• Title/Summary/Keyword: Tetraploid

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Crossability of the Aconitum jaluense Species Complex (Ranunculaceae) in Korea

  • Oh, Sang-Hun;Park, Chong-Wook
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.435-438
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    • 1998
  • In the present study, we have examined the crossability of four species in the A. jaluense complex to provide additional information on their delimitation and levels of differentiation. Crosses between diploid A. chiisanense and the tetraploid species including A. jaluense s. str., A. triphyllum, and A. pseudoproliferum yielded no fruit- or seed-set, indicating that the former species is reproductively completely isolated from the latter three species. In interspecific crosses between the tetraploid species, combinations involving A. jaluense s. str. resulted in much reduced fruit- and seed-set, indicating that A. jaluense s. str. is more or less reproductively isolated from the other tetraploid species. However, crossing data revealed the absence of reproductive isolation between A. triphyllum and A. pseudoproliferum These results strongly support the relationships that have been previously suggested for the A. jaluense complex on the basis of morphology, chromosome number, and flavonoid chemistry.

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Effect of NaCI Concentration on Germination and Seedling Growth of Italian Ryegrass(Lolium multiflorum L.) (NaCl 농도가 이탈리안 라이그래스의 발아와 유묘생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이강수;최선영;최철원
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.340-350
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to obtain the basic information for the salt stress of Italian Ryegrass. Fourteen cultivars including 7 diploid and 7 tetraploid were subjected to eight levels of NaCl treatments during germination and early seedling stages. Germination percentage decreased remarkably over 300mM of NaCl concentration. The NaCl concentration that inhibited germination of 50% of the viable seeds in the cultivars was 344mM. The decreasing degree of germination percentage was higher in tetraploid type than in diploid type. The varietal difference of germination percentage was shown to be very conspicuous as the NaCl concentration increased. Top dry weight in 166 mM NaCl was decreased by 50% compared with that of control. Inhibition of NaCl appeared to be more in early seedling stage than in germination stage. Top dry weight of cultivars in NaCl stress was not related with germination capacity. Root dry weight in 148mM NaCl decreased by 50% compared with that of control. Root dry weight of cultivars was significantly correlated with top dry weight in NaCl treatment. Top dry weight and root dry weight was higher in diploid type than in tetraploid type at each 8 levels of NaCl concentration. Total chlorophyll content increased with the increase of NaCl concentration and the degree of increase in chlorophyll a was higher than that in chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a was higher in tetraploid type than in diploid type. But chlorophyll b was higher in diploid type than in tetraploid type. There were significant correlation between chlorophyll a and top dry weight of cultivars over 150mM of NaCl concentration. Free proline content accumulated remarkably in NaCl treatment compared with control and was not difference between diploid type and tetraploid type. Free proline content of cultivars was not related with top dry weight in NaCl treatment.

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Selection of Hypo- and Hyper-tetraploid Seedlings from Abnormal Cotyledons Seedlings Obtained during Crossing of Tetraploid Grapes (Vitis Complexes) (4배체 포도간 교배된 이상자엽실생으로부터 저·고4배체 식물의 선발)

  • Park, Young-Sik;Kim, In-Jong;Park, Sung-Min
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.810-817
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    • 2010
  • We observed abnormal morphology of cotyledons occurring in seedlings derived from open-pollinated and cross-pollinated tetraploid grapes and selected aneuploids, especially hypo- and hyper-tetraploid in seedlings with abnormal morphology of cotyledons. Five types of morphologically abnormal cotyledons were observed. In open-pollination of four tetraploid grapes, the frequency of abnormal cotyledons was 1.6% (49 of 3029 seeds). Percentage of aneuploids in the seedlings of abnormal cotyledons was 20.4% (10 of 49 seedlings). Aneuploids in open-pollination consisted of three (4n = 4x-2), four (4n = 4x-1), and three (4n = 4x+1) seedlings. In cross-pollination of tetraploids, the frequency of abnormal cotyledons was 3.4% (59 of 1729 seeds). Percentage of aneuploids in the seedlings with abnormal cotyledons was 22.0% (13 of 59 seedlings). Aneuploids from cross-pollination of tetraploids consisted of two (4n = 4x-2), nine (4n = 4x-1), one (4n = 4x+1), and one (4n = 4x+3) seedlings. According to the results, although the abnormal cotyledon morphology of seedlings obtained from crossing between tetraploid grapes appeared at low rate (2.3%), aneuploid seedlings occurred at high rate (22.0%); therefore, it indicated that this selection strategy might be very efficient in the initial seedling stage.

Medium compositions reveal potential organogenesis in the diploid and tetrploid Codonopsis lanceolata

  • Kwon, Soo Jeong;Hwang, Ha Nule;Moon, Young Ja;Cho, Gab Yeon;Boo, Hee Ock;Lee, Moon Soon;Woo, Sun Hee;Kim, Hag Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Crop Science Conference
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    • pp.169-169
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    • 2017
  • Medium composition plays a key role on influencing organogenesis in plant tissue culture. This study was carried out to examine the effects of medium composition on organogenesis in diploid and tetraploid Codonopsis lanceolata and obtain in-vitro mass propagation of superior species of C. lanceolata. Diploid C. lanceolata was found to be declined regarding MS medium composition for each concentration. However, shoot and adventitious root formation were suppressed with higher mineral salt concentration, and active growth of shoot and adventitious root was exhibited as 4.9 cm and 3.2 cm respectively in 1/2 MS medium. While in tetraploid C. lanceolata, it showed 2.9 cm and 3.2 cm respectively in 1/4 MS medium. In the case of sucrose concentration, no consistent decrease was observed for growth of shoot and the adventitious root of diploid both at high and low concentration. The growth of shoot (at 3% concentration) and adventitious root (at 7% concentration) was 2.3 cm and 2.0 cm respectively. Although there was no difference in shoot formation of tetraploid C. lanceolata in all concentrations with the range of 1.7~1.8, there was a slight decrease in shoot growth at high concentration. Results revealed that the adventitious root formation was suppressed at high concentration. The concentration of agar exhibited no significant difference in shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata at all concentrations. The maximum result of adventitious growth (4.1 cm) was observed at 0.8% concentration. Slight inhibition of shoot formation and root formation of tetraploid C. lanceolata was observed at higher concentration. Shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata also exhibited inhibition at higher concentration. Shoot formation of diploid C. lanceolata was increased at lower pH and shoot growth was the highest (2.3 cm) at pH 3.8. Adventitious root formation was higher at lower pH. However, both the adventitious root formation and growth exhibited comparatively higher result at pH 5.8. Taken together, the levels of pH had an effect on shoot and root formation in diploid and tetraploid of C. lanceolata

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On the Fertility of Several Polyploidy Mulberries, Morus, Fructified by Natural Cross (배수성 뽕나무에 있어 자연교잡한 경우의 임성)

  • 박광준
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.97-101
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    • 1994
  • The fertilities of pyloploidy mulberries and the germination abilities and shape of poliploidy mulberry seeds fructified by natural cross were investigated and the results are as follows. Regarding the size of seeds, that of the tetraploid was the biggest and that of hexaploid was the smallest among the investigated polyploids. Those of diploid and triploid ranged between those of tetraploid and hexaploid. The fertilization rates of the varieties of Shinkwangppong and Cheongunppong, which were triploid, were 25.4 and 55.0%, respectively, and Shinkwangppong showed 10.2% of cross rate, but Cheongunppong did not have germination ability. The tetraploid seeds showed 61~68% of fertility and 30~54% of cross rate. The Puksan No. 2, which is hexaploid, had about 43% and 7% in fertility and cross rate, respectively. The germination abilities of floating seeds of diploid and tetraploid were comparatively high, but the floating seeds of triploid and hexaploid did not have germination ability. The seeds of diploid had a high fertility of 81~95% and a comparatively high cross rate of 47~74%.

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Morphological and Cytogenetic Analysis of Colchicine-induced Tetraploids of Fallopia multiflolra Haraldson (Colchicine 처리에 의해 유기된 4배체 하수오의 형태 및 세포유전학적 특성)

  • Kim, Ki Hyun;Youn, Cheol Ku;Kim, In Jae;Lee, Kyung Ja;Kim, Young Ho;Hong, Seong Tack;Woo, Sun Hee
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.362-369
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    • 2018
  • Background: For stable induction of tetraploidy in Fallopia multiflora Haraldson, colchicine was treated to establish the condition of induction and investigated the morphological and cytogenetic traits of the tetraploid plants obtained compared to those of diploid ones. Methods and Results: For the induction of tetraploidy, F. multiflora plants were soaked in aqueous solutions of colchicine at various concentration (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0%). After this, 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added at room temperature on a shaker set at 150 rpm for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. The induction rate of tetraploids appeared to be the highest in plants treated with 0.5% colchicine for 24 h. As the colchicine concentration and soaking time increased above these levels, the growing tip of the roots did not develop and they began to rot. When compared to diploid plants, tetraploids differed greatly in various characteristics, including the sizes and shapes of the leaves, fruits, flowers and roots. The induced tetraploid F. multiflora had larger guard cells, and chloroplasts, increased number of chloroplast in the guard cells and decreased stomatal densities. Conclusions: When colchicine induced plants for tetraploid, it can be distinguished from diploids, in various characteristics such as morphological changes as stomatal size, number of chloroplasts per guard cell, number of chromosomes and flow cytometry. Therefore, it proved that these methods are suitable, quick and easy methods for the identification of the ploidy level of F. multiflora.

