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The Present State of Marine Oil Spills and the Enhancement Plans of National Oil Spill Response Capability in Vietnam - Through the Comparison of Statistics and OSR System between Vietnam and Republic of Korea - (베트남의 해양기름유출 현황과 국가대응역량 증강 방안 - 통계자료와 유출유 방제시스템에 대한 베트남과 한국 간의 비교를 통하여 -)

  • Phan, Van Hung;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.690-698
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    • 2017
  • Vietnam is a marine nation with more than 3,444 km of shorelines, thousands of islands, and 2,360 rivers and canals of over 42,000 km long. As the frequency and the volume of oil transportation by ships increase, the possibility of oil spill incidents becomes higher than ever. Fuel oil and cargo oil spills at sea have widespread impact and long-term consequences on marine ecosystems, coastal resources and human health as well as socio-economy. This study is to show not only the present state of marine oil spills in Vietnam such as the number and the volume of oil spills for two decades, and an overall about Vietnamese national response system like national framework for Oil Spill Response (OSR), etc. but also to present the recommendations for enhancing national capability in response to oil spill incidents in Vietnam, especially, with a comparison of national OSR systems between Vietnam and South Korea. As the result, the number and the volume of marine oil spills in Vietnam showed an upward trend as opposed to a downward trend in South Korea. This means that Vietnam has the possibility of oil spills in coastal waters. Therefore, three main recommendations for the enhancement of national OSR capability in Vietnam are proposed as follows: (1) the development of alternative plan for reenforcing national OSR system involving legal system for preparedness and response to oil spill pollution such as the acceptance and implementation of OPRC Convention as well as the establishment of national fund compensating for the damage and loss caused by oil pollution; (2) the enhancement of a consistent reporting, alerting and monitoring system; and (3) the development of training and exercise programs with standard contents of educational courses.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2015 (설비공학회 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2015년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.256-268
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    • 2016
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2015. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering were carried out in the areas of flow, heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the renewable energy system and the flow inside building rooms. Research issues dealing with air-conditioning machines and fire and exhausting smoke were reduced. CFD seems to be spreading to more research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area were carried out in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the economic analysis of GHG emission, micro channel heat exchanger, effect of rib angle on thermal performance, the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers, theoretical analysis of a rotary heat exchanger, heat exchanger in a cryogenic environment, the performance of a cross-flow-type, indirect evaporative cooler made of paper/plastic film. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the bubble jet loop heat pipe was studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches were performed on fin-tube heat exchanger, KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel at baking phase, the performance of small-sized dehumidification rotor, design of gas-injection port of an asymmetric scroll compressor, effect of slot discharge-angle change on exhaust efficiency of range hood system with air curtain. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, a cold-climate heat pump system, $CO_2$ cascade systems, ejector cycles and a PCM-based continuous heating system were investigated. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, a polymer adsorption heat pump, an alcohol absorption heat pump and a desiccant-based hybrid refrigeration system were investigated. In the system control category, turbo-refrigerator capacity controls and an absorption chiller fault diagnostics were investigated. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, eighteen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the user and location awareness technology applied dimming lighting control system, the lighting performance evaluation for light-shelves, the improvement evaluation of air quality through analysis of ventilation efficiency and the evaluation of airtightness of sliding and LS window systems. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving estimation of existing buildings, the developing model to predict heating energy usage in domestic city area and the performance evaluation of cooling applied with economizer control. The studies were also performed related to the experimental measurement of weight variation and thermal conductivity in polyurethane foam, the development of flame spread prevention system for sandwich panels, the utilization of heat from waste-incineration facility in large-scale horticultural facilities.

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2002 and 2003 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2002년 및 2003년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰 -)

  • Chung Kwang-Seop;Kim Min Soo;Kim Yongchan;Park Kyoung Kuhn;Park Byung-Yoon;Cho Keumnam
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.1234-1268
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    • 2004
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2002 and 2003 has been carried out. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment/design. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation in diverse facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat transfer, humidity was also interesting to promote comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing research topics. Well developed CFD technologies were widely applied for analysis and design of various facilities and their systems. (2) Heat transfer characteristics of enhanced finned tube heat exchangers and heat sinks were extensively investigated. Experimental studies on the boiling heat transfer, vortex generators, fluidized bed heat exchangers, and frosting and defrosting characteristics were also conducted. In addition, the numerical simulations on various heat exchangers were performed and reported to show heat transfer characteristics and performance of the heat exchanger. (3) A review of the recent studies shows that the performance analysis of heat pump have been made by various simulations and experiments. Progresses have been made specifically on the multi-type heat pump systems and other heat pump systems in which exhaust energy is utilized. The performance characteristics of heat pipe have been studied numerically and experimentally, which proves the validity of the developed simulation programs. The effect of various factors on the heat pipe performance has also been examined. Studies of the ice storage system have been focused on the operational characteristics of the system and on the basics of thermal storage materials. Researches into the phase change have been carried out steadily. Several papers deal with the cycle analysis of a few thermodynamic systems which are very useful in the field of air-conditioning and refrigeration. (4) Recent studies on refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement when new alternative refrigerants are applied. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and new alternative refrigerants including natural refrigerants. Efficiency of various compressors and performance of new expansion devices are also dealt with for better design of refrigeration/air conditioning system. In addition to the studies related with thermophysical properties of refrigerant mixtures, studies on new refrigerants are also carried out. It should be noted that the researches on two-phase flow are constantly carried out. (5) A review of the recent studies on absorption refrigeration system indicates that heat and mass transfer enhancement is the key factor in improving the system performance. Various experiments have been carried out and diverse simulation models have been presented. Study on the small scale absorption refrigeration system draws a new attention. Cooling tower was also the research object in the respect of enhancement its efficiency, and performance analysis and optimization was carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor thermal environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on several innovative systems such as personal environmental modules, air-barrier type perimeterless system with UFAC, radiant floor cooling system, etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental conditions and minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building energy management and cost-benefit analysis for economic evaluation.

Soil Chemical Property, Mortality Rates and Growth of Planting Trees from Soil Covering Depths in Coastal Reclaimed Land of Asan Area (아산지역 해안매립지의 복토높이에 따른 토양화학성, 수목 고사율 및 생장 특성)

  • Byun, Jae-Kyeong;Kim, Choon-Sig;Lim, Chae-Cheol;Jeong, Jin-Hyon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 2011
  • It is important to determine optimum soil covering depths for tree survival and growth because soil covering depths for establishing tree planting bases in coastal reclaimed lands are related to the costs for soil collection, transportation and land reclamation. The objectives of this study were carried out to determine optimum soil covering depths for the normal growth of planted trees in a coastal reclaimed land. The study sites were located in Asan National Industrial Complex in Pyeongtaek City, Gyeonggi-do. Four tree species (Pinus thunbergii, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Zelkova serrata, Quercus acutissima) with one hundred eighty trees of each species were planted in various depths of soil covering (no soil covering, 0.5 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m soil covering treatments) on April 1998, and the tree growth patterns were measured on September 2000. The change of soil properties, tree mortality rate, root collar diameter and height growth were measured from each soil covering depth treatment on September 2000. Soil pH, EC, exchangeable cations ($K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$), anion $Cl^-$, and base saturation increased with decreased soil covering depths. The mortality rates of tree species showed decreased with increased soil covering depths. The height growth of tree species increased with increased soil covering depths. Height growth of Pinus thunbergii was significantly different between the soil covering depth below 0.5m and other three covering depths, while the growth of other species (C. pisifera, Z. serrata, Q. acutissima) was significantly higher in soil covering depths below 1.5 m than in other soil covering depth treatments. The root collar diameter growth of all tree species showed increasing trends with increased soil covering depths. It is recommended to cover the soil depths above 1.5 m to decrease mortality and to stimulate the tree growth of C. pisifera, Z. serrata and Q. acutissima, while P. thunbergii which is a salt tolerate species could be planted in the 1.0 m soil covering depth.

The effects of housing poverty on adolescents' subjective well-being (주거빈곤기간이 청소년의 주관적 행복감에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Se Hee;Kim, SunSuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare
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    • no.56
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    • pp.133-164
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the effect of housing poverty in childhood on adolescents' subjective well-being. Specifically, this study examined whether the major factors that have been known to affect adolescents' well-being (i.e., family relationships, peer relationships, school adjustment etc.) mediated the relationship between housing poverty and adolescents' well-being. And then this study aimed to present an empirical evidence for establishing policies against housing poverty in order to enhance adolescent's subjective happiness. Data were derived from the $1^{st}$, $4^{th}$, and $7^{th}$ surveys of the Korea Welfare Panel Study(KOWEPS), and the sample included. 512 high school children in the $7^{th}$ survey. This study utilized structural equation modeling. Housing poverty was measured by the sub-minimum standard housing condition and the household's burden of housing expenditure. Family relationship, as a mediator, was measured by parental involvement in education, parental monitoring, and family conflicts. Another mediator, school adjustment was measured by school environment and school bonding, and the last mediator, peer relationship was measured by friend attachment and peer attachment. The results showed that housing poverty had significant negative effects on the adolescents' subjective well-being. The sub-minimum standard housing condition with inadequate size and facilities negatively affected adolescents' relationships with family directly and subjective well-being indirectly. In addition, the negative family relationships due to the sub-minimum standard housing condition negatively affected adolescents' subjective well-being through school adjustment and peer relationships. The greater the proportion of income a household spends on housing expenditure, the less likely for adolescents to report positive well-being. The sub-minimum standard housing condition had indirect effects through family relationships, whereas the household's housing expenditure directly affected adolescents' subjective well-being. This study suggested the necessity of interventions to alleviate housing poverty for adolescents' families and lays the groundwork for housing poverty policies in Korea.

