• Title, Summary, Keyword: Tongue plague

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Relationship between oral environment and halitosis (구강환경과 구취와의 관련성)

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Lee, Tae-Yong;Min, Hee-Hong
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2009
  • Objective : This study was performed in order to provide basic data for halitosis prevention and establish a device to efficiently eliminate halitosis and to analyze the factors that affect the halitosis. Methods : Oral examination on the Gingival index, CPITN, Tongue Plaque index, and OHI-S as well as halitosis measurement among 293 rural residents. Results : Gingival index was high at mild on female and at moderate on male(p=0.025). Sorting the result by age, mild was 54.1% in the 40s, and moderate was 49.5%, 42.0% and 70.0% each in the 50s, 60s, and the 70s(p=0.005). The need for dental plaque management was 100%. The need for scaling was high with 78.3%, 93.0%, 89.9%, and 90.0% each for the 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s. The need for complex periodontal treatment was also high with 32.4%, 47.5%, 48.7% and 60.0%, each for the 40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s(p=0.050). The highest bad condition for OHI-S was 69.5%, and good being 18.9%, and very bad being 11.6%. For moderate tongue plaque index was 74.4% as the highest. As the level of education increased, the slight tongue plague was increased, but in contrast, the moderate and higher tongue plague index was decreased(p=0.010). OG under 50ppm was 61.1% on male and OG over 50ppm was 50.9% on female(p=0.041). In OG over 50ppm, CPITN was 52.1% and 41.9% in scaling and complex periodontal treatment group(p=0.018). OHI-S, in bad and very bad condition with OG, over 50ppm, was 48.7% and 46.9%(p=0.019). The higher tongue plague index showed significant amount of increase at OG and EG above 50ppm(p=0.006). $NH_3$, as the tongue plaque index increased, the wider range of distribution was shown(p=0.000). As for the multiple regression analysis result, there have been selected females and tongue plaque index as factors affecting OG. There have been selected age and tongue plaque index as factors affecting EG and there have been selected females as factors affecting on $NH_3$. Conclusions : With the aforementioned results in mind, the status of halitosis among rural residents is considered to bare a close relation with oral environments. we have to focus on correct tooth brushing methods and tongue brushing, with using tongue cleaner to remove fur of tongue plaque. Also, in order to analyze exactly the factors of individual halitosis, we need continuous and systematic study.

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Oral health and hygiene in the neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit (일부 대학병원 신경외과 중환자실 환자의 구강상태에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyong;Lee, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the oral health and hygiene in the neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit(ICU). Methods: The subjects were 92 neurosurgical patients in intensive care unit(ICU) from March, 2011 to December, 2012. The oral examination consisted of number of residual teeth, DMFT index, clinical attachment loss, gingival index, plague index, and Candida species colony of tongue and saliva. Plaque was inoculated from tongue and saliva and incubated in 36.5C incubator for 48 hours using $Dentocult^{(R)}$ CA(Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland). Glasgow coma scale(GCS) was measured to evaluate the consciousness of the patients on the basis of medical record. Results: Oral health was poor in clinical attachment loss and gingival index. Oral hygiene in neurosurgical patients in ICU was very poor due to high plaque index and Candida colonization of tongue and saliva. Plague index was closely related to Candida colonization of tongue and saliva(p<0.05). Conclusions: Oral health and hygiene of patients in neurosurgical ICU were very poor. More careful oral hygiene care is very important and necessary to enhance the oral health improvement of the neurosurgical patients in ICU.

Clinical Observation of Urticaria Patients by Oriental medicine (두드러기에 關한 臨床的 考察)

  • Kim, Hae-Jung;Chae, Bhung-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.357-366
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    • 1997
  • Urticaria is an erythematous or white non-pitting edematous plague that changes in size and shape by peripheral extention or regression during the few hours or days. Urticaria is classified as acute or chronic type. The etiology of acute urticaria has been determined in many case, but the cause of chronic urticaria has been determined in only $5\%\;to\;20\%$ of cases. This observation was aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and clinical indence of urticaria seen between June, 1995 and November, 1996(18months) at the Department of Dermatology, Oriental Medical Hospital, Kyung Hee University. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. In the cases of 106 patients, $43\%\;were\;male\;and\;51\%$ were female. 2. The pick incidence of age group was 20 to 29($32\%$). 3. The most frequent duration of urticaria was from 2 months to 6 months. 4. In this study, the inciting causes could not be found in $61\%\;of\;acute\;patients,\;60\%$ of chronic patients. 5. Among 107 patients, $5\%$ of all patients had personal history of atopic diseases and $9\%$ of all patients had familly history. 6. Angioedema was founded in 7 patients, and the most common involved site were lips, eyelids and tongue. 7. The most frequently treated prescription was Chhunggisan which occupied $51\%$ of all, Gyakhangjunggisan(41\%$) and Gosamhomasan($25\%$), Bangpoongtongsungsan($22\%$) in that order of frequency.

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A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

  • Ren, Tian-Guang;Guo, Xian-Guo;Jin, Dao-Chao;Wu, Dian;Fletcher, Quinn E.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2014
  • This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 ${\mu}m$. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities.

