• Title/Summary/Keyword: Tetraploid

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Comparative Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Diploid and Tetraploid Platycodon grandiflorum by Different Drying Methods

  • Boo, Hee-Ock;Shin, Jeoung-Hwa;Kim, Young-Seon;Park, Hee-Jeong;Kim, Hag-Hyun;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2013
  • The antioxidant enzyme and DPPH radical scavenging activity with variations in drying methods of diploid and tetraploid in Platycodon grandiflorum were determined. Antioxidant enzyme activities were measured as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The roots of Platycodon grandiflorum were freeze-dried, indoor-dried, hot-air dried, and microwave dried. The root extract of P. grandiflorum have shown the highest SOD enzyme activity of 92% in tetraploid of freeze-dried and indoor-dried while diploid of microwave dried showed the lowest SOD enzyme activity of 47.5%. The activity of CAT showed higher values in the root of tetraploid than in the diploid of P. grandiflorum in all drying methods. The APX activity showed relatively higher values in the root extract of freeze-dried both the diploid and tetraploid, but the difference in comparison with other extracts was not significant. The POX activities according to drying methods of diploid and tetraploid in P. grandiflorum showed relatively high values in freeze-dried and indoor-dried compared with other drying methods, and the POX activity between the diploid and tetraploid was not significant difference in each drying method. The DPPH radical scavenging activity with variation in drying methods of diploid and tetraploid in P. grandiflorum was the highest in the freeze-dried, and was higher in tetraploid than diploid in all the concentrations. In conclusion, the root of P. grandiflorum had the potent biological activities in both diploid and tetraploid. In particular, the tetraploid root of P. grandiflorum showing high antioxidant enzyme activity could be good materials for development of source of functional healthy food.

Ploidy status of progeny from the crosses between tetraploid males and diploid females in mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis)

  • Nam, Yoon-Kwon;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.40-40
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    • 2003
  • DNA content of the sperm of tetraploid mud loach (Misgurnus mizolepis) males and the ploidy status of progenies generated by crossing tetraploid males with diploid females are described. Reproductive performance of the induced adult tetraploid males ranged from sterility to fertility. Of 48 tetraploid males tested, 12 were sterile but the other 36 produced functional sperm. Of these 36, 26 produced haploid sperm, which on fertilizing the haploid eggs, generated diploid progenies. Seven tetraploid males were mosaics in their sperm, as indicated by the production of diploid, aneuploid and/or triploid offspring. Only 3 males produced diploid sperm rendering the production of all-triploid progenies. The DNA content of sperm of a tested tetraploid male was consistent throughout the 3 progeny tests, i.e. the haploid sperm-producing 4n males persisted to produce the haploid sperm only likewise the diploid sperm producing4n males consistently produced the diploid sperm only, when progeny testing was extended to 3 successive but alternate years. Hence, a careful and direct examination of the DNA profile of sperm from tetraploid males is a pre-requisite for reproductive containment of genetically modified fish.

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Effect of Colchicine on Chromosome Doubling in Codonopsis lanceolata

  • Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Seo, Dong-Yeon;Cho, Gab-Yeon;Lee, Moon-Soon;Moon, Young-Ja;Boo, Hee-Ock;Woo, Sun-Hee;Kim, Hag-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2016
  • The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the colchicine concentrations on chromosome doubling for producing of tetraploid plants of Codonopsis lanceolata, and its effect on plant morphology. A total of 180 individuals germinated from 16 treatment groups, were exposed to various concentrations (0.05-1.0% w/v) of colchicine for different soaking duration (3-24 hour). The highest numbers of tetraploid plants (3) were observed from the lowest concentration of colchicine (0.05%), and one (1) tetraploid plant was obtained from the 0.5% concentration group with a 6 hour treatment. However, no tetraploid individual was observed in any other treatment groups. The plant height of the diploid (18.1 ㎝) was slightly shorter than that of the tetraploid (13.4 ㎝). The fresh weight of the main root in the diploid (0.5 g) was four-fold higher than the tetraploid (2.2 g). The colchicine-treated plant regeneration rate in C. lanceolata was decreased when the plants were subjected to high concentration of colchicine. In particular, the highest number of tetraploid plants (5 and 3) was obtained from the lower concentration (0.05% and 0.1%) of colchicine for 6-hour treatment, which were a higher rate (29.4% and 30%) of regenerated tetraploid plants than other regenerated plants. As in the seed treatment result, the plant height of the diploid was significantly higher (10.4 ㎝) than tetraploid. The higher morphological changes were observed comparatively from tetraploid plants than the diploid.

Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity of Diploid and Tetraploid Platycodon grandiflorum

  • Boo, Hee-Ock;Kim, Young-Sun;Kim, Hag-Hyun;Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Woo, Sun-Hee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.239-247
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    • 2015
  • This experiment was conducted to obtain the have higher contents of pharmaceutical constituents as well as higher yield from colchicine induced diploid and tetraploid extracts of Platycodon grandiflorum. In order to determine the biological activity, this study was focused to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial on the bronthus disease bacteria, antioxidant enzyme activity of diploid and tetraploid extracts in P. grandiflorum. The activities of antioxidant enzyme according to different solvent extracts were measured as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of P. grandiflorum showed significant differences between tetraploid and diploid. That is, the cytotoxic effect against human cancer cell was higher in tetraploid than in diploid. At all extracts concentration, tetraploid samples showed high toxicity and the $IC_{50}$ (concentration causing 50% cell death) value showed the highest on HCT-116 cell ($105.91{\mu}g/mL$), and exhibited significant activity against the Hep 3B cell ($140.67{\mu}g/mL$), SNU-1066 cell ($154.01{\mu}g/mL$), Hela cell ($158.37{\mu}g/mL$), SNU-601 cell ($182.67{\mu}g/mL$), Calu-6 cell ($190.42{\mu}g/mL$), MCF-7 cell ($510.19{\mu}g/mL$). Antimicrobial activities of diploid P. grandiflorum were relatively low compared to tetraploid P. grandiflorum on most of the bacterial strains. In tetraploid P. grandiflorum, K. pneumoniae showed the clear zone formation (18~19 mm) of growth inhibition, followed by the clear zone formation of 13~15 mm on C. diphtheria and S. pyogenes. The antimicrobial activities in diploid P. grandiflorum were the highest on K. pneumonia (14~15 mm), and showed the clear zone formation of 11~12 mm on C. diphtheria and 12~13 mm on S. pyogenes. The antimicrobial activity is thought to look different depending on the bacterial strains and the polyploidy of P. grandiflorum. The root extract of P. grandiflorum had the highest (97.2%) SOD enzyme activity in ethyl acetate partition layer of tetraploid while water partition layer of diploid showed the lowest (48.6%) SOD enzyme activity. The activity of CAT showed higher values in the root of tetraploid than in the diploid of P. grandiflorum in all partition layers except butyl alcohol. The activities of APX and POD showed higher values in the root of tetraploid than in the diploid of P. grandiflorum in all fraction solvents except water layer. These results indicate that the tetraploid P. grandiflorum can be used as a source for developing cytotoxic agent and antimicrobials which can act against bronchus diseases bacterial strains.

Breeding of Tetraploid in Codonopsis lanceolata (Sieb. et Zucc.) Trautvetter by Colchicine Treatment

  • Kim, Ik-Hwan;Kim, Hag-Hyun;Hong, Eui-Yon;Yun, Jong-Sun;Yun, Tae;Hwang, Ju-Kwang;Lee, Cheol-Hee
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2003
  • Present studies were carried out to produce tetraploid plants by colchicine treatment using seeds, seedlings and shoot tips of Codonopsis lanceolata. Three tetraploid plants of C. lanceolata were produced from seeds which absorbed 0.1 % colchicine solution for 12 hours, and 0.5% colchicine solution for 1 and 6 hours from seedlings, respectively. But tetraploid was not produced from shoot tips treated by colchicine solution. Compared to diploid, tetraploid plants had larger stomata, but less number of stomata. Fresh weight of tetraploid plants was 1.4∼3.6 times heavier than diploid plants.

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Breeding of Tetraploid in Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.)A. DC. by Colchicine treatment

  • Kim, Ik-Hwan;Kim, Hag-Hyun;Hong, Eui-Yon;Yun, Jong-Sun;Yun, Tae;Hwang, Ju-Kwang;Lee, Cheol-Hee
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 2003
  • Present studies were carried out to produce tetraploid plants by colchicine treatment using seeds, seedlings and shoot tips of Platycodon grandiflorum in Campanulaceae. The most successful colchicine treatment for tetraploid production in P. grandiflorum was soaking treatment using 0.01 and 0.5% colchicine solution for 1 hour and 12 hours, respectively. Morphological characteristics of both diploid and tetraploid were similar, but tetraploid plants had more leaves. Compared to diploid, tetraploid had the larger stomata, but less number of stomata. Fresh weight of tetraploids was 20∼40% heavier than that of diploid.

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Repression of the F-box protein Skp2 is essential for actin damage-induced tetraploid G1 arrest

  • Jo, Yongsam;Shin, Deug Y.
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.7
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    • pp.379-383
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    • 2017
  • We previously reported that p53 plays a role as a key regulator in the tetraploid G1 checkpoint, which is activated by actin damage-induced cytokinesis blockade and then prevents uncoupled DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis. In this study, we investigated a role of Skp2, which targets CDK2 inhibitor p27/Kip1, in actin damage-induced tetraploid G1 arrest. Expression of Skp2 was reduced, but p27/Kip1 was increased, after actin damage-induced cytokinesis blockade. The role of Skp2 repression in tetraploid G1 arrest was investigated by analyzing the effects of ectopic expression of Skp2. After actin damage, ectopic expression of Skp2 resulted in DNA synthesis and accumulation of multinucleated cells, and ultimately, induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that Skp2 repression is important for sustaining tetraploid G1 arrest after cytokinesis blockade and is required to prevent uncoupled DNA replication and nuclear division without cytokinesis.

