• Title/Summary/Keyword: Transport in soil

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Dredging Material High Efficiency Transport Technology Test by Using the Electro Magnetic Field and Development of the Technical Design Manual (전자기장을 이용한 준설토 고효율 이송기술 실증 및 기술 지침 개발)

  • Kim, Dong-Chule;Kim, Yu-Seung;Yea, Chan-Su;Kim, Sun-Bin;Park, Seung-Min
    • Journal of Coastal Disaster Prevention
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2018
  • As the research about increasing the efficiency of dredging soil transport, the technology, which reduce the friction between pipe wall and fluid in the pipe and disturbed generating pipe blockage, has been developed. So for the purpose of applying this technology to real construction site, main test has been tried at the real scale test in field. As a test result, this paper will show 30% flow efficiency increasing by permitted electro magnetic force to the pipe. And test result was evaluated as a ultra sonic velocity profiler. To propose the design technique and the execution manual of the high efficiency dredging material transport technic, this research have confirmed flow status changing depending on a soil material kind under electro-magnetic field and analyze the effect of electro-magnetic field which affects to each dredged soil material transportation. For achieving this research, EMF(Electro-Magnetic Field) generator is installed on the dredger(20,000HP) and through monitored flow status, dredging soil flow rate and sampled material specification is confirmed. Also dredger operating condition is measured and dredger power for soil transportation, hydraulic gradient and flow rate are compared, as transportation efficiency is calculated by this parameter, it is possible to check transportation efficiency improvement depending on each dredged soil material under electro-magnetic field. To verify the technique of dredged soil transfer using electromagnetic field, which is the core technique of the high efficiency dredged soil transfer, and the technique of expert system for pipeline transfer and the flow state. This could lead to a verification of transfer efficiency according to the characteristics of the dredged soil (sand, clay, silt) and the transfer distance (5km, 10km, 15km), which is planned to be used for a technology development of pump power reduction and long-distance transfer applying the high efficiency dredged soil transfer technology.

Transport Parameters of 99Tc, 137Cs, 90Sr, and 239+240Pu for Soils in Korea

  • Keum, D.K.;Kim, B.H.;Jun, I.;Lim, K.M.;Choi, Y.H.
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2013
  • To characterize quantitatively the transport of $^{99}Tc$ and the global fallout ($^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$) for soils in Korea, the transport parameters of a convective-dispersion model, apparent migration velocity, and apparent dispersion coefficient were estimated from the vertical depth profiles of the radionuclides in soils. The vertical profiles of $^{99}Tc$ were measured from a pot experiment for paddy soil that had been sampled from a rice-field around the Gyeongju radioactive waste repository in Korea, and the vertical depth distributions of the global fallout $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$ were measured from the soil samples that were taken from local areas in Korea. The front edge of the $^{99}Tc$ profiles reached a depth of about 12 cm in 138 days, indicating a faster movement than the fallout radionuclides. A weak adsorption of $^{99}Tc$ on the soil particles by the formation of Tc(VII) and a high water infiltration velocity seemed to have controlled the migration of $^{99}Tc$. The apparent migration velocity and dispersion coefficient of $^{99}Tc$ for the disturbed paddy soil were 2.88 cm/y and 6.3 $cm^2/y$, respectively. The majority of the global fallout $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, and $^{239+240}Pu$ were found in the top 20 cm of the soils even after a transport of about 30 years. The transport parameters for the global fallout radionuclides were 0.01-0.1cm/y ($^{137}Cs$), 0.09-0.13cm/y ($^{90}Sr$), and 0.09-0.18cm/y ($^{239+240}Pu$) for the apparent migration velocity: 0.21-1.09 $cm^2/y$ ($^{137}Cs$), 0.12-0.7$cm^2/y$ ($^{90}Sr$), and 0.09-0.36$cm^2/y$ ($^{239+240}Pu$) for the apparent dispersion coefficient.

Mobility of Carbon Nanomaterials in Soil Media (토양 매질체에서 탄소나노물질의 이동성)

  • Yi, In-Geol;Kang, Jin-Kyu;Kim, Song-Bae;Kim, Hyunjung;Han, Yosep;Eom, Ig-Chun;Jo, Eunhye;Park, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.588-595
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    • 2014
  • Carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene, carbon nanotube and graphene are representative nanomaterials and widely used in various fields. Carbon nanomaterials can be exposed to environments during their production, usage and disposal, spreading to different systems and posing a great threat to various ecological receptors. Researches are conducted in order to determine the possibility of groundwater exposure to carbon nanomaterials due to their release and passage through soils. If soils can play a significant role in limiting the transport of carbon nanomaterials, the possibility of groundwater exposure to carbon nanomaterials can be reduced greatly. This review paper presented the research works performed for the mobility of carbon nanomaterials in soil media. Also, the paper provided the factors affecting the transport of carbon nanomaterials in soil media along with the DLVO theory/colloid filtration theory/transport model, which are used to describe the transport of carbon nanomaterials in soil media. Recently, production of carbon nanomaterials and their commercial and environmental applications increase rapidly in Korea. Therefore, researches regarding the fate and transport of domestic carbon nanomaterials in soil environments should be performed in various environmental conditions.

