• 제목/요약/키워드: Transport in soil

검색결과 494건 처리시간 0.131초

VOCs처리를 위한 미생물의 토양복원화 특성 (The Characteristics of Bioremediation for VOCs in Soil Column)

  • 손종렬;장명배
    • 한국환경보건학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.9-12
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    • 2002
  • Diffusive transport of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) and their degradation by bacteria in unsaturated soils are couple by poorly understood mass transfer kinetics at the gas/water interface. Determination of the fate of VOCs in unsaturated soil is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of natural attenuation as a VOC remediation strategy. The objective of this study was to develop a mechanistically based mathematical model that would consider the interdependence of VOC transport, microbial activity, and sorptive interaction in a moist, unsaturated soil. Because the focus of the model was on description of natural attenuation, the advective VOC transport that is induced in engineered remediation processes such as vapor extraction was not considered. The utility of the model was assessed through its ability to describe experimental observations form diffusion experiments using toluene as a representative VOC in well-defined soil columns that contained a toluene degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas Putida, as the sole active microbial species. The coefficient for gas-liquid mass-transfer, K$\sub$LA/, was found to be a key parameter controlling the ability of bacteria to degrade VOCs. This finding indicates that soil size and geometry are likely to be important parameters in assessing the possible success of natural attenuation of VOCs in contaminated unsaturated soils.

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Comparison of Contaminant Transport between the Centrifuge Model and the Advection Dispersion Equation Model

  • Young, Horace-Moo;Kim, Tae-Hyung
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회지:지하수토양환경
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2003
  • The centrifuge test result on capped sediment was compared to the advection- dispersion equation proposed for one layered to predict contaminant transport parameters. The fitted contaminant transport parameters for the centrifuge test results were one to three orders of magnitude greater than the estimated parameters from the advection-dispersion equation. This indicates that the centrifuge model over estimated the contaminant transport phenomena. Thus, the centrifuge provides a non-conservative approach to modeling contaminant transport. It should be also noted that the advection-dispersion equation used in this study is a one layered model. Two layered modeling approaches are more appropriate for modeling this data since there are two layers with different partitioning coefficients. Further research is required to model the centrifuge test using two-layered advection-dispersion models.

Breakthrough Curves and Miscible Displacement of Cadmium Through Double-Layered Reclaimed Soils Amended with Macroporous Granule

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Ryu, Jin-Hee;Kim, Si-Ju;Park, Mi-Suk;Chung, Doug-Young
    • 한국토양비료학회지
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2011
  • Transport of heavy metals such as Cd is affected by several rate-limiting processes including adsorption and desorption by exchange reactions in soils. In this study, column transport and batch kinetic experiments were performed to assess Cd mobility in a double-layered soil with a reclaimed saline and sodic soil (SSS) as top soil and macroporous granule (MPG) as a bottom layer. For individual soil layer having different physical and chemical properties, Cd was considered to be nonlinear reactivity with the soil matrix in layered soils. The dispersive equation for reactive solutes was solved with three types of boundary conditions for the interface between soil layers. The adsorption of Cd with respect to the saline-sodic sandy loam and the MPG indicated that the nature of the sites or the mechanisms involved in the sorption process of Cd was different and the amounts of Cd for both of samples increases with increasing amounts of equilibrium concentration whereas the amount of Cd adsorbed in saline-sodic sandy loam soil was higher than that in MPG. The results of breakthrough curve indicating relative Cd retardation accompanied by layer material and sequence during leaching showed that the number of pore volumes to reach the maximum relative concentration of 1 increased in the order of MPG, SSS, and double layer of SSS-MPG. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) from column experiments were well predicted with our double-layered model where independently derived solute physical and retention parameters were implemented.