Comparison of Morpho-physiological Characteristics in Diploid and Tetraploid Platycodon grandiflorum

  • Kwon, Soo-Jeong;Lee, Hee-Doo;Seo, Dong-Yeon;Moon, Young-Ja;Cho, Gab-Yeon;Boo, Hee-Ock;Woo, Sun-Hee;Kim, Hag-Hyun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.138-144
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    • 2016
  • The present study was performed to compare the morpho-physiological characteristics of the tetraploid and diploid varieties of Platycodon grandiflorum and to obtain basic data for cultivating a tetraploid variety with high yield and content of functional substances. The plant height of the tetraploid variety (54.0 cm) was slightly higher than that of the diploid variety. The leaf length and width of the tetraploid variety were 10.2 cm and 7.3 cm, respectively. The results obtained from the present study revealed that the form of the leaf changed from lanceolate to ovate, and the chlorophyll content in the tetraploid variety (16.7) was slightly higher than that in the diploid variety. The photosynthetic rate significantly increased (24%) to $13.4{\mu}mol\;CO_2{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ in the tetraploid variety from that of the diploid variety. The pollen viability of the tetraploid variety was decreased by approximately 33% with respect to that of the diploid variety, but this did not have a significant adverse effect on seed production. The fresh weight of tetraploid P. grandiflorum was 49.4 g, which was approximately 44% higher than that of the diploid variety.

Development of Tetraploid Watermelon Using Chromosome Doubling Reagent Treatments (염색체 배수화제를 이용한 4배체 수박품종 개발)

  • Oh, Sang A;Min, Kwang Hyun;Choi, Yong Soo;Park, Sang Bin;Kim, Young Cheol;Cho, Song Mi
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.656-664
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    • 2015
  • To produce high quality watermelon, three tetraploid watermelon breeding lines (‘SA03-1’, ‘SA06-1’ and ‘SB01-1’) were developed by treatment with different chromosome doubling reagents. To identify the optimal tetraploid inductive conditions, the three watermelon breeding lines were selected by counting the number of doubled chloroplasts in guard cells. Tetraploid induction rates differed depending on the genotypes and treatment with doubling reagents. However, the highest induction rate occurred with 1.0% colchicine (82.2%). These putative tetraploid lines were re-confirmed for ploidy using flow cytometric analysis and chromosome counting. The internode length of the tetraploid breeding lines was different when the leaf size was larger in all three tetraploid lines compared to their diploids. The fruit weight of the tetraploid fruits for ‘SA03-1’ and ‘SB01-1’ was lower than for their diploid, and the rind thickness and total sugar content (°Brix) of tetraploid SB01-1 were significantly different from those of its diploid. Tetraploid lines were sterile, yielded a lower number of seeds per fruit for ‘SA03-1’ (21), ‘SA06-1’ (62), and ‘SB01-1’ (34.7), and the seeds were larger and thicker than those of their diploids. These tetraploid breeding results will be useful for breeding new seedless watermelon cultivars.

Effect of glutathione on tetraploid embryo development in the pigs

  • Kim, Hwa-Young;Lee, Sang-Hee;Hwangbo, Yong;Lee, Seung Tae;Lee, Eunsong;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate to influence of glutathione (GSH) on development and antioxidant enzyme activity in tetraploid porcine embryos. Tetraploid embryos were produced using parthenogenetic 2-cell embryo by electrofusion method. Tetraploid embryo development was observed every 24 hours and intracellular antioxidant enzyme activity was measured at 120 hours after electrofusion. The 4-cell to 16-cell stage tetraploid embryos was increased in 100 and $500{\mu}M$ GSH-treated groups compared control group at 48 hours (P < 0.05) but cleavage rates were not significantly different among the GSH treatment groups at 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours. Blastocyst formation was significantly increased by 300 and $500{\mu}M$ GSH at 120 hours in tetraploid embryos (P < 0.05). But blastocyst cell number were not significantly different among the GSH treatment groups ($16.4{\pm}0.8$, $16.8{\pm}2.6$, $18.5{\pm}2.8$ and $17.5{\pm}1.8$). The intracellular antioxidant enzyme level was increased in $500{\mu}M$ GSH compared to 0 and $100{\mu}M$ GSH (P < 0.05). We suggest that GSH may be improve development of tetraploid embryo in pigs.