Biobarrier를 이용한 유기오염물질의 생물학적분해모의를 위한 수치모델개발

  • 왕수균
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.137-140
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    • 2003
  • This study presents a mathematical model for simulating the fate and transport of a reactive organic contaminant degraded through cometabolism in dual-porosity soils during the in situ bioaugmentations. To investigate the effect of dual-porosity on transport and biodegradation of organic hydrocarbons, a bimodal approach was incorporated into the model. Modified Monod kinetics and a microcolony concept [Molz et at., 1986〕 were employed to represent the effects of biodegrading microbes on the transport and biodegradation of an organic contaminant. The effect of permeability reduction due to biomass accumulation on the flow field were examined in the simulation of a hypothetical field-scale in situ bioaugmentation. Simulation results indicate that the presence of the immobile region can decrease the bioavailablity of biodegradable contaminants and that the placement of microbes and nutrients injection wells should be considered for an effective in situ bioaugmentation scheme.

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A Numerical Solution of Transport of Mono- and Tri-valent Cations during Steady Water Flow in a Binary Exchange System

  • Ro, Hee-Myong;Yoo, Sun-Ho
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2000
  • A one-dimensional transport of displacing monovalent ion, $A^+$, and a trivalent ion being displaced, $B^{3+}^ in a porous exchange system such as soil was approximated using the Crank-Nicolson implicit finite difference technique and the Thomas algorithm in tandem. The variations in the concentration profile were investigated by varying the ion-exchange equilibrium constant (k) of ion-exchange reactions, the influent concentrations, and the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the exchanger, under constant flux condition of pore water and dispersion coefficient. A higher value of k resulted in a greater removal of the native ion, behind the sharper advancing front of displacing ion, while the magnitude of the penetration distance of $A^+$ was not great. As the CEC increased, the equivalent fraction of $B^{3+}^ initially in the soil was greater, thus indicating that a higher CEC adsorbed trivalent cations preferentially over monovalent ions. Mass balance error from simulation results was less than 1%, indicating this model accounted for instantaneous charge balance fairly well.

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Numerical modelling of contaminant transport using FEM and meshfree method

  • Satavalekar, Rupali S.;Sawant, Vishwas A.
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.117-129
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    • 2014
  • Groundwater contamination is seeking a lot of attention due to constant degradation of water by landfills and waste lagoons. In many cases heterogeneous soil system is encountered and hence, a finite element model is developed to solve the advection-dispersion equation for layered soil system as FEM is a robust tool for modelling problems of heterogeneity and complex geometries. Recently developed Meshfree methods have advantage of eliminating the mesh and construct approximate solutions and are observed that they perform effectively as compared to conventional FEM. In the present study, both FEM and Meshfree method are used to simulate phenomenon of contaminant transport in one dimension. The results obtained are agreeing with the values in literature and hence the model is further used for predicting the transport of contaminants. Parametric study is done by changing the dispersion coefficient, average velocity, geochemical reactions, height of leachate and height of liner for obtaining suitability.

VARIATIONS OF CONTAMINANT RETARDATION FACTOR IN THE PRESENCE OF TWO MOBILE COLLOIDS

  • Kim, Song-Bae;Kim, Dong-Ju
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2001
  • Contaminant retardation factor is derived from the colloidal and contaminant transport equations for a four-phase porous medium: an aqueous phase, two mobile colloidal phases, and a solid matrix. It is assumed that the contaminant sorption to solid matrix and colloidal particles and the colloidal deposition on solid matrix follow the linear isotherms. The behavior of the contaminant retardation factor in response to the change of model parameters is examined employing the experimental data of Magee et al. (1991) and Jenkins and Lion (1993). In the four-phase system, the contaminant retardation factor is determined by both the contaminant association with solid matrix and colloidal particles and the colloidal deposition on solid matrix. The contaminant mobility is enhanced when the affinity of contaminants to mobile colloids increases. In addition, as the affinity of colloids to solid matrix decreases, the contaminant mobility increases.

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Assessment of Natural Attenuation Processes in the Groundwater Contaminated with Trichloroethylene (TCE) Using Multi-Species Reactive Transport Modeling (다성분 반응 이동 모델링을 이용한 트리클로로에틸렌(TCE)으로 오염된 지하수에서의 자연저감 평가)

  • Jeen, Sung-Wook;Jun, Seong-Chun;Kim, Rak-Hyeon;Hwang, Hyoun-Tae
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.101-113
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    • 2016
  • To properly manage and remediate groundwater contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE), it is necessary to assess natural attenuation processes of contaminants in the aquifer along with investigation of contamination history and aquifer characterization. This study evaluated natural attenuation processes of TCE at an industrial site in Korea by delineating hydrogeochemical characteristics along the flow path of contaminated groundwater, by calculating reaction rate constants for TCE and its degradation products, and by using geochemical and reactive transport modeling. The monitoring data showed that TCE tended to be transformed to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and further to vinyl chloride (VC) via microbial reductive dechlorination, although the degree was not too significant. According to our modeling results, the temporal and spatial distribution of the TCE plume suggested the dominant role of biodegradation in attenuation processes. This study can provide a useful method for assessing natural attenuation processes in the aquifer contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and can be applied to other sites with similar hydrological, microbiological, and geochemical settings.