Difference in the practice of COVID-19 prevention according to the reliability of COVID-19 response among high school students in Korea (일부 고등학생들의 학교와 학원 코로나19 대응방역 신뢰도에 따른 코로나19 예방행동 실천의 차이)

  • Lee, Hocheol;Yoon, Hyejin;Kim, Ji Eon;Nam, Eun Woo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.131-143
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    • 2021
  • Objectives: This study aimed 1) to investigate high school students' reliability on COVID-19 responses in schools and private academies and 2) to identify the differences in COVID-19 prevention practice. Methods: This cross-sectional survey collected data from 200 high school respondents, using an anonymous online questionnaire designed by the Yonsei Global Health Center, from July 2 to 17, 2020 in this study. Chi-square tests were conducted to analyze the differences in preventative practices and practice rates between schools and private academies. Binary logistics regression analysis was conducted to identify the factor affecting the reliability of COVID-19 response. Results: These high school students reliabilityed the schools' COVID-19 response more than the private academy. In addition, students who studied only at school did more COVID-19 prevention practices than students who studied both at school and academy. There was a significant difference in avoiding public transportation (p=.028), sitting in one row while having a meal (p=.011) in the practice rates depending on the schools' COVID-19 response. A significant difference in Covering the mouth when coughing and sneezing (p-.041) was also found in the practice rates depending on the private academies' COVID-19 response. Conclusion: The reason why schools were more reliable than private academies was that there are health teachers. Because schools are supervised by the ministry of education, the Ministry of education and local government need to work together to manage and monitor the COVID-19 response in the academies through cooperation between two organizations. In addition, it is necessary to arrange a temporary circulation health teacher who will provide the COVID-19 prevention education at the academies.

Analysis of the Operation Status and Function based on the Overseas Accident Investigation Agency (국외 재난원인조사기구의 운영 현황 및 기능분석)

  • Lee, Kyung-Su;Yang, Seung-Ho;Kim, Yeon-Ju;Park, Jihye;Kim, Tai-Hoon;Kim, Hyunju
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.442-453
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: The objective of this study is to suggest desirable direction of Korean accident investigation organization by analyzing the operation status and way of overseas developed countries' investigation agency. Method: To accomplish the objective of this study, we were examined four main characteristics of accident investigation agencies of the U.S., Japan, and Sweden, focusing on (1); the background of the establishment, (2);organizational structure, (3);major tasks and functions, (4); accident investigation procedures. Result: First, the purpose of its establishment and task is to prevent recurrence of disasters and accidents, at the same time, administrating and researching duties such as legal system, policy, recommending improvement and conducting scientific disaster-cause analysis to contribute safety for the government. Second, it is operated as an independent organization under the president, not belonging to the ministry, in order to enable fair investigation in an impartial position. Third, it has the authority to be recognized for its expertise in the results of investigation. In other words, it is operated as a permanent organization with professional personnel, and secures authority through the accident research with indepth investigation and high-quality recommendations. Conclusion: The overseas investigation agencies rapidly manage and coordinate their operational practices in order to resolve national requirements and social conflicts with fairness, accuracy and expertise in accident investigations. In order to prevent the recurrence of similar events, Korea needs to efficiently reconstruct its investigative functions distributed by each government department. In addition, institutional improvement is needed to make general adjustments at the national level, organize and operate control tower for when the accident has happened.