비포화 토양층 내 유기 용매의 이류 이동에 대한 다상 모델링 (Multiphase Modeling on the Convective Transport of an Organic Solvent through Unsaturated Soils)

  • 이근상
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회지:지하수토양환경
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2004
  • 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD)로 오염된 토양의 현장 광분해 정화 과정에서 가장 중요한 이동 메커니즘인 지표에서의 증발 및 광분해에 의한 유기 용매의 이류 상방향 이동에 대한 수식화와 모델 개발을 수행하였다. 각 유체 분포에 대한 다상 유동 효과, 구동력으로서의 중력, k-S-p 관계의 정확한 묘사를 위한 van Genutchen 방정식을 포함한 유한요소법 기반의 수치 모델을 제안하였다. 실험실 규모의 비포화 토양 컬럼 내 용매 이동에 중요한 영향을 미치는 인자들을 조사하기 위하여 수행한 계산의 결과들을 제시하였다. 중력은 고투수성 토양의 유체 분포와 증발에 상당한 영향을 미쳤다. 토양의 종류 또한 증발 과정 중 유체 포화도 분포에 큰 영향을 미친다. 용매의 이류 이동량은 증발량이 증가할수록 초기 물 포화도가 감소할수록 증가하였다. 본 연구에서 수행한 시뮬레이션은 개발된 모델이 토양 환경 내에서 유기 용매의 이류 이동에 영향을 미치는 다양한 인자들의 영향을 분석하는데 유용함을 보여준다.

토양/대수층 처리(soil aquifer treatment)에서 유기물과 질소화합물 제거와 이송 모델링-(I) 모델 개발 및 검증 (Modeling Fate and Transport of Organic and Nitrogen Species in Soil Aquifer Treatment-(I) Model Development and Verification)

  • 김정우;김정곤;차우석;최희철
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회지:지하수토양환경
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2005
  • 토양/대수층 처리(Soil Aquifer Treatment, SAT)는 하수처리장으로부터의 2차 또는 3차 처리수를 대수층으로 침투시켜, 토양 매질에서 일어나는 물리적/생화학적 반응에 의해 재처리하는 용수 재이용 기술이다. SAT에서의 주요 관심 대상은 유기물과 질소화합물의 제거와 이송에 있다. 본 연구에서는 암모늄의 질산화 반응, 질소산회물의 탈질 반응, 그리고 유기물의 산화반응을 고려하여 SAT에서 일어나는 반응 메커니즘을 규명하고 이를 지하수 흐름과 이송 모렐 에 접목시킴으로써 SAT 모델링 시스템을 구현하고자 하였다. 실험실 일차원 불포화 토양 컬럼 실험을 통한 모델 검증에서 암모늄, 질산성 질소, DOC, 용존산소 모두 일정한 농도 범위 안에서 일치하였다. 모델 변수에 대한 민감도 분석에서, 암모늄 분배계수는 유출부의 암모늄 농도에, 용존산소 저해상수는 유출부의 유기물 농도에, 그리고 미생물 감쇄계수는 유출부의 용존산소 농도에 영향을 주었다.

VOCs 처리를 위한 미생물의 토양복원화 특성 (The Characteristics of Bioremediation for VOCs in Soil Column)

  • 손종렬;장명배;조광명
    • 환경위생공학
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.52-56
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    • 2002
  • The study was carried out to evaluate the characteristics of biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7 in soil column. The reactor system was used to investigate mass transfer of VOCs as Toluene in a column of unsaturated soil. Determination of the fate of VOCs in unsaturated soil is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of natural attenuation as a VOCs remediation strategy. The objective of this study was to develop a mechanistically based mathematical model that would consider the interdependence of VOC transport, microbial activity, and sorptive interactions in a moist, unsaturated soil. Because the focus of the model was on description of natural attenuation, the advective VOCs transport that is induced in engineered remediation processes such as vapor extraction was not considered. It can be concluded that the coefficient for gas liquid mass-transfer was found to be a key parameter controlling the ability of bacteria to VOCs. Finally, it appeared that bioremediation technology of VOCs which are difficult to be decomposed by chemical methods.

