• Title, Summary, Keyword: Urban air temperature

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The Effects of Urban Forest on Summer Air Temperature in Seoul, Korea (도시림의 여름 대기온도 저감효과 - 서울시를 대상으로 -)

  • 조용현;신수영
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.28-36
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    • 2002
  • The main purpose of this study was to estimate a new regression model to explain the relationship between urban forest and air temperature in summer, 2001. This study consists of two parts: correlation coefficient analysis and regression analysis. According to correlation coefficient analysis, thermal infra-red radiations of the major land use categories found significant difference in each category. However there were no significant relationship between the data (thermal infra-red radiation and NDVI) derived from Landsat-7 ETM+ image and air temperature at Automatic Weather Stations(AWSs). After estimating various regression models for summer air temperature, the final models were chosen. The final regression models consisted of two variables such as forest m and traffic facilities area. The regression models explained over 78% of the variability in air temperatures. The regression models with variables of forest area and traffic facilities area showed that the coefficient of the first variable was even more significant than the second one. However, the negative impact of the traffic facilities area was slightly greater than the positive impact of the forest area. Consequently, the effects of forest area and traffic facilities area were apparent to explain summer air temperature in Seoul. Therefore two policies have the most important implications to mitigate the summer air temperature in Seoul: to expand and to conserve the urban forest; and to change the Oafnc facilities'characteristics. The results from this study are expected to be useful not merely in informing the public that urban forest mitigates summer air temperahne, but in urging the necessity of budgets for trees and managing urban forests. It is recommended that field swey of summer air temperature be Performed for the vadidation of the models. The main purpose of this study was to estimate a new regression model to explain the relationship between urban forest and air temperature in summer, 2001. This study consists of two parts: correlation coefficient analysis and regression analysis. According to correlation coefficient analysis, thermal infra-red radiations of the major land use categories found significant difference in each category. However there were no significant relationship between the data (thermal infra-red radiation and NDVI) derived from Landsat-7 ETM+ image and air temperature at Automatic Weather Stations(AWSs). After estimating various regression models for summer air temperature, the final models were chosen. The final regression models consisted of two variables such as forest m and traffic facilities area. The regression models explained over 78% of the variability in air temperatures. The regression models with variables of forest area and traffic facilities area showed that the coefficient of the first variable was even more significant than the second one. However, the negative impact of the traffic facilities area was slightly greater than the positive impact of the forest area. Consequently, the effects of forest area and traffic facilities area were apparent to explain summer air temperature in Seoul. Therefore two policies have the most important implications to mitigate the summer air temperature in Seoul: to expand and to conserve the urban forest; and to change the traffic facilities'characteristics. The results from this study are expected to be useful not merely in informing the public that urban forest mitigates summer air temperature, but in urging the necessity of budgets for trees and managing urban forests. It is recommended that field survey of summer air temperature be Performed for the vadidation of the models.

Diurnal Variations in the Horizontal Temperature Distribution using the High Density Urban Climate Observation Network of Daegu in Summer (고밀도 도시기후관측 망 자료를 이용한 대구의 여름철 기온 수평 공간 분포의 일변화)

  • Kim, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Baek-Jo;Kim, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.259-265
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    • 2016
  • We analyzed diurnal variations in the surface air temperature using the high density urban climate observation network of Daegu in summer, 2013. We compared the time elements, which are characterized by the diurnal variation of surface air temperature. The warming and cooling rates in rural areas are faster than in urban areas. It is mainly due to the difference of surface heat capacity. In addition, local wind circulation also affects the discrepancy of thermal spatiotemporal distribution in Daegu. Namely, the valley and mountain breezes affect diurnal variation of horizontal distribution of air temperature. During daytimes, the air(valley breeze) flows up from urban located at lowlands to higher altitudes of rural areas. The temperature of valley breeze rises gradually as it flows from lowland to upland. Hence the difference of air temperature decreases between urban and rural areas. At nighttime, the mountains cool more rapidly than do low-lying areas, so the air(mountain breeze) becomes denser and sinks toward the valleys(lowlands). As the result, the air temperature becomes lower in rural areas than in urban areas.

Air Temperature Variation by Effect of Green Space Distribution (녹지분포에 따른 기온변화)

  • Yoon, Yong-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2002
  • In this study, in order to find out relationship of green space distribution and lower air temperature effect, observed air temperature distribution in and out green space in the cloudy. On basis of the result, we are analyzed relationship of air temperature distribution in and out green space, of green space distribution and air temperature of, lower air temperature effect and the urban in between the green space by using regression analysis. According to the result, the higher temperature zone formed around urban, and the lower temperature zone was similar to shape of green space. In case of the green space, higher temperature zone is formed around paved surface and barren ground, lower temperature zone is done forest and water area. To compare air temperature of windward and leeward around green space, the windward formed the lower temperature zone and although the wind direction is not the leeward to the green space, air temperature formed lower temperature zone to the urban in between the green space.

