• Title, Summary, Keyword: Transport in soil

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대기압의 변화에 따른 휘발성 오염물질의 토양에서 대기로의 거동

  • Choi Ji-Won;Smith James A.;Hwang Gyeong-Yeop
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.114-116
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    • 2005
  • Natural attenuation has been actively studied and often selected as final clean-up process in remediation of contaminated ground-water and soil for the last decade. Accordingly, understanding of natural processes affecting the fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface becomes important for a success of implementation of the natural remediation strategy, Contaminant advection and diffusion processes in the unsaturated zone are naturally related to environmental changes in the atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure changes affecting the transport of contaminants in the subsurface are investigated in this study. Moisture content, trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration, temperature, and pressure variations in the subsurface were measured for the July, August, November, and December 2001 at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey. These data were used for a one-phase flow and one-component transport model in simulating the soil-gas flow and accordingly the TCE transport in the subsurface in accordance with the atmosphere pressure variations at the surface. The soil-gas velocities during the sampling periods varied with a magnitude of $10^{-6}\;to\;10^{-7}\;m\;s^{-1}$ at land surface. The TCE advection fluxes at land surface were several orders of magnitude smaller than the TCE diffusion fluxes. A sensitivy analysis indicated that advection fluxes were more sensitive to changes in geo-environmental conditions compared to diffusion fluxes. Of all the parameters investigated in this study, moisture content has the most significant effect on TCE advection and diffusion fluxes.

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Grid-Based Soil-Water Erosion and Deposition Modeling sing GIS and RS

  • Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2001
  • A grid-based KIneMatic wave soil-water EROsion and deposition Model (KIMEROM) that predicts temporal variation and spatial distribution of sediment transport in a watershed was developed. This model uses ASCII-formatted map data supported from the regular gridded map of GRASS (U.S. Army CERL, 1993)-GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and generates the distributed results by ASCIIl-formatted map data. For hydrologic process, the kinematic wave equation and Darcy equation were used to simulate surface and subsurface flow, respectively (Kim, 1798; Kim et al., 1993). For soil erosion process, the physically-based soil erosion concept by Rose and Hairsine (1988) was used to simulate soil-water erosion and deposition. The model adopts sing1e overland flowpath algorithm and simulates surface and subsurface water depth, and sediment concentration at each grid element (or a given time increment. The model was tested to a 162.3 km$^2$ watershed located in the tideland reclaimed area of South Korea. After the hydrologic calibration for two storm events in 1999, the results of sediment transport were presented for the same storm events. The results of temporal variation and spatial distribution of overland flow and sediment areas are shown using GRASS.

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Development and Assessment of a Dynamic Fate and Transport Model for Lead in Multi-media Environment

  • Ha, Yeon-Jeong;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2009
  • The main objective was to develop and assess a dynamic fate and transport model for lead in air, soil, sediment, water and vegetation. Daejeon was chosen as the study area for its relatively high contamination and emission levels. The model was assessed by comparing model predictions with measured concentrations in multi-media and atmospheric deposition flux. Given a lead concentration in air, the model could predict the concentrations in water and soil within a factor of five. Sensitivity analysis indicated that effective compartment volumes, rain intensity, scavenging ratio, run off, and foliar uptake were critical to accurate model prediction. Important implications include that restriction of air emission may be necessary in the future to protect the soil quality objective as the contamination level in soil is predicted to steadily increase at the present emission level and that direct discharge of lead into the water body was insignificant as compared to atmospheric deposition fluxes. The results strongly indicated that atmospheric emission governs the quality of the whole environment. Use of the model developed in this study would provide quantitative and integrated understanding of the cross-media characteristics and assessment of the relationships of the contamination levels among the multi-media environment.

Effects of Mixing Characteristics at Fracture Intersections on Network-Scale Solute Transport

  • 박영진;이강근
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 2000
  • We systematically analyze the influence of fracture junction, solute transfer characteristics on transport patterns in discrete, two-dimensional fracture network models. Regular lattices and random fracture networks with power-law length distributions are considered in conjunction with particle tracking methods. Solute transfer probabilities at fracture junctions are determined from analytical considerations and from simple complete mixing and streamline routing models. For regular fracture networks, mixing conditions at fracture junctions are always dominated by either complete mixing or streamline routing end member cases. Moreover bulk transport properties such as the spreading and the dilution of solute are highly sensitive to the mixing rule. However in power-law length networks there is no significant difference in bulk transport properties, as calculated by assuming either of the two extreme mixing rules. This apparent discrepancy between the effects of mixing properties at fracture junctions in regular and random fracture networks is explained by the statistics of the coordination number and of the flow conditions at fracture intersections. We suggest that the influence of mixing rules on bulk solute transport could be important in systematic orthogonal fracture networks but insignificant in random networks.