단열 및 다공질 대수층에서의 추적자 시험연구 (A Comparative Study of Tracer Tests in Fractured and Porous Media)

  • 이진용;이지훈;김용철;천전용;이민효;이강근
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 2001
  • To understand and compare tracer transport in fractured and porous media. multiple tracer tests were conducted in Wonju and Uiwang sites. The target media were fractured in Wonju site and porous in Uiwang site. It was known that groundwater flow for the two hydrogeologic systems could be represented using a EPM approach. However, the tracer transport in the two aquifer systems was greatly different. In this study, we analyzed the different tracer transport behavior in the two systems, from which our understanding of the tracer dispersion was greatly enhanced. we used bromide and chloride as tracers.

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Electrokinetic 기법에 의한 광산퇴적토내 Cd과 Pb의 제거 특성에 관한 연구 (The Study of Cd and Pb Characteristics on Electrokinetic Remediation of Mine Deposit)

  • 윤삼석;신현무;이창언
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.61-64
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    • 2001
  • In the remediation of contaminated soil by electrokinetic process, transport characteristics of contaminants are major factors. Pb is highly fixed to entire soil and not moved readily. High concentration of Cd was analyzed in the cathodic section but anodic section's concentration was lower than initial concentration. Although the Cd had high treatment effect, 50% of total mass was concentrated in cathodic section and was not flowed out readily. Most of transported Cd may be adsorbed in the cathodic side soil due to increased pH at adjacent to catholyte.

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토양 내 철의 이동특성에 관한 연구 (A Study on Transport Characteristics of Fe in Soil)

  • 조기철;이경호;정영헌;조상원;오광중
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1043-1051
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    • 2005
  • 이류-확산 국부적 평형흡착모델(convection-dispersion local equilibrium sorption model)과 Two-site 비평형 흡착모델(non-equilibrium sorption model)을 이용하여 철(Fe)의 토양 내 흡착 및 이동특성을 살펴보았다. 회분실험에서는 철의 주입농도를 변화시키면서 시간에 따른 농도변화를 측정함으로써 철의 흡착특성을 선형흡착등온선과 Freundlich 흡착등온선으로 살펴보았으며, 칼럼실험에서는 주입유속, 유기물함량, 철의 농도를 변화시키면서 주입액과 유출액의 철의 농도를 측정하고, CXTFIT 프로그램을 이용하여 two-site 비평형 흡착 모델에 사용된 매개변수(D, R, ${\beta}$, ${\omega}$)를 구하였다. CXTFIT 프로그램에 의해 구하여진 매개변수들을 이용하여 철의 토양 내 이동특성을 살펴보았으며, 철과 같은 흡착성 물질의 이동특성은 two-site 비평형 흡착모델에 의해 예측할 수 있음을 알 수 있었다.

눈 속에서의 용질이동 및 융설의 동위원소변동에 관한 모델개발 (Development of Mathematical Model for Both Solute Transport in Snow and Isotopic Evolution of Snowmelt)

  • 이정훈
    • 한국지하수토양환경학회지:지하수토양환경
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2012
  • Chemical and isotopic variations of snowmelt provide important clues for understanding snowmelt processes and the timing and contribution of snowmelt to catchment or watershed in spring. The newly developed model includes a hydraulic exchange between mobile and immobile water (${\omega}$), and isotopic exchanges between both mobile water and ice ($f_1$) and immobile water and ice ($f_2$). Since the new model is based on the mobile-immobile water conceptualization, which is widely used for describing chemical tracer transport in snow, it allows simultaneous calculations of chemical as well as isotopic variations in snowpack discharge. We compare the model results with a study of solute transport and isotopic evolution of snowmelt in snow, using artificial rain-on-snow experiments with conservative anion ($Br^-$). These observations are used to test the newly developed model and to better understand physical processes in a seasonal snowpack where our model simulates the chemical and isotopic variations.