Comparative Research of Image Classification and Image Segmentation Methods for Mapping Rural Roads Using a High-resolution Satellite Image (고해상도 위성영상을 이용한 농촌 도로 매핑을 위한 영상 분류 및 영상 분할 방법 비교에 관한 연구)

  • CHOUNG, Yun-Jae;GU, Bon-Yup
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2021
  • Rural roads are the significant infrastructure for developing and managing the rural areas, hence the utilization of the remote sensing datasets for managing the rural roads is necessary for expanding the rural transportation infrastructure and improving the life quality of the rural residents. In this research, the two different methods such as image classification and image segmentation were compared for mapping the rural road based on the given high-resolution satellite image acquired in the rural areas. In the image classification method, the deep learning with the multiple neural networks was employed to the given high-resolution satellite image for generating the object classification map, then the rural roads were mapped by extracting the road objects from the generated object classification map. In the image segmentation method, the multiresolution segmentation was employed to the same satellite image for generating the segment image, then the rural roads were mapped by merging the road objects located on the rural roads on the satellite image. We used the 100 checkpoints for assessing the accuracy of the two rural roads mapped by the different methods and drew the following conclusions. The image segmentation method had the better performance than the image classification method for mapping the rural roads using the give satellite image, because some of the rural roads mapped by the image classification method were not identified due to the miclassification errors occurred in the object classification map, while all of the rural roads mapped by the image segmentation method were identified. However some of the rural roads mapped by the image segmentation method also had the miclassfication errors due to some rural road segments including the non-rural road objects. In future research the object-oriented classification or the convolutional neural networks widely used for detecting the precise objects from the image sources would be used for improving the accuracy of the rural roads using the high-resolution satellite image.

Analysis of Start-up Sustainability Factors Based on ERIS Model: Focusing on the Organization Resilience (ERIS모델 기반 창업지속요인 분석: 조직 리질리언스를 중심으로)

  • Kim, InSook;Yang, Ji Hee
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.15-29
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    • 2021
  • This study is based on ERIS model for start-up performance, and aims to derive the main reason for start-up sustainability centered on organizational resilience. To this end, systematic literature examination and modified Delphi method were used to investigate start-up sustainability factors based on ERIS Model focused on organizational resilience. The results showed that ERIS model-based entrepreneurial continuity factors were divided into four categories: entrepreneur, resource, industrial environment, strategy, subdivision 8 and detailed factors 54. In addition, the ERIS model-based continuity factors were structured around organizational resilience, and the continuity factors were structured according to ERIS model under five categories: leadership, culture, people, system and environment. The results of this study are as follows. First of all, the results of existing research and analysis show that the concept of successful start-up and sustainability of start-up are used in various fields. Second, it is confirmed that there are common factors of influence on start-up performance and start-up sustainability based on ERIS model. Third, Delphi method's results showed that the general characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as academic background, education level, gender, age, and business experience did not affect the sustainability of entrepreneurship. This study is significant in that it is based on ERIS model focused on organization resilience, and ERIS-R, which integrates Strategy into System and Organization resilience into R in the field of gradually expanding start-up development and support. It is expected that the results of this study will improve the sustainability of start-up that can predict, prevent, and overcome various crises at any time.

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Sea Fog Level Estimation based on Maritime Digital Image for Protection of Aids to Navigation (항로표지 보호를 위한 디지털 영상기반 해무 강도 측정 알고리즘)

  • Ryu, Eun-Ji;Lee, Hyo-Chan;Cho, Sung-Yoon;Kwon, Ki-Won;Im, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2021
  • In line with future changes in the marine environment, Aids to Navigation has been used in various fields and their use is increasing. The term "Aids to Navigation" means an aid to navigation prescribed by Ordinance of the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries which shows navigating ships the position and direction of the ships, position of obstacles, etc. through lights, shapes, colors, sound, radio waves, etc. Also now the use of Aids to Navigation is transforming into a means of identifying and recording the marine weather environment by mounting various sensors and cameras. However, Aids to Navigation are mainly lost due to collisions with ships, and in particular, safety accidents occur because of poor observation visibility due to sea fog. The inflow of sea fog poses risks to ports and sea transportation, and it is not easy to predict sea fog because of the large difference in the possibility of occurrence depending on time and region. In addition, it is difficult to manage individually due to the features of Aids to Navigation distributed throughout the sea. To solve this problem, this paper aims to identify the marine weather environment by estimating sea fog level approximately with images taken by cameras mounted on Aids to Navigation and to resolve safety accidents caused by weather. Instead of optical and temperature sensors that are difficult to install and expensive to measure sea fog level, sea fog level is measured through the use of general images of cameras mounted on Aids to Navigation. Furthermore, as a prior study for real-time sea fog level estimation in various seas, the sea fog level criteria are presented using the Haze Model and Dark Channel Prior. A specific threshold value is set in the image through Dark Channel Prior(DCP), and based on this, the number of pixels without sea fog is found in the entire image to estimate the sea fog level. Experimental results demonstrate the possibility of estimating the sea fog level using synthetic haze image dataset and real haze image dataset.