• Title/Summary/Keyword: Transport in soil

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Development of TANK_GS Model to Consider the Interaction between Surface Water and Groundwater (지표수-지하수 상호흐름을 고려한 TANK_GS 모형의 개발)

  • Lee, Woo-Seok;Chung, Eun-Sung;Kim, Sang-Ug;Lee, Kil-Seong
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.893-909
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to consider the interaction between surface water and groundwater in basin scale by developing TANK_GS model. The soil moisture structure of tank model with 3 tanks is improved to simulate the appropriate stream-aquifer interactions. Maximum likelihood method is applied to calibrate parameters with variance functions to deal with heteroscedasticity of residuals. The parameters of improved TANK_GS model and variance function are simultaneously estimated by Simulated Annealing method, a global optimization technique. The results of TANK-GE are compared to those of the SWMM-GE model which had been developed to consider the stream-aquifer interactions. The new TANK_GS model and SWMM-GE model are applied to Gapcheon basin, which belongs to Geum River basin. TANK_GS model showed better model performance compared to the original TANK model and characterized the relationship of stream-aquifer interactions as satisfactorily as the SWMM-GE model. The sustainable groundwater yield can be estimated for the regional water resources planning using the TANK_GS model

Effects of the Applications of Clay Minerals on the Early Growth of Red Pepper in Growing Medium (점토광물 처리에 따른 상토에서 고추의 초기생장 효과)

  • Lee, Dong-Gi;Lee, Seok-Eon;Kim, Deok-Hyun;Hong, Hyeon-Ki;Nam, Ju-Hyun;Choi, Jong-Soon;Lee, Moon-Soon;Woo, Sun-Hee;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.463-470
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    • 2012
  • As the advanced seeding technology through use of plug tray for good cultivation of seeds was propagated along with the expansion and development of horticultural industry, the use of bed soils as growing medium has recently been increased. In this study, the effects of the four clay minerals such as illite, phyllite, zeolite, and bentonite on the early growth of red pepper in the bed soil were investigated. Furthermore, proteome analysis for the leaf and stem samples of red pepper treated with only illite was performed. Of the seedling cultured, the healthy and regular size seeds were selected and cultivated in the pots, after they were treated with four clay minerals. The experiment was performed during the whole six weeks in the glasshouse of the Chungbuk National University. The growth lengths, fresh and dry weights of red pepper were significantly higher in the treatments of illite, phyllite, zeolite, and bentonite than in the control. In addition, the uptake of $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, and $Mg^{2+}$ were higher in the treatment of illite, phyllite, zeolite, and bentonite than in the control. The 2-DE patterns for the red pepper by the applications of illite, phyllite, zeolite, and bentonite were similar to each other. Therefore, compared to the samples of control, the proteome analysis for the samples of red pepper treated by only illite were performed. Proteome analysis for red pepper showed that plastid fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase class 1, aldolase, and glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, all of which were involved in the energy metabolism, were highly expressed in leaf tissue by illite treatment. In stem tissue, NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase involved in energy metabolism, potassium transport protein, and GIA/RGA-like gibberellins response modulator were highly expressed. Based on the results obtained from the proteome analysis, it appears that the proteins specifically and differentially expressed on the illite treatment may be involved in the enhanced growth of red pepper. The identification of some proteins involved in the response of vegetable crops to the treatment of clay mineral can provide new insights that can lead to a better elucidation and understanding of mechanism on their molecular basis.

Characteristics of Natural Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater and Its Occurrences (자연적 지하수 비소오염의 국내외 산출특성)

