• Title/Summary/Keyword: TDN

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Effect of Varieties and Seeding Date on Over Winter and Dry Matter Yield of Italian Ryegrass in Paddy Field (논에서 이탈리안 라이그라스 품종별 파종시기가 월동 및 건물수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Meing-Jooung;Choi, Ki-Jun;Kim, Jong-Geun;Seo, Sung;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lim, Young-Chul;Im, Seok-Ki;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Chang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Kim, Tae-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of cultivar and seeding date on the winter survival rate, quality and DM yield of Italian ryegrass on paddy field for three years in Suwon. Seeding started from 30th Sep. 2003. at intervals of five days and finished 20th Oct. New varieties of Italian ryegrass used in this experiment were "Kospeed", "Kowinmaster" and "Hwasan 101". The winter survival average rate of 5th Oct. seeding plot was 89.8% and it decreased with delayed seeding date. The heading date of "Kospeed" was 7th~13rd May, "Kowinmaster" was 16th May, but "Hwasan 101 ho" didn't show heading until 17th May. Dry matter (DM) yields of 30th Sep. seeding plot were Kospeed 7,909kg/ha, Kowinmaster 6,398 kg/ha and Hwasan 101 ho 5,204 kg/ha. DM yield was decreased with delayed seeding date. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield was also decreased with delayed seeding date. Crude protein (CP) content was the highest in Kospeed. seeding plot as 18.3% and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was not showed significant difference among seeding dates.

Study on Cropping System and Nitrogen Fertilizers of Whole Crop Barley and Leguminous Crop for Production of Good Quality Forage (양질 조사료 생산을 위한 청보리와 콩과 작물의 작부체계 및 질소 시비량에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dae-Ho;Kang, Dal-Soon;Moon, Jin-Young;Shin, Hyun-Yul;Shon, Gil-Man;Rho, Chi-Woong;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.197-210
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    • 2009
  • To improve the forage quality and reduce nitrogen input, trial was conducted on the effect of seeding method, combination, and nitrogen fertilizer with WCB (whole crop barley) and leguminous plant. Present experiment was carried out by split-split design having seeding methods for main plot, combinations for sub-plot, and nitrogen fertilizers for sub-sub plot with three replications. When WCB and leguminous plant were mixed-sown, WCB showed earlier heading and maturing than those of inter-sown, and the more nitrogen delayed growth stage a little. Occurrence of BaYMV (Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus), a serious disease caused by soil fungi and decrease barley yield, was deterred by mixed-seeding as compared to inter-sown barley a little. Inter-sown WCB increased the number of spike per $m^2$ as compared to mixed-seeding showing more spikes with nitrogen increase. WCB produced much fresh and dry matter yield at mixed-seeding than inter-seeding, and had advantage with hairy vetch (HV). Increased nitrogen showed much forage yield, however, half application of it is considerable for environmental-friendly farming. Electric conductivity (EC) decreased in inter-cropping or mixed-sowing soil with WCB and leguminous crop after harvest. But, organic matter (OM) content of soil after harvesting was vice versa. Acid detergent fiber (ADF) and Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of WCB plant were higher at mixed-seeding than those of inter-sown ones. It showed increased tendency with time progress.

A Study on Changes in Feed Digestibility and Establishment of Energy Requirement for Maintenance of Growing Hanwoo Steers under Severe Heat Stress (심각한 열스트레스에 의한 육성기 거세한우의 사료 소화율 변화 탐색 및 유지를 위한 에너지 요구량 설정 연구)

  • Cho, Yu Kyung;Choi, Seong Ho;Han, Ouk Kyu;Park, Joung Hyun;Choi, Chang Weon
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.163-172
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    • 2016
  • Four growing Hanwoo cattle weighing 200±11.7kg were used within 4×4 Latin square design to establish nutrient requirements for Hanwoo growing steers under severe heat stress. The steers were fed four different energy level diets; 100%(control), 100%(E100), 115%(E115) and 130%(E130) of energy levels of growing Hanwoo steers based on total digestible nutrient level suggested by the Korea Feeding Standard for Hanwoo using timothy hay and commercial concentrate. The steers in the control were housed with no stress, whereas the steers in the other groups were under severe heat stress. The severe heat stress significantly decreased(p<0.05) true digestibility of dry matter(i.e. control 81.5% vs E100 79.1, E115 77.0 and E130 76.0, respectively). The severe heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect blood physiological metabolites and body temperature of the growing steers. Based on changes in average daily gain by different energy intake level, the equation(Y=0.235X+115.03) of energy requirement of growing Hanwoo steers without changes in body weight was calculated, indicating that, compared with the present energy intake suggested by Korean feeding standard, 15.03% of dietary energy for maintenance of growing Hanwoo steers under severe heat stress should be increased.