Diurnal Variations of O3 and NO2 Concentrations in an Urban Park in Summer: Effects of Air Temperature and Wind Speed (여름철 도심 공원의 O3과 NO2 농도의 일변화: 기온과 풍속의 영향)

  • Han, Beom-Soon;Kwak, Kyung-Hwan;Baik, Jong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.536-546
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    • 2016
  • The diurnal variations of $O_3$ and $NO_2$ in an urban park and the effects of air temperature and wind speed on the diurnal variations are investigated. $O_3$ and $NO_2$ concentrations were observed at a site in an urban park of Seoul from 27 July 2015 to 9 August 2015. The $O_3$ and $NO_2$ concentrations observed in the urban park are compared to those observed at the Gangnam air quality monitoring station (AQMS). The $O_3$ concentration is higher in the urban park than at the Gangnam AQMS in the daytime because the amount of $O_3$ dissociated by NO is smaller as well as partly because the amount of $O_3$ produced in the oxidation process of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is larger in the urban park than at the Gangnam AQMS. The $NO_2$ concentration is lower in the urban park than at the Gangnam AQMS during day and night because the observation site in the urban park is relatively far from roads where $NO_x$ is freshly emitted from vehicles. The difference in $NO_2$ concentration is larger in the daytime than in the nighttime. To examine the effects of air temperature and wind speed on the diurnal variations of $O_3$ and $NO_2$, the observed $O_3$ and $NO_2$ concentrations are classified into high or low air temperature and high or low wind speed days. The high $O_3$ and $NO_2$ concentrations in the daytime appear for the high air temperature and low wind speed days. This is because the daytime photochemical processes are favorable when the air temperature is high and the wind speed is low. The scatter plots of the daytime maximum $O_3$ and minimum $NO_2$ concentrations versus the daytime averages of air temperature and wind speed show that the daytime maximum $O_3$ and minimum $NO_2$ concentrations tend to increase as the air temperature increases or the wind speed decreases. The daytime maximum $O_3$ concentration is more sensitive to the changes in air temperature and wind speed in the urban park than at the Gangnam AQMS.

Evaluation of Urban Weather Forecast Using WRF-UCM (Urban Canopy Model) Over Seoul (WRF-UCM (Urban Canopy Model)을 이용한 서울 지역의 도시기상 예보 평가)

  • Byon, Jae-Young;Choi, Young-Jean;Seo, Bum-Geun
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 2010
  • The Urban Canopy Model (UCM) implemented in WRF model is applied to improve urban meteorological forecast for fine-scale (about 1-km horizontal grid spacing) simulations over the city of Seoul. The results of the surface air temperature and wind speed predicted by WRF-UCM model is compared with those of the standard WRF model. The 2-m air temperature and wind speed of the standard WRF are found to be lower than observation, while the nocturnal urban canopy temperature from the WRF-UCM is superior to the surface air temperature from the standard WRF. Although urban canopy temperature (TC) is found to be lower at industrial sites, TC in high-intensity residential areas compares better with surface observation than 2-m temperature. 10-m wind speed is overestimated in urban area, while urban canopy wind (UC) is weaker than observation by the drag effect of the building. The coupled WRF-UCM represents the increase of urban heat from urban effects such as anthropogenic heat and buildings, etc. The study indicates that the WRF-UCM contributes for the improvement of urban weather forecast such nocturnal heat island, especially when an accurate urban information dataset is provided.

Climate Change and Urban Air Temperature Increase in Korean Peninsula (기후변화와 한반도 도시지역의 기온 증가)

  • Oh, Sung-Nam;Ju, Ok-Jung;Moon, Yung-Su;Lee, Kyoo-Seock
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 2010
  • One of the most obvious climatic manifestations of urbanization in Korea is a trend towards higher air temperature. The trends of long-term annual temperature generally well describe the warming of urban areas. The increase of air temperature in urban area has been observed to the present since the meteorological observations in Korea began. The objective of this study is to explore the actual increase and the regional long-term trends of air temperature attributed to urbanization in the Korean Peninsula. Therefore, temperatures of the selected urban areas were compared with that of the surrounding rural areas, with the results varying by the application of the estimates of each region. The second objective is to separate the long-term trend of surface air temperature of global warming from urbanization and to find the actual temperature increase from urbanization in Korean peninsula. For the data analysis, daily air temperatures observed by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) during between from 1961 and 2005 were used at five rural sites and cities. The re-analyzed surface air temperatures by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was also carried out to compare the result from the observed air temperature in the Korean climate domain. In this study, the urban areas in Korea showed high increase rate of air temperature with $0.4^{\circ}C$ per decade during past 50 year period, while rural sites as Chupungryung with the $0.2^{\circ}C$ decadal increase rate. The analyses reflect that the urban area shows the high rate of temperature increase with $1.39^{\circ}C$ of regression value at the urban area, Seoul, and $0.43^{\circ}C$ at the rural site, Chupungnyeong during the period of 30 years. The temperature increas due to the urbanization only showed the increase range between $0.44^{\circ}C$ and $0.86^{\circ}C$, and the observed decrease in diurnal temperature range at five urban areas during the 30 years period.

Investigation of Urban High Temperature Phenomenon in Summer using the High Density Ground Monitoring System in Daegu Metropolitan Area (지상 고밀도 관측 시스템을 이용한 대구의 여름철 고온현상 조사)

  • Kim, Sang-Heon;Cho, Chang-Bum;Kim, Hae-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1619-1626
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    • 2014
  • We analyzed diurnal variations in the surface air temperature using the high density urban climate observation network in Daegu metropolitan city, the representative basin-type city in Korea, in summer, 2013. We used a total of 28 air temperature observation points data(16 thermometers and 12 AWSs). From the distribution of monthly average air temperature, air temperature at the center of Daegu was higher than the suburbs. Also, the days of daily minimum air temperature more than or equal to $25^{\circ}C$ and daily maximum air temperature more than or equal to $35^{\circ}C$ at the schools near the center of Daegu was more than those at other schools. This tendency appeared more clearly on the days of daily minimum air temperature more than or equal to $25^{\circ}C$. Also, the air temperature near the center of the city was higher than that of the suburbs in the early morning. Thus it was indicated that the air temperature was hard to decrease as the bottom of the basin. From these results, the influence of urbanization to the formation of the daily minimum temperature in Daegu was indicated.

Effects of Building-roof Cooling on Scalar Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons (도시 협곡에서 건물 지붕 냉각이 스칼라 물질 확산에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Soo-Jin;Kim, Jae-Jin
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.331-341
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the effects of building-roof cooling on scalar dispersion in three-dimensional street canyons are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. For this, surface temperature of building roof is systematically changed and non-reactive pollutants are released from street bottom in urban street canyons with the aspect ratio of 1. The characteristics of flow, air temperature, and non-reactive pollutant dispersion in the control experiment are analyzed first. Then, the effects of building-roof cooling are investigated by comparing the results with those in the control experiment. In the control experiment, a portal vortex which is a secondary flow induced by ambient air flow is formed in each street canyon. Averaged air temperature is higher inside the street canyon than in both sides of the street canyon, because warmer air is coming into the street canyon from the roof level. However, air temperature near the street bottom is lower inside the street canyon due to the inflow of cooler air from both sides of the street canyon. As building-roof temperature decreases, wind speed at the roof level increases and portal vortex becomes intensified (that is, downdraft, reverse flow, and updraft becomes stronger). Building-roof cooling contributes to the reduction of average concentration of the non-reactive pollutants and average air temperature in the street canyon. The results imply that building-roof cooling has positive effects on improvement of thermal environment and air quality in urban areas.

Analyzing the correlation between urban forestry and surface temperature using Landsat TM data

  • Jo, Myung-Hee;Kim, Sung-Jae;Lee, Kwang-Jae
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.905-907
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the correlation between the heat island effect and the vegetation in Deagu Korea was performed through using Landsat TM data. the island effect, presents high temperature on air like island, is connected with correlation between the surface temperature and the temperature on the air. In this study, surface temperature was analyzed by detecting the change of urban forestry with remote sensing using the vegetation vitality statistics reference (ratio change of the Park greens in Daegu) the heat island effect not only brings the environment pollution but also brings serious problem such as the destruction of ecosystem to city as a whole. Jeff Luvall has studied to restrain the heat island effect by making urban forestry. Even though Daegu had been the serious high temperature urban area the current temperature of Daegu has been dropped. The correlation between the heat island effect and the vegetation index was analyzed by using satellite images.

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An Analysis of the Temperature Change Effects of Restoring Urban Streams in Busan Area (부산지역 도심하천 복원에 따른 기온변화 효과 분석)

  • Jung, Woo-Sik;Do, Woo-Gon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.939-951
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    • 2012
  • This study is conducted to estimate the air temperature decreasing effects by restoring urban streams using WRF/CALMET coupled system. The types of land use on covered streams are constructed with the land cover map from Korea ministry of environment. Restoring covered streams changes the types of land use on covered areas to water. Two different types of land use(CASE 1 and CASE 2) are inputted to the WRF/CALMET coupled system in order to calculate the temperature difference. The results of the WRF/CALMET coupled system are similar to the observed values at automatic weather stations(AWS) in Busan area. Restoring covered streams causes temperature to be decreased by about $0.34{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ according to the locations of streams and the regions that temperature is reduced are widely distributed over the restored area. Reduction of temperature is increased rapidly from morning and maximus at 13LST. Natural restoration of streams will reduce the built-up area within urban. With this, temperature reductions which are the cause to weaken the urban heat island appear. Relief of urban heat island will help to improve the air quality such as accumulation of air pollutants in within urban area.