  • Ahn Joo Sung;Ko Kyung-Seok;Lee Jin-Soo;Kim Ju-Yong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.547-561
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    • 2005
  • General characteristics of groundwater contamination by As were reviewed with several recent researches, and its occurrence in groundwater of Korea was investigated based on a ffw previous studies and a groundwater quality survey in Nonsan and Geumsan areas. In Bangladesh, which has been known as the most serious arsenic calamity country, about $28\%$ of the shallow groundwaters exceeded the Bangladesh drinking water standard, $50{\mu}g/L$, and it was estimated that about 28 million people were exposed to concentrations greater than the standard. Groundwater was characterized by circum-neutral pH with a moderate to strong reducing conditions. Low concentrations of $SO_4^{2-}$ and $NO_3^-$, and high contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and $NH_4^+$ were typical chemical characteristics. Total As concentrations were enriched in the Holocene alluvial aquifers with a dominance of As(III) species. It was generally agreed that reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides was the main mechanism for the release of As into groundwater coupling with the presence of organic matters and microbial activities as principal factors. A new model has also been suggested to explain how arsenic can naturally contaminate groundwaters far from the ultimate source with transport of As by active tectonic uplift and glaciatiion during Pleistocene, chemical weathering and deposition, and microbial reaction processes. In Korea, it has not been reported to be so serious As contamination, and from the national groundwater quality monitoring survey, only about $1\%$ of grounwaters have concentrations higher than $10{\mu}g/:L.$ However, it was revealed that $19.3\%$ of mineral waters, and $7\%$ of tube-well waters from Nonsan and Geumsan areas contained As concentrations above $10{\mu}g/:L.$. Also, percentages exceeding this value during detailed groundwater quality surveys were $36\%\;and\;22\%$ from Jeonnam and Ulsan areas, respectively, indicating As enrichment possibly by geological factors and local mineralization. Further systematic researches need to proceed in areas potential to As contamination such as mineralized, metasedimentary rock-based, alluvial, and acid sulfate soil areas. Prior to that, it is required to understand various geochemical and microbial processes, and groundwater flow characteristics affecting the behavior of As.

Brief Introduction of Research Progresses in Control and Biocontrol of Clubroot Disease in China