Effect of the Level of Concentrates and Pasture Grazing on Growth, Feed Efficiency and Reproductive Performance in Autumn Born Hanwoo Heifers (농후사료 급여수준 및 방목이 추계분만 한우 암송아지의 성장발육, 사료이용성 및 번식능력에 미치는 효과)

  • Kang, S.W.;Im, S.K.;Jeong, J.W.;Jang , S.S.;Jeon, K.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.975-986
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    • 2003
  • Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of the level of concentrates and pasture grazing in 36 autumn born Hanwoo heifers(initial body weight, 119.7${\pm}$25.6kg) for 426d including 195d for a pasture stage. The animals were fed commercial concentrates at a rate of 0.5%(T1), 1.0%(T2), 1.5%(T3) and 2.0%(T4) of body weight, respectively, for pre- and post-pasture. 1. Mean daily gains by treatments were 0.348, 0.403, 0.450 and 0.501kg for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, indicating that increases in concentrates intake was associated with the daily gain of grazing Hanwoo heifers. However, the mean daily gain was the highest for T2 during the pasture stage. 2. TDN intakes per 1kg gain were, on average, 8.61kg for the entire experimental period and 9.22kg for the pasture stage, respectively. In addition, the rate of roughage to concentrate during the entire experimental period was 49.6 to 68.2%(mean 58.5%). 3. Age reached 225 and 250kg of body weight was, on an average, 15.1mo. and 17.6mo., respectively, indicating that increasing the level of concentrates feeding(by 0.5% of body weight) reduced the first pregnancy by 0.9 mo. Ages and body weight for first service were 19.5mo. and 272.2 kg, respectively. Mean pregnant rate of total heads was approximately 52.8%, but appeared to 66.6% for T3 and T4. Therefore, it may be concluded that the optimum level of concentrates for autumn born Hanwoo heifers is 1.8% of body weight for indoor feeding on rice straw-based diet and 1.5% of body weight for a pasture stage, respectively.

Effects of Manufacturing Methods of Broiler Litter and Bakery By-product Ration for Ruminants on Physico-chemical Properties (육계분과 제과부산물을 이용한 반추가축용 완전혼합사료(TMR) 제조 시 가공처리 방법이 물리화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwak, W.S.;Yoon, J.S.;Jung, K.K.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.593-606
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to develop effective manufacturing methods of a total mixed ration(TMR) composed of broiler litter(BL) and bakery by-product(BB) for ruminants. Five experiments included a small-scaled manufacture of TMR using a deepstacking method(Exp. 1), its pelletization(Exp. 2), its field-scaled manufacture(Exp. 3), a field-scaled manufacture using an ensiling method(Exp. 4), and a mixing process of deepstacked BL and BB prior to feeding(Exp. 5). BL and BB were mixed at a ratio which makes total digestible nutrients of the TMR 69%. For each experiment, temperature, appearance and physico-chemical properties were recorded and analyzed. The chemical composition data revealed that the mixture of BL and BB showed nutritionally additive balance which resulted from a considerable increase(P<0.05) of organic matter and a desirable decrease(P<0.05) of protein and fiber up to the requirement level for growing ‘Hanwoo’ steers. Deepstacking of BL and BB in Exp. 1 and 3 resulted in a sufficient increase of stack temperature for pasteurization, little chemical losses, appearance of white fungi on the surface, and partial charring due to excess stack temperature. For Exp. 2, its pelleting, which was successful using a simple, small-scaled pelletizer, resulted in a little loss(P<0.05) of organic matter and an increase(P<0.05) of indigestible protein(ADF-CP). Ensiling the mixture in Exp. 4 made little effect on chemical composition; however, one month of the ensiling period was not enough for favorable silage parameters. Deepstacking BL alone in Exp. 5 tended(P<0.1) to decrease true protein : NPN ratio and hemicellulose content and increase ADF-CP content due to the heat damage occurred. Deepstacking or ensiling of BL-BB mixtures and simple incorporating of BB into deepstacked BL prior to feeding could be practical and nutrients-preservative methods in TMR manufacture for beef cattle, although ensiling needed further hygienic evaluation.