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Solute Transport Model with Cation Exchange under Redox Environment and its Application for Designing the Slow Infiltration Set-up

  • GUERRA, GINGGING;JINNO, KENJI;HIROSHIRO, YOSHINARI;NAKAMURA, KOJI
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.90-101
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    • 2004
  • The present trend of disposing treated sewage water by allowing it to infiltrate the soil brings a new dimension to environmental problems. It is therefore necessary to identify the chemicals likely to be present in treated sewage water. A soil column experiment was conducted to determine the behavior of chemical species in soil columns applied with secondary treated sewage water. To predict the behavior of chemical species, a multicomponent solute transport model that includes the biochemical redox process and cation exchange process was developed. The model computes changes in concentration over time caused by the processes of advection, dispersion, biochemical reactions and cation exchange reactions. The solute transport model was able to predict the behavior of the different chemical species. The model reproduced the sequential reduction reaction. To design the safe depth of plow layer where $NO_3^-$ is totally reduced, a numerical study of $NO_3^-$ leach was done and it was found out that the pore velocity and concentration of $CH_2O$ at the inject water was found to affect $NO_3^-$ reduction in the mobile pore water phase. It is revealed that the multicomponent solute transport model is useful to design the land treatment system for $NO_3^-$ removal from wastewater.

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Evaluation of Flow and Transport Model in Integrated Surface and Subsurface Systems

  • Kim Seong-Gyun;Park Yeong-Jin;Bae Gwang-Ok;Lee Gang-Geun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.324-327
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    • 2005
  • HydroSphere can simulate integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport. Using field experiments conducted at Canadian Forces Base Borden, in Ontario, Canada, by Abdul [1985], HydroSphere is evaluated to verify its capabilities for fully integrated surface and subsurface flow modeling. And a field scale simulation will be performed with HydroSphere, using rainfall and surface and subsurface hydrogen isotope analysis data measured at small basin, in Yu-sung, by Park et al. [2003], to verify its capabilities for fully integrated surface and subsurface flow and transport modeling.

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HYSTERETIC MODELING ON THE CONVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF ORGANIC SOLVENT IN AN UNSATURATED SOIL ZONE

  • Lee, Kun-Sang
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2006
  • A mathematical model is described for the prediction of convective upward transport of an organic solvent driven by evaporation at the surface, which is known as the major transport mechanism in the in-situ photolysis of a soil contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD). A finite-element model was proposed to incorporate the effects of multiphase flow on the distribution of each fluid, gravity as a driving force, and the use of hysteretic models for more accurate description of k-S-p relations. Extensive numerical calculations were performed to study fluid flow through three types of soils under different water table conditions. Predictions of relative permeability-saturation-pressure (k-S-p) relations and fluids distribution for an illustrative soil indicate that hysteresis effects may be quite substantial. This result emphasizes the need to use hysteretic models in performing flow simulations including reversals of flow paths. Results of additional calculations accounting for hysteresis on the one-dimensional unsaturated soil columns show that gravity affects significantly on the flow of each fluid during gravity drainage, solvent injection, and evaporation, especially for highly permeable soils. The rate and duration of solvent injection also have a profound influence on the fluid saturation profile and the amount of evaporated solvent. Key factors influencing water drainage and solvent evaporation in soils also include hydraulic conductivity and water table configuration.

Transport of PVP-coated Silver Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media (포화된 다공성매체에서 PVP-코팅된 은나노입자의 이동성 연구)

  • Bae, Sujin;Jang, Min-Hee;Lee, Woo Chun;Park, Jae-Woo;Hwang, Yu Sik
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 2016
  • The transport of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated through a column packed with sand. A series of column experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of ionic strength (IS), pH, electrolyte type and clay mineral on mobility of polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs). The deposition of PVP-AgNPs was increased with increasing solution ionic strength and decreasing pH. Furthermore, the depositon of PVP-AgNPs was affected by the electrolyte type (NaCl vs. NaNO3) and was shown to be greater at NaNO3 solution. Also, the transport of PVP-AgNPs was greatly increased after the pre-deposition of clay particles on sand. Our results suggest that various environmental factors can influence the mobility of PVP-AgNPs in soil-groundwater systems and should be carefully considered in assessing their environmental risks.

Migration of calcium hydroxide compounds in construction waste soil

  • Shin, Eunchul;Kang, Jeongku
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 2015
  • Migration of leachate generated through embankment of construction waste soil (CWS) in low-lying areas was studied through physical and chemical analysis. A leachate solution containing soluble cations from CWS was found to have a pH above 9.0. To determine the distribution coefficients in the alkali solution, column and migration tests were conducted in the laboratory. The physical and chemical properties of CWS satisfied environmental soil criteria; however, the pH was high. The effective diffusion coefficients for CWS ions fell within the range of $0.725-3.3{\times}10^{-6}cm^2/s$. Properties of pore water and the amount of undissolved gas in pore water influenced advection-diffusion behavior. Contaminants migrating from CWS exhibited time-dependent concentration profiles and an advective component of transport. Thus, the transport equations for CWS contaminant concentrations satisfied the differential equations in accordance with Fick's 2nd law. Therefore, the migration of the contaminant plume when the landfilling CWS reaches water table can be predicted based on pH using the effective diffusion coefficient determined in a laboratory test.

Numerical simulations and related problems in multiphase flow and multicomponent transport (다중상 흐름과 다종성분의 거동에 관한 수치적 모의와 문제점)

  • 이강근;이진용;천정용;유동렬;하규철;이철효
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.27-31
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    • 1998
  • Most models for the simulation of multi-phase flow and multi-species transport employ the capillary approach which uses the Darcy's law for the representation of mass flux of each phase. The capillary approach based on the Darcy's law require many empirical coefficients with complex functional dependencies rather than rigrous mathematical and physical formulation. The shortcoming of the capillary approach cause the numerical errors in the simulations by the multi-phase flow and transport models. This study discuss some of the problems related with the use of models.

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