• Title/Summary/Keyword: Transport in soil

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환경영향평가 토양부문의 중요성과 평가방안

  • 정승우
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 2004
  • Soil environment has not received much attention from the environmental impact assessor community although soil contamination may affect human health and the eco-system. This study was the first trial to discuss the role and importance of soil environment in the environmental impact assessment(EIA) and suggest possible environmental impact assessment schemes for soil. The objectives of the study were to show the effects of soil contamination on human health, the environment and the social community, suggest efficient EIA schemes in Korea and establish the basic concepts of soil environment assessment involving fate and transport of contaminants and its risk.

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Nutrients Transport Pathway for Watershed Impact Analysis of Livestock Wastes and its Resources (양돈 퇴, 액비의 수질환경 영향분석을 위한 영양물질 이동경로 연구)

  • Oa, Seong-Wook
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2011
  • Liquid fertilizer and composted cattle manure were applied to an agricultural land. This study was conducted to find the pathway of the nutrients transport. Nitrogen concentration was decreased by the repeatable precipitation in surface runoff, but the nitrate concentration in ground water was gradually increased by biological metabolism, especially with pig liquid fertilizer. Phosphorus was mostly adsorbed into the soil, and its reduction was affected by the soil drain by surface runoff in the summer. Averaged adsorption capacity of the phosphorus via Jar-test was determined as 21.5 mg P/kg of soil.

Study of Hydraulic Transport of Sand-water Mixture by a Dredging Test Loop (준설시험루프를 이용한 모래-물 혼합물 배송에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Man-Soo;Park, Young-Ho;Lee, Young-Nam;Chung, Choong-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.1504-1511
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    • 2005
  • The efficiency of the hydraulic transport of soil-water mixtures is an important factor in designing and operating a pump & pipeline system and is directly connected with dredging cost and working period. However, the hydraulic transport mechanism in the slurry flow inside the pipeline such as frictional losses, specific energy consumption, deposition velocity has not been well established. In this study a new dredging test loop system was designed and built. It is composed of a slurry pipeline with pipes of different diameters, a centrifugal slurry pump and a diesel engine connected with the slurry pump. and equipped with modern measuring facilities that enable to measure all important characteristics of a transportation system. The objective of this paper is to discuss the efficiency of the hydraulic transport of the Jumoonjin sand-water mixtures in the dredging test loop and to present simple equations induced from the test results of the loop that can express the transport product and the transport productivity.

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Estimation of Plant Seed Dispersal through Artificial Soil Movement in Incheon Urban Area

  • Kim, Kee-Dae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2003
  • In this study, soil seed and bud bank analysis were performed to abbess the mass of potential vegetation in soils less than 1 year old after covered and estimate the amount of seed bank transport through construction in urban area. The ratio of exotic species number to total species number in study sites and the landfill control site was 0.29 and 0.39, respectively. All plots pooled, mean species number and total mean seedling density per $\m^2$ in the top 10 cm of soil was 11$\pm$0 (average$\pm$S.E.) and 8037$\pm$221.Total plant seeds by artificial soil trasnsfer were estimated to be 53 thousand million $m^{-2}yr^{-1}$ in 10 cm soil depth. It reveals that soil transfer accelerates seeds and vegetation movement and makes urban vegetation mixed and common.

Feasibility Study on the Applicability of Fly Ash as a Barrier Material in Containment System

  • Myung Dong-Il;Lee Gwang-Hun;Lee Seung-Hak;Park Jun-Boum;Kim Hyung-Suk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2005
  • In this study, the fly ash was employed as a possible alternative to the bentonite for its high sorption capacity against cationic heavy metal. To consider the constituents of barrier possibly used, the specimens were mixed with different material contents (fly ash : weathered soil : bentonite), then sorption test was performed. Also the specimens were molded on the wet side of optimum moisture contents like mixing ratio of sorption test and their hydraulic conductivities were measured in flexible-wall permeameters. And to confirm the effect of dissolved cations, the hydraulic conductivity tests were repeated by converting the permeant liquids from water to $Cd^{2+}$ solution. Finally, the Cd-concentration at the effluent was analyzed for 500hrs to compare the effectiveness of each specimen in contaminant retardation. Test results showed that the more the ratio of fly ash increase, the more Kd value increase, and the hydraulic conductivity of weathered soil/bentonite (95:5) mixture was the lowest $(2.9*10^{-8}cm/sec)$, and specimens made of fly ash and fly ash/weathered soil mixtures showed similar hydraulic conductivity. Although the permeant liquid was changed from water to $Cd^{2+}$ solution, the hydraulic conductivity of all specimens except for weathered soil maintained similarly like before. Consequently, the initial breakthrough point of Cd in weathered soil specimen was observed at about 5hrs after the test started while that of fly ash specimens was not observed during the whole test period of 500hrs. The results implied that fly ash had a sufficient retardation capacity against contaminant transport possibly by its high sorption capacity although it showed little effect on the reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Based on the test results, it could be concluded that the fly ash can be possibly used as a suitable barrier material in containment system to attenuate the contaminant transport for its high retardation capacity and for the low cost.