  • He, Yueqiu;Wu, Yixin;He, Pengfei;Li, Xinyu
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.45-46
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    • 2015
  • Clubroot disease of crucifers has occurred since 1957. It has spread to the whole China, especially in the southwest and nourtheast where it causes 30-80% loss in some fields. The disease has being expanded in the recent years as seeds are imported and the floating seedling system practices. For its effective control, the Ministry of Agriculture of China set up a program in 2010 and a research team led by Dr. Yueqiu HE, Yunnan Agricultural University. The team includes 20 main reseachers of 11 universities and 5 institutions. After 5 years, the team has made a lot of progresses in disease occurrence regulation, resources collection, resistance identification and breeding, biological agent exploration, formulation, chemicals evaluation, and control strategy. About 1200 collections of local and commercial crucifers were identified in the field and by artificiall inoculation in the laboratories, 10 resistant cultivars were breeded including 7 Chinese cabbages and 3 cabbages. More than 800 antagostic strains were isolated including bacteria, stretomyces and fungi. Around 100 chemicals were evaluated in the field and greenhouse based on its control effect, among them, 6 showed high control effect, especially fluazinam and cyazofamid could control about 80% the disease. However, fluzinam has negative effect on soil microbes. Clubroot disease could not be controlled by bioagents and chemicals once when the pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infected its hosts and set up the parasitic relationship. We found the earlier the pathogent infected its host, the severer the disease was. Therefore, early control was the most effective. For Chinese cabbage, all controlling measures should be taken in the early 30 days because the new infection could not cause severe symptom after 30 days of seeding. For example, a biocontrol agent, Bacillus subtilis Strain XF-1 could control the disease 70%-85% averagely when it mixed with seedling substrate and was drenching 3 times after transplanting, i.e. immediately, 7 days, 14 days. XF-1 has been deeply researched in control mechanisms, its genome, and development and application of biocontrol formulate. It could produce antagonistic protein, enzyme, antibiotics and IAA, which promoted rhizogenesis and growth. Its The genome was sequenced by Illumina/Solexa Genome Analyzer to assembled into 20 scaffolds then the gaps between scaffolds were filled by long fragment PCR amplification to obtain complet genmone with 4,061,186 bp in size. The whole genome was found to have 43.8% GC, 108 tandem repeats with an average of 2.65 copies and 84 transposons. The CDSs were predicted as 3,853 in which 112 CDSs were predicted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism. Among those, five NRPS/PKS giant gene clusters being responsible for the biosynthesis of polyketide (pksABCDEFHJLMNRS in size 72.9 kb), surfactin(srfABCD, 26.148 kb, bacilysin(bacABCDE 5.903 kb), bacillibactin(dhbABCEF, 11.774 kb) and fengycin(ppsABCDE, 37.799 kb) have high homolgous to fuction confirmed biosynthesis gene in other strain. Moreover, there are many of key regulatory genes for secondary metabolites from XF-1, such as comABPQKX Z, degQ, sfp, yczE, degU, ycxABCD and ywfG. were also predicted. Therefore, XF-1 has potential of biosynthesis for secondary metabolites surfactin, fengycin, bacillibactin, bacilysin and Bacillaene. Thirty two compounds were detected from cell extracts of XF-1 by MALDI-TOF-MS, including one Macrolactin (m/z 441.06), two fusaricidin (m/z 850.493 and 968.515), one circulocin (m/z 852.509), nine surfactin (m/z 1044.656~1102.652), five iturin (m/z 1096.631~1150.57) and forty fengycin (m/z 1449.79~1543.805). The top three compositions types (contening 56.67% of total extract) are surfactin, iturin and fengycin, in which the most abundant is the surfactin type composition 30.37% of total extract and in second place is the fengycin with 23.28% content with rich diversity of chemical structure, and the smallest one is the iturin with 3.02% content. Moreover, the same main compositions were detected in Bacillus sp.355 which is also a good effects biocontol bacterial for controlling the clubroot of crucifer. Wherefore those compounds surfactin, iturin and fengycin maybe the main active compositions of XF-1 against P. brassicae. Twenty one fengycin type compounds were evaluate by LC-ESI-MS/MS with antifungal activities, including fengycin A $C_{16{\sim}C19}$, fengycin B $C_{14{\sim}C17}$, fengycin C $C_{15{\sim}C18}$, fengycin D $C_{15{\sim}C18}$ and fengycin S $C_{15{\sim}C18}$. Furthermore, one novel compound was identified as Dehydroxyfengycin $C_{17}$ according its MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, which molecular weight is 1488.8480 Da and formula $C_{75}H_{116}N_{12}O_{19}$. The fengycin type compounds (FTCPs $250{\mu}g/mL$) were used to treat the resting spores of P. brassicae ($10^7/mL$) by detecting leakage of the cytoplasm components and cell destruction. After 12 h treatment, the absorbencies at 260 nm (A260) and at 280 nm (A280) increased gradually to approaching the maximum of absorbance, accompanying the collapse of P. brassicae resting spores, and nearly no complete cells were observed at 24 h treatment. The results suggested that the cells could be lyzed by the FTCPs of XF-1, and the diversity of FTCPs was mainly attributed to a mechanism of clubroot disease biocontrol. In the five selected medium MOLP, PSA, LB, Landy and LD, the most suitable for growth of strain medium is MOLP, and the least for strains longevity is the Landy sucrose medium. However, the lipopeptide highest yield is in Landy sucrose medium. The lipopeptides in five medium were analyzed with HPLC, and the results showed that lipopeptides component were same, while their contents from B. subtilis XF-1 fermented in five medium were different. We found that it is the lipopeptides content but ingredients of XF-1 could be impacted by medium and lacking of nutrition seems promoting lipopeptides secretion from XF-1. The volatile components with inhibition fungal Cylindrocarpon spp. activity which were collect in sealed vesel were detected with metheds of HS-SPME-GC-MS in eight biocontrol Bacillus species and four positive mutant strains of XF-1 mutagenized with chemical mutagens, respectively. They have same main volatile components including pyrazine, aldehydes, oxazolidinone and sulfide which are composed of 91.62% in XF-1, in which, the most abundant is the pyrazine type composition with 47.03%, and in second place is the aldehydes with 23.84%, and the third place is oxazolidinone with 15.68%, and the smallest ones is the sulfide with 5.07%.

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