EFFECT OF NEUTRON AND GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GERMINATION OF DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID RYE SEEDS (중성자 및 감마선의 조사가 이배체 및 사배체 호맥의 종자의 발아 및 성장에 미치는 영향)

  • YIM, Kyong Bin
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.6-14
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    • 1963
  • YIM, Kyong Bin (Coll. of Agriulture, Seoul National University) Effect of neutron and gamma irradiation on the germination of diploid and tetraploid rye seeds. Kor. Jour. Bot. VI(3):6-14, 1964. Tetraploid rye, Secale cereale 4x, was more tolerant to fast nuetron than diploid rye. Root growth was more suppressed than was seedling height in both diploid and tetraploid rye. A stimmulative effect on the dry weight of the shoot could be observed at very low doses of irradiation. It was the fact that the lower the moisture content of the seeds, the higher the radiosensitivity. Concerning seedling height growth, the effectiveness ratio of N/X equalled about 20.0 in diploid rye and about 18.2 in tettraploid rye, when the 50% dose ratios is used for this quotient calculaiton.

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Characterization of Tetraploid Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cells

  • Shin, Dong-Hyuk;Lee, Jeoung-Eun;Eum, Jin Hee;Chung, Young Gie;Lee, Hoon Taek;Lee, Dong Ryul
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.425-434
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    • 2017
  • Polyploidy is occurred by the process of endomitosis or cell fusion and usually represent terminally differentiated stage. Their effects on the developmental process were mainly investigated in the amphibian and fishes, and only observed in some rodents as mammalian model. Recently, we have established tetraploidy somatic cell nuclear transfer-derived human embryonic stem cells (SCNT-hESCs) and examined whether it could be available as a research model for the polyploidy cells existed in the human tissues. Two tetraploid hESC lines were artificially acquired by reintroduction of remained 1st polar body during the establishment of SCNT-hESC using MII oocytes obtained from female donors and dermal fibroblasts (DFB) from a 35-year-old adult male. These tetraploid SCNT-hESC lines (CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3) were identified by the cytogenetic genotyping (91, XXXY,-6, t[2:6] / 92,XXXY,-12,+20) and have shown of indefinite proliferation, but slow speed when compared to euploid SCNT-hESCs. Using the eight Short Tendem Repeat (STR) markers, it was confirmed that both CHA-NT1 and CHA-NT3 lines contain both nuclear and oocyte donor genotypes. These hESCs expressed pluripotency markers and their embryoid bodies (EB) also expressed markers of the three embryonic germ layers and formed teratoma after transplantation into immune deficient mice. This study showed that tetraploidy does not affect the activities of proliferation and differentiation in SCNT-hESC. Therefore, tetraploid hESC lines established after SCNT procedure could be differentiated into various types of cells and could be an useful model for the study of the polyploidy cells in the tissues.

In Vitro Mitotic Chromosome Doubling by Chemical Treatments in Lilium longiflorum (철포백합의 기내 체세포 염색체 배수화를 위만 화학처리의 효과)

  • Chung, Mi-Young;Chung, Jae-Dong;J. M. VanTuyl;Lim, Ki-Byung
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to develop an in vitro chromosome doubling systems for the breeding of tetraploid lily cultivar. Different concentration (ppm) and treatment time (hour) of colchicine, oryzalin and caffeine were compared for the efficiency of bulb regeneration and tetraploidization. The occurrence of tetraploid plants by colchicine was the highest in the concentration of 1,000 ppm for three hours. In oryzalin treatment, the best combination was at 30 ppm for three hours. However, the effects of oryzalin treatments were similar between 10 ppm and 30 ppm concentrations. The survival rate was dramatically reduced in a high concentration of caffeine although some treatments had a higher tetraploid induction. As a consequence, reliable results for the tetraploid production were obtained in the treatments of 1,000 ppm colchicine, 3,000 ppm oryzalin both for three hours, and 9,000 ppm caffeine for nine hours.