radiation with Daily Low Dose Cisplatin in Management of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer (국소적으로 진행된 자궁경부암에서 방사선 단독치료와 방사선 및 저용량 Cisplatin 항암화학요법 병용치료의 비교)

  • Kim Hun Jung;Kim Woo Chul;Lee Mee Jo;Kim Chul Su;Song Eun Seop;Loh John J K.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.200-207
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: An analysis was to compare the results of radiation alone with those of radiation with dally low dose cisplatin as a radiation sensitizer in locally advanced cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 59 patients diagnosed with locally advanced uterine cervix cancer between December 1996 and March 2001 was peformed. Thirty one patients received radiation alone and 28 patients received dally low dose cisplatin, as a radiation sensitizer, and radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 34 months, ranging from 2.5 to 73 months. The radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to the whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), a 900$\~$l,000 cGy boost to the involved parametrium and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3,000$\~$3,500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the chemoradiation group, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given daily from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. According to the FIGO classification, the patients were subdivided into 51 (86.4$\%$) and 8 (13.6$\%$) stages IIB and stage IIIB, respectively. Results: The overall 5 year survival rate was 65.65$\%$ and according to treatment modality were 56.75$\%$ and 73.42$\%$ in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (p=0.180). The 5 year disease-free survival rates were 49.39$\%$ and 63.34$\%$ in the radiation alone and chemoradiatoin groups, respectively (p=0.053), The 5 year locoregional control rates were 52.34$\%$ and 73.58$\%$ in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (p=0.013). The 5 year distant disease-free survival rates were 59.29$\%$ and 81.46$\%$ in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (p=0.477), Treatment related hematologic toxicity were prominent in the chemoradiation group. Leukopenia $\geq$grade) occurred in 3.2$\%$and 28.5$\%$ of the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (p=0.02). There were no statistical differences in the incidences of vesical, rectal and small bowel complications between two groups. Conclusion: Radiation therapy with low dose cisplatin did not improve the rates of survival and response rates, but did improve the rate of disease free survival and locoregional control rates In locally advanced cervical cancer. The incidence of bone marrow suppression was higher in the chemoradiation group.

Comparison of CT based-CTV plan and CT based-ICRU38 plan in brachytherapy planning of uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 시 CT를 이용한 CTV에 근거한 치료계획과 ICRU 38에 근거할 치료계획의 비교)

  • Shim JinSup;Jo JungKun;Si ChangKeun;Lee KiHo;Lee DuHyun;Choi KyeSuk
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Although Improve of CT, MRI Radio-diagnosis and Radiation Therapy Planing, but we still use ICRU38 Planning system(2D film-based) broadly. 3-Dimensional ICR plan(CT image based) is not only offer tumor and normal tissue dose but also support DVH information. On this study, we plan irradiation-goal dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-goal dose on ICRU 38 point(ICRU38 plan) by use CT image. And compare with tumor-dose, rectal-dose, bladder-dose on both planning, and analysis DVH Method and Material : Sample 11 patients who treated by Ir-192 HDR. After 40Gy external radiation therapy, ICR plan established. All the patients carry out CT-image scanned by CT-simulator. And we use PLATO(Nucletron) v.14.2 planing system. We draw CTV, rectum, bladder on the CT image. And establish plan irradiation-$100\%$ dose on CTV(CTV plan) and irradiation-$100\%$ dose on A-point(ICRU38 plan) Result : CTV volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $21.8{\pm}26.6cm^3$, rectum volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $60.9{\pm}25.0cm^3$, bladder volume($average{\pm}SD$) is $116.1{\pm}40.1cm^3$ sampled 11 patients. The volume including $100\%$ dose is $126.7{\pm}18.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan and $98.2{\pm}74.5cm^3$ on CTV plan. On ICRU planning, the other one's $22.0cm^3$ CTV volume who residual tumor size excess 4cm is not including $100\%$ isodose. 8 patient's $12.9{\pm}5.9cm^3$ tumor volume who residual tumor size belows 4cm irradiated $100\%$ dose. Bladder dose(recommended by ICRU 38) is $90.1{\pm}21.3\%$ on ICRU plan, $68.7{\pm}26.6\%$ on CTV plan, and rectal dose is $86.4{\pm}18.3\%,\;76.9{\pm}15.6\%$. Bladder and Rectum maximum dose is $137.2{\pm}50.1\%,\;101.1{\pm}41.8\%$ on ICRU plan, $107.6{\pm}47.9\%,\;86.9{\pm}30.8\%$ on CTV plan. Therefore CTV plan more less normal issue-irradiated dose than ICRU plan. But one patient case who residual tumor size excess 4cm, Normal tissue dose more higher than critical dose remarkably on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated rectal dose(V80rec) is $1.8{\pm}2.4cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $0.7{\pm}1.0cm^3$ on CTV plan. $80\%$over-Irradiated bladder dose(V80bla) is $12.2{\pm}8.9cm^3$ on ICRU plan, $3.5{\pm}4.1cm^3$ on CTV plan. Likewise, CTV plan more less irradiated normal tissue than ICRU38 plan. Conclusion : Although, prove effect and stability about previous ICRU plan, if we use CTV plan by CT image, we will reduce normal tissue dose and irradiated goal-dose at residual tumor on small residual tumor case. But bigger residual tumor case, we need more research about effective 3D-planning.

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Packing effects on the intracavitary radiation Therapy 3-Dimension plan of the uterine cervix cancer (자궁경부암 강내조사 3차원 치료계획 시 Packing의 유용성 분석)

  • Si, Chang-Keun;Jo, Jung-Kun;Lee, Du-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Yeung;Kim, Tae-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : An effect of a packing to uterine treatment of a cervical cancer using a dose-volume histogram for a point dose and a volume dose of the bladder and the rectum was analyzed by establishing a three-dimensional treatment plan using a CT image. Materials and methods : Reference points of the bladder and the rectum were marked, respectively at a treatment plan device (plato brachytherapy V14.2.4) by photographing CT(marconi, USA) when the packing was used and removed under the same condition and a treatment plan was performed to Apoint depending on ICRU38. However, in case of the rectum, a maximum point was looked up and compared with the above point because the point presented from the ICRU is not proper as a representative value of a rectum point dose. Further, the volume dose depending on volume of $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder was measured. The measured values were used to analyze the effect of the packing through a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (a SAS statistical analysis process program). Result : The reference points at the bladder and rectum doses when the packing was removed were $116.94\;35.42\%$ and $117.59\;21.08\%$, respectively. The points when the packing was used were $107.08\;38.12\%$ and $95.19\;21.32\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the reference points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $9.86\%$ and $22.4\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $164.51\;50.89\%,\;128.81\;33.05\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were $142.31\;44.79,\;110.08\;37.03\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the maximum points at the bladder and the rectum were decreased by $22.2\%$ and $18.73\%$, respectively. When the packing was removed, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $48.62{\pm}18.09\%,\;16.12{\pm}11.15\%,\;and\;7.51{\pm}6.63\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $23.41{\pm}14.44\%,\;6.27{\pm}4.28\%,\;2.79{\pm}2.27\%$, respectively. When the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were $40.33{\pm}16.72,\;11.63{\pm}8.72,\;and\;4.87{\pm}4.75\%$, respectively and its rectum volume were $18.96{\pm}8.37\%,\;4.75{\pm}2.58\%,\;and\;1.58{\pm}1.06\%$, respectively. After the packing was used, the bladder volume at $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ point doses of the rectum and the bladder were decreased by $8.29\%,\;4.49\%,\;and\;2.64\%$, respectively and its bladder volume were decreased by $4.45\%,\;1.52\%,\;and\;1.21\%$, respectively. Conclusion : Values at Reference point doses of the bladder and the rectum recommended from the ICRU 38 were 0.0781 and 0.0781, respectively and values of their maximum point doses were 0.0156 and 0.0156, respectively, as a result of which an effect of the packing using at the uterine intracavitary treatment of an uterine cervical cancer through the three-dimensional treatment plan used CT were measured. That is, the values at reference point doses and the values at maximum point doses show similar difference. However, P value was 0.15 at over $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;100\%$ volume doses and the value shows no similar difference. In other words, the effect of the packing looks like having a difference at the point dose, but actually shows no difference at the volume dose. The reason is that the volume of the bladder and the rectum are wide but the volume of the packing is only a portion. Therefore, the effect of decreasing the point dose was not great. Further, the farer the distance is, the more weak the intensity of radiation is because the intensity of radiation is proportional to inverse square of a distance. Therefore, the effort to minimize an obstacle of the bladder and the rectum by using the packing should be made.

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