Oral care status and its related factor in diabetic patients (일부 당뇨병 환자의 구강관리 실태와 그 연관요인)

  • Na, Hee-Ja;Jung, Ui-Jung
    • Journal of Korean society of Dental Hygiene
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.81-94
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    • 2011
  • Objectives : This study conducted to investigate oral care abilities in diabetic patients to find a good dental method which may efficiently control diabetes. Methods : The diabetic group consisted of 40 patients with type 2 diabetics, while the non-diabetes were 34 persons with no signs of diabetics, who had visited a Public Health Center and dental clinic of a general hospital in Gwangju city from Dec. 2008 to Sep. 2009. Periodontal disease, gingivitis, dental caries, tongue plaque and halitosis between diabetic group and non-diabetic group were examined and at the same time a questionnaire survey was conducted. The data were analyzed with chi-square, t-test, pearson correlation coefficients using the SPSS WIN 15.0 program. Results : The mean values of both the community periodontal index and the gingival index of diabetic group were 2.18 and 1.75, respectively, and those were higher than those (1.79 and 1.50) of non-diabetic group with no statistical significance. The mean saliva secretion of non-diabetics was 16.74 mL, which was higher than 13.90 mL of diabetic patients(p<0.05). The oral care ability(mean 3.10) acquired from plague index in diabetic group was worse than in non-diabetic(mean 2.33). Conclusions : The high blood sugar concentration in diabetic patients causes low saliva secretion and high saliva viscosity, with the results halitosis and periodontal disease take place. This study suggested that good oral care ability of diabetic patients was very helpful to prevent periodontal disease and halitosis. In addition to this, it may reduce complications of diabetic patients.

Halitosis and Related Factors among Rural Residents (농촌지역 주민들의 구취실태와 유발요인)

  • Lee, Young-Ok;Hong, Jung-Pyo;Lee, Tae-Yong
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.157-175
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted through an interview process in which questionnaires were administered to 293 people. The questionnaires related to the behaviors of oral hygiene care, and disease history related to halitosis, and status of halitosis, halitosis measurement, oral examination, and caries activity tests such as the snyder test, Salivary flow rate test, and Salivary buffering capacity test. Our sample was taken from 293 rural residents within the period from 4th to 21st of January 2006. This was done in order to provide basic data to prepare both policies of halitosis prevention and a device to efficiently measure halitosis status and investigate the factors related therein. The major findings of this study results are as follows: 1. As for frequency of tooth brushing, twice a day occupied the greatest portion at 46.1 % Women exceeded men in frequency of tooth brushing. Tongue brushing everyday produced a 25.6 % result among subjects and The use of auxiliary oral hygiene devices occupied 9.2 %. 2. As for degree of usual self-awareness of halitosis: 62.5 %. This result also demonstrate that the severest time of self-awareness in regards to halitosis is wake up time in the morning. The time period produced the highest portion of 72.7 % in times of self-awareness. In terms of the area in which halitosis was observed, gum resulted in 23.0 %. As for types of halitosis, fetid smell was the most frequent at 37.2 %. 3. As for the result of halitosis measurement, values of OG less than 50 ppm occupied 54.3 % and $50{\sim}100ppm$ occupied 41.6 %. As for $NH_3$ values, $20{\sim}60ppm$ showed the highest value range of 52.6 %. 4. As for OG per disease history related to halitosis, values of OG were significantly high in the ranges of $50{\sim}100ppm$ within family history groups of food impaction by dental caries, diabetes mellitus and halitosis. As for values of $NH_3$, there showed a significant difference in respiratory system disease groups. 5 Value range of OG per ordinary halitosis self-awareness degree: values ranging less than 50 ppm were recorded at 55.9 % from the group realizing not aware of smell. 57.5 % from groups only realizing sometimes, while values range of $50{\sim}100ppm$ were recorded at 52.0 % from groups always aware of smell. 63.6 % from groups always strongly aware of smell. Meanwhile as for the values ranges of $NH_3$, $20{\sim}60ppm$. they occupied high portions for all groups of exams. 6. Values of OG per oral examination: the more pulp-exposed teeth and food impaction and the higher the tongue plaque index, values of OG increased within the range of $50{\sim}100ppm$. As for values of $NH_3$, the more prosthetic teeth and the higher the tongue plaque index, this value increased significantly, and the values increased up to no less than 60 ppm for groups of mandibular partial denture. 7. Within the realm of caries activity test: as for the Snyder test, high activity was highest by 43.0 % wherewith the higher the activity of acidogenic bacteria the higher the OG values. As for the salivary flow rate test, the number of cases below 8.0 ml showed the highest tendency by 62.5 %. The larger the salivary flow rate the more decreased OG values distribution. As for the salivary buffering capacity test, $6{\sim}10$ drops of 0.1N lactic acid showed the overwhelming trend by 58.7 % whereby the higher the salivary buffering capacity the greater distribution occupancy ratio of OG values below 50 ppm which is scentless to on ordinary person. 8. As for the correlation between oral environment and halitosis, OG showed the positive correlation with pulp exposed teeth, filled teeth, present teeth, tongue plaque index, and food impaction, while the negative correlation with salivary flow rate and prosthetic teeth. $NH_3$ showed a positive correlation with prosthetic teeth and frequency of tooth brushing, while decayed teeth was negative correlation. 9. As for the multiple regression analysis result, there have been selected female, pulp exposed teeth, prosthetic teeth, food impaction, salivary flow rate, tongue plaque index and severe activities in the Snyder test as factors affecting OG wherein explanatory power on it was 45.1 %. There have been selected females, pulp exposed teeth, tongue plaque index, and prosthetic teeth as factors affecting on $NH_3$ wherein explanatory power on it was 6.6 %. With the aforementioned results in mind, the status of halitosis among rural residents is considered to bare a close relation with oral environments and other factors related to halitosis such as the Snyder test from caries activity test, and salivary flow rate test. For the prevention of halitosis of residents in rural areas, we have to focus on correct tooth brushing methods and tongue brushing, with using auxiliary oral hygiene devices to remove fur of tongue plaque and food impaction. Also, when the cause and ingredients of halitosis are diverse and complex, in order to analyze exactly the factors of individual halitosis development, we need continuous and systematic study in order to provide rural residents with programs of oral hygiene education and encourage the use of dental hygienists in public health centers.