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Predicting Migration of a Heavy Metal in a Sandy Soil Using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR을 이용한 사질토양에서의 중금속 이동 추정)

  • Dong-Ju Kim;Doo-Sung Baek;Min-Soo Park
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.109-118
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    • 1999
  • Recently, transport parameters of conservative solutes such as KCl in a porous medium have been successfully determined using time domain reflectometry (TDR) . This study was initiated to Investigate the applicability of TDR technique to monitoring the fate of a heavy metal ion in a sandy soil and the distribution of its concentration along travel distance with time. A column test was conducted in a laboratory that consists of monitoring both resident and flux concentrations of $ZnCl_2$in a sandy soil under a breakthrough condition. A tracer of $ZnCl_2$(10 g/L) was injected onto the top surface of the sample as pulse type as soon as a steady-state condition was achieved. Time-series measurements of resistance and electrical conductivity were performed at 10 cm and 20 cm of distances from the inlet boundary by horizontal-positioning of parallel TDR metallic rods and using an EC-meter for the effluent exiting the bottom boundary respectively. In addition. Zn ions of the effluent were analyzed by ICP-AES. Since the mode and position of concentration detected by TDR and effluent were different, comparison between ICP analysis and TDR-detected concentration was made by predicting flux concentration using CDE model accommodating a decay constant with the transport parameters obtained from the resident concentrations. The experimental results showed that the resident concentration resulted in earlier and higher peak than the flux concentration obtained by EC-meter, implying the homogeneity of the packed sandy soil. A close agreement was found between the predicted from the transport parameters obtained by TDR and the measured $ZnCl_2$concentration. This indicates that TDR technique can also be applied to monitoring heavy metal concentrations in the soil once that a decay constant is obtained for a given soil.

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The Characteristics of Soil Remediation by Soil Flushing System Using PVDs (연직배수재를 이용한 토양세정시스템의 오염토양정화 특성)

  • Park, Jeong-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.76-86
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    • 2007
  • For the purpose of ground improvement by means of soil flushing systems. Incorporated technique with prefabricated vertical drains have been used for dewatering from fine-grained soils. The laboratory model tests were performed by using the flushing tracer solutions for silty soils and recorded the tracer concentration changes with the elapsed time and flow rates. A mathematical model for prediction of contaminant transport using the PVD technology has been developed. The clean-up times for the predictions on both soil condition indicate more of a sensitivity to the dispersivity parameter than to the extracted flow rate and vertical velocity parameters. Based on the results of the analyses, numerical analysis indicate that the most important factor to the in-situ soil remediation in prefabricated vertical drain system is the effective diameter of contaminated soil.

Overview of Rosetta for Estimation of Soil Hydraulic Parameters using Support Vector Machines (보조벡터기로를 사용한 토양수리계수 추정을 위한 로제타 개관)

  • Chung, Doug-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.spc
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2009
  • Mathematical models have become increasingly popular in both research and management problems involving flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Rosetta is a program to estimate unsaturated hydraulic properties from surrogate soil data such as soil texture data and bulk density. Models of this type are called pedotransfer functions (PTFs) as an alternative measurements since they translate basic soil data into hydraulic properties. These functions may be either measured directly or estimated indirectly through prediction from more easily measured data based using quasi-empirical models.

Review of Soil Structure Quantification from Soil Images

  • Chun, Hyen-Chung;Gimenez, Daniel;Yoon, Sung-Won;Park, Chan-Won;Moon, Yong-Hee;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Hyun, Byung-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.517-526
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    • 2011
  • Soil structure plays an important role in ecological system, since it controls transport and storage of air, gas, nutrients and solutions. The study of soil structure requires an understanding of the interrelations and interactions between the diverse soil components at various levels of organization. Investigations of the spatial distribution of pore/particle arrangements and the geometry of soil pore space can provide important information regarding ecological or crop system. Because of conveniences in image analyses and accuracy, these investigations have been thrived for a long time. Image analyses from soil sections through impregnated blocks of undisturbed soil (2 dimensional image analyses) or from 3 dimensional scanned soils by computer tomography allow quantitative assessment of the pore space. Image analysis techniques can be used to classify pore types and quantify pore structure without inaccurate or hard labor in laboratory. In this paper, the last 50 years of the soil image analyses have been presented and measurements on various soil scales were introduced, as well. In addition to history of image analyses, a couple of examples for soil image analyses were displayed. The discussion was made on the applications of image analyses and techniques to quantify pore/soil structure.

Strategies for Improving Potassium Use Efficiency in Plants

  • Shin, Ryoung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.8
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    • pp.575-584
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    • 2014
  • Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci.