• Title, Summary, Keyword: Team Effectiveness

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Improvement of Shelf-life and Quality in Fresh-Cut Tomato Slices:

  • Hong Ji Heun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2004
  • Quality of fresh-cut tomato slices was compared during cold storage under various modified atmosphere packaging conditions. Chilling injury of slices in containers sealed with Film A was higher than with Film B; these films had oxygen transmission rates of 87.4 and 60.0 ml $h^{-1}\;m^{-2}\;atm^{-1}$ at $5^{\circ}C\;and\;99\%$ RH, respectively. While slices in containers with an initial atmospheric composition of air, $4\%\;CO_2+1\;or\;20\%\;O_2,\;8\%\;CO_2+1\;or\;20\%\;O_2,\;or\;12\%\;CO_2+20\%\;O_2$ showed fungal growth, slices in containers with $12\%\;CO_2+1\%\;O_2$ did not. Low ethylene in containers enhanced chilling injury. Modified atmosphere packaging provided good quality tomato slices with a shelf-life of 2 weeks or more at $5^{\circ}C$. Experiments were conducted to compare changes in quality of slices of red tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'Sunbeam') fruit from plants grown using black polyethylene or hairy vetch mulches under various foliar disease management systems including: no fungicide applications (NF), a disease forecasting model (Tom-Cast), and weekly fungicide applications (WF), during storage at $5^{\circ}C$ under a modified atmosphere. Slices were analyzed for firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), pH, electrolyte leakage, fungi, yeasts, and chilling injury. With both NF and Tom-Cast fungicide treatments, slices from tomato fruit grown with hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mulch were firmer than those from tomato fruit grown with black polyethylene mulch after 12 days storage. Ethylene production of slices from fruit grown using hairy vetch mulch under Tom-Cast was about 1.5- and 5-fold higher than that of slices from WF and NF fungicide treatments after 12 days, respectively. The percentage of water-soaked areas (chilling injury) for slices from tomato fruit grown using black polyethylene mulch under NF was over 7-fold that of slices from tomato fruit grown using hairy vetch under Tom-Cast. When stored at $20^{\circ}C$, slices from light-red tomato fruit grown with black polyethylene or hairy vetch mulches both showed a rapid increase in electrolyte leakage beginning 6 hours after slicing. However, slices from tomato fruit grown using the hairy vetch mulch tended to have lower electrolyte leakage than those grown with black polyethylene mulch. These results suggest that tomato fruit from plants grown using hairy vetch mulch may be more suitable for fresh-cut slices than those grown using black polyethylene mulch. Also, use of the disease forecasting model Tom-Cast, which can result in lower fungicide application than is currently used commercially, resulted in high quality fruit for fresh-cut processing. Experiments were conducted to determine if ethylene influences chilling injury, as measured by percentage of slices exhibiting water-soaked areas in fresh-cut tomato slices of 'Mountain Pride' and 'Sunbeam' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Ethylene concentration in containers without ventilation significantly increased during storage at $5^{\circ}C$, whereas little or no accumulation of ethylene occurred in containers with one or six perforations. Chilling injury was greatest for slices in containers with six perforations, compared to slices in containers with one perforation, and was over 13-fold greater than that of slices in control containers with no perforations. An experiment was also performed to investigate the effectiveness of including an ethylene absorbent pad in containers on subsequent ethylene accumulation and chilling injury. While ethylene in the no-pad controls increased continually during storage of both 'Mountain Pride' and 'Sunbeam' tomatoes at $5^{\circ}C$ under modified atmosphere conditions, no increase in accumulation of ethylene was observed in containers containing ethylene absorbent pads throughout storage. The ethylene absorbent pad treatment resulted in a significantly higher percentage of chilling injury compared with the no-pad control. In studies aimed at inhibiting ethylene production using AVG during storage of slices, the concentration of ethylene in control containers (no AVG) remained at elevated levels throughout storage, compared to containers with slices treated with AVG. Chilling injury in slices treated with AVG was 5-fold greater than that of controls. Further, we tested the effect of ethylene pretreatment of slices on subsequent slice shelf-life and quality. In slices treated with ethylene (0, 0.1, 1, or $10\;{mu}L\;L^{-1}$) immediately after slicing, ethylene production in non-treated controls was greater than that of all other ethylene pre-treatments. However, pretreatment of slices 3 days after slicing resulted in a different pattern of ethylene production during storage. Ihe rate of ethylene production by slices treated with 1 L $L^{-1}$ ethylene 3 days after slicing was greater during storage than any of the other ethylene treatments. With slices pre-treated with ethylene, both immediately and 3 days after slicing, the rate of ethylene production tended to show an negative correlation with chilling injury. Chemical name used: 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG).

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Critical Pathway for Operable Gastric Cancer (위암수술 환자에서의 Critical Pathway의 개발과 적용)

  • Song, Kyo-Young;Kim, Seung-Nam;Park, Cho-Hyun
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.95-100
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: Critical pathways (CP), also known as clinical pathways, are management plans that display goals for patients and have led to improved outcomes for many disease entities. This study was aimed at developing a critical pathway for the surgical treatment of gastric cancer patients and evaluating its usefulness. Materials and Methods: A CP was developed and implemented by a team of surgeons, nurses, nutritionists, and administrative officials. Among the 117 patients who received curative gastrectomies for gastric cancer at Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, between October 2003 and August 2004, 26 patients were treated according to the CP. We evaluated its usefulness by comparing the clinical characterisctics, postoperative progress, hospital stays, and costs between the CP and the non-CP groups. Patient satisfaction was also surveyed with questionnaires. Results: Of the initial 26 patients in the CP group, two were excluded from the final evaluation; one patient had a duodenal stump leakage, and the other had a gastric stasis postoperatively. In 8 patients, protocol violation occurred; six patients refused to be discharged on the $7^{th}$ postoperative day, one patient who had an gastric staisis postoperatively stayed for 2 additional days, and one patient who needed ICU care stayed for 4 additional days. The drop-out rate was $7.7\%$ (2/26), and the variance rate was $30.8\%$ (8/26). The mean hospital stay was 11.3 days ($10\~15$ days) for the CP group compared with 17.5 days ($9\∼68$ days) for the non-CP group, resulting in a difference of about 6 days (P<0.05). The mean hospital stays after surgery were 10.3 days ($7\∼68$ days) and 8.3 days ($7\∼12$ days) for the non-CP and the CP groups, respectively, but the difference was statistically not significant (P>0.05). The mean charge during the hospital stay was higher in the non-CP group ( $\\$ 6,292,200) than in the CP group ( $\\$ 4,863,685). The charge per hospital day was higher in the CP group ( $\\$ 430,414) than in the non-CP group ( $\\$ 359,554). Patient satisfaction was higher in the CP group than in the non-CP group. Conclusion: By developing and applying a critical pathway in the surgical treatment of stomach cancer patients, we could reduce the length of hospital stay as well as the cost. A multi-centered prospective study to establish a standard treatment pathway and to demonstrate its effectiveness is needed in the future.

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An Empirical Study of Social Network Service (SNS) Continuance: Incorporating the Customer Value-Satisfaction-Loyalty Model into the IS Continuance Model (소셜 네트워크 서비스(SNS)의 지속이용의도에 관한 연구: IS 지속이용모델과 고객 가치-만족-충성도 모델의 통합적 접근)

  • Choi, Sujeong
    • Asia pacific journal of information systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.1-28
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    • 2013
  • Given that smartphone-based social network services (SNS), such as KakaoStory is now being widely used as a way for people to connect and communicate with each other, this study examines key factors leading to the continued use of SNS. People have been using PC-based SNS, such as Cyworld, for years are now using smartphone-based SNS, such as KakaoStory. KakaoStory developed by KakaoTalk has rapidly grown up as the largest smartphone-based SNS in Korea as smartphone penetration increases. It is more difficult for firms to maintain their current users over time in that alternative SNSs satisfying people's new needs are constantly emerging and evolving. In this sense, one of the most challenging issues for SNS firms is how to retain their current users in the long run. However, there are few empirical studies on this issue. Applying the IS continuance model proposed by Bhattacherjee [2001], this study explores key determinants of users' smartphone-based SNS continuance intention. The model suggests that perceived usefulness and user satisfaction are the key determinants of IS continuance intention. However, the model includes only the utilitarian value that users can obtain through the use of smartphone-based SNS, by considering perceived usefulness. Therefore, the study attempts to extend the IS continuance model by considering hedonic and social values simultaneously. More specifically, we consider subjective norms as social value that are proposed by the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior. We also consider perceived enjoyment as hedonic value that is emphasized as a key factor influencing users' behavior intention and actual behavior, particularly in the context of hedonic IS use. By considering the three values in our model simultaneously, we could offer a deeper understanding of smartphone-based SNS continuance. That is, this study could offer an explanation of how each value is associated with user satisfaction and SNS continuance intention. The customer value-satisfaction-loyalty model can strengthen the assertion that smartphone-based SNS continuance intention is determined by various different types of customer values, such as utilitarian, hedonic, and social ones. Moreover, the model provides a theoretical basis for the assertion that customer values lead to increased loyalty via customer satisfaction. In this regard, we theorize that SNS continuance intention is influenced by users' various values, namely perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and subjective norms, via user satisfaction. To test the proposed research model and hypotheses, we conducted a partial least squares analysis using a total of 253 data collected on the users of smartphone-based SNS (i.e., KakaoStory). The key findings are as follows: First, it has been found that SNS continuance intention considerably depends on user satisfaction. Second, user satisfaction is determined by confirmation, perceived usefulness, and perceived enjoyment. Third, concerning the effects of the three values on SNS continuance intention, only perceived enjoyment regarded as hedonic value was statistically significant. That is, perceived usefulness considered as utilitarian value and subjective norms considered as social value had no effect on SNS continuance intention. Finally, our results indicate that confirmation increases perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and user satisfaction. The results reconfirm the effectiveness of IS continuance model in predicting smartphone-based SNS continuance intention. Moreover, the results demonstrate that perceived enjoyment reflecting hedonic value is the most important predictor of SNS continuance intention. Therefore, it is imperative for firms to meet SNS users' hedonic value to retain them in the long run. Meanwhile, we could not find any empirical evidence to support the assertion that subjective norms are associated with user satisfaction and SNS continuance intention. The results lead us to conclude that when users have enough direct experience in SNS use, subjective norms have no effect on SNS continuance intention. Discussions and implications of the results are provided.

The Effects of Cooperative Learning to Study the Unit 'Metabolism' in High School: Application of STAD Model (고등학교 생물 '물질대사' 단원에서 협동학습의 효과: STAD 모형의 적용)

  • Chung, Young-Lan;Lee, Hye-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2003
  • Problem solving ability, having been thought as one of the most important goals of science education is also a primary task for the current education. Indeed, the students' problem solving ability has shown almost no actual progress, despite our long accumulated science education. Under this circumstances, cooperative learning, a way to grow students' positive inter-dependence and problem solving ability in the basis of their active participation and discussion, was proposed as an effective teaching method. But, results have not consistently shown the advantage of cooperative learning over traditional learning for promoting academic achievement in science. Studies have consistently shown greater effectiveness on affective aspects. But, relatively few have focused on biology in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and attitude of high school biology students. The pretest-posttest control group design was applied. The sample consisted of 50 11th-grade female students in experimental group(cooperative learning Student Team Achievement Division model) and 50 students in control group(traditional learning). Students in both groups recieved identical content instruction on the unit 'II. Methabolism'. These groups were treated for 13 hours during 5 weeks. Achievement data were collected using a 24-item multiple-choice test(content validity= .85). Science attitude was measured by an instrument which adapted by Kim In Hee(1994). The instrument(Cronbach $\alpha$=.89) included 40 items in four subscales: attitude toward science, social meaning of science, attitude toward science class, and scientific attitude. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used as the data analysis procedure. For the achievement data, no significant difference exists between the cooperative and traditional groups (p> .05). But, cooperative learning was effective in low-ability students(p < .05). For the science learning attitude data, cooperative learning was more effective than the traditional one(p< .05). Students in the cooperative group acheived better than those in traditional one especially in the subscale of attitude toward science class. There was no meaningful difference of the two methods in both high and average ability students, while cooperative learning was more effective than the traditional one in low ability students(p<.05).

Determination of Target Clean-up Level and Risk-Based Remediation Strategy (위해성에 근거한 정화목표 산정 및 복원전략 수립)

  • Ryu, Hye-Rim;Han, Joon-Kyoung;Nam, Kyoung-Phile
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2007
  • Risk-based remediation strategy (RBRS) is a consistent decision-making process for the assessment and response to chemical release based on protecting human health and the environment. The decision-making process described integrates exposure and risk assessment practices with site assessment activities and remedial action selection to ensure that the chosen actions are protective of human health and the environment. The general sequences of events in Tier 1 is as follows: initial site assessment, development of conceptual site model with all exposure pathways, data collection on pollutants and receptors, and identification of risk-based screening level (RBSL). If site conditions do not meet RBSL, it needs further site-specific tier evaluation, Tier 2. In most cases, only limited number of exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, and chemicals of concern are considered the Tier 2 evaluation since many are eliminated from consideration during the Tier 1 evaluation. In spite of uncertainties due to the conservatism applied to risk calculations, limitation in site-specific data collections, and variables affecting the selection of target risk levels and exposure factors, RBRS provides us time- and cost-effectiveness of the remedial action. To ensure reliance of the results, the development team should consider land and resource use, cumulative risks, and additive effects. In addition, it is necessary to develop appropriate site assessment guideline and reliable toxicity assessment method, and to study on site-specific parameters and exposure parameters in Korea.

A Study on the Essence and Tendency of Modern Manager (현대 경영자로서의 본질과 성향 연구)

  • Yeom, Bae-Hoon;Kim, Hyunsoo
    • Journal of Service Research and Studies
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.23-42
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    • 2020
  • This study conceptualized the essence and propensity of modern management in service age, based on philosophy, and developed items to evaluate the conceptualized content. It was carried out as a new study to deepen the study of management philosophy and management theory by the new management framework. In order to establish the philosophical foundation of the modern management, the essence of the modern management was conceptualized based on the fundamental ideas of the East and West, and then an evaluation item was developed to put the essence and propensity of the modern management into practical use through analytical and empirical methods. After analyzing the representative ideas of mankind, it was derived that the Book of Change has the qualification as a philosophical model that can derive the essence of modern management. The Book of Change explains the reasoning of the world in the structure of two opposing parties, such as Taiji or Yin and Yang, and the process of acknowledging the contradictions within each opposing party and overcoming the contradictions through change is the central idea. Because you can see. After conducting a conceptual study, through empirical research, the essence and propensity of a modern manager should be conceptualized. The concept of essence and empirical study of the modern management using the leading role was conducted in two stages. First, a qualitative study using repetitive comparative analysis (CCM), focus group interview (FGI), and text mining was conducted to derive the essential and propensity conceptualization items that modern managers should possess. In addition, a quantitative study using factor analysis to develop sample items and develop measurement items through literature review and FGI was conducted to derive the essential concept of the modern management. Finally, the essence of modern management was derived: learning, preparation, challenge, inclusion, trust, morality, and sacrifice. In the future, it is necessary to conduct empirical research on the effectiveness of the essence of modern management for global and Korean representative companies.