Analysis on the core factors in the successful importing of ERP system in Small & Medium Enterprises - Focusing on the Cooperation Model between Industry and Education in Chung-Buk province (중소기업 ERP 시스템 도입 핵심성공요인 분석 -충북지역 산학연계 모델을 중심으로-)

  • 김범년;김영렬
    • Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.51-60
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    • 2003
  • In the radical char]go of the business environments that the existing facilities can not guarantee the business-frosts anymore, enterprises have been importing ERP system. In Korea, Sam-sung Electronics did it for the first tin in the latter half of 1994 and other enterprises succeeded. Currently, government and public enterprises as well as most of the large enterprises are employing ERP system to sharpen the competitiveness and to win the business transparency. On the other hand, it is harder for small and medium enterprises shaded by the large enterprises to be well-equipped with information system such as ERP, because they have already suffered from chronic financial difficulties and shortage of many resources. Most of all, they prefer the short-term project that does not need much tine for them to make decisions and to carry out fully. Grounded on the above factors, in this work, I suggest the suitable ERP model for the small and medium enterprises and the successful importing process of ERP, which is derived from the previous researches made by other masters' thesis. If necessary information and human resources are interchanged pertinently between local education institute and small and medium enterprise, the latter could not only deal with the confronted difficulties successfully inside and outside but attain the goal of being proficient in up-to-minute high technology. Besides, giving the students the opportunity of researching into the practice of the business they have not ever known, local universities could help their students accumulate knowledges and acquire ideas which could not be achieved in pure academic studies. When the above-mentioned procedure is over, the students might get the intellectual faculty to ponder on the future more concretely and enter a profession more carefully. In the result, we would raise up the percentage of the employment among the graduates. And active participation of university professors is the last important factor that assists the small and medium enterprises for introducing ERP system successfully. Their scholarly attainments play an important role in strengthening local economy and make the business competitiveness balanced between the capital and the local economy.

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Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Lactation Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bos sondaicus) on Grass-Legume Based Diets

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, D.;Sutardi, T.;Mahardika, IG.;Budiarta, IG.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.1681-1690
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    • 2000
  • A study on energy and protein utilization, and milk production of Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 first lactation cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) during a period of 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allotted into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, graded improved rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. R1 contained on a DM basis 70% elephant grass (PP, Penisetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 55% GS supplemented with 15% Hibiscus tilliactus leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, where R3 was not and R4 supplemented with zinc di-acetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weight were monitored throughout the experimental period. In vivo body composition by the urea space technique validated by the body density method and supported by carcass data was estimated at the start and termination of the experiment. Nutrient balance and rumen performance characteristics were measured during a balance trial of 7 days during the 3rd and 4th week of the lactation period. Results indicated that quality of ration caused improvement of ruminal total VFA concentration, increments being 52 to 65% for R2, R3 and R4 above R1, with increments of acetate being less (31 to 48%) and propionate being proportionally more in comparison to total VFA increments. Similarly, ammonia concentrations increased to 5.24 to 7.07 mM, equivalent to 7.34 to 9.90 mg $NH_3-N/100ml$ rumen fluid. Results also indicated that feed quality did not affect DE and ME intakes, and heat production (HP), but increased GE, UE, energy in milk and total retained energy (RE total) in body tissues and milk. Intake-, digestible- and catabolized-protein, and retained-protein in body tissues and milk (Rprot) were all elevated increasing the quality of ration. Similar results were obtained for milk yield and components with mean values reaching 2.085 kg/d (R4) versus 0.92 kg/d (R1) for milk yield, and 170.22 g/d (R4) vs 71.69 g/d (R1), 105.74 g/d (R4) vs 45.35 g/d (R1), 101.34 g/d (R4) vs 46.36 g/d (R1) for milk-fat, -protein, and -lactose, respectively. Relatively high yields of milk production was maintained longer for R4 as compared to the other treatment groups. There were no significant effects on body mass and components due to lactation. From the relationship $RE_{total}$ (MJ/d)=12.79-0.373 ME (MJ/d); (r=0.73), it was found that $ME_{m}=0.53MJ/kgW^{0.75}.d$. Requirement of energy to support the production of milk, ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 kg/d, follows the equation: Milk Prod. ($Q_{mp}$, kg/d)=[-2.48+4.31 ME($MJ/kg^{0.75}.d$)]; (r=0.6) or $Q_{mp}$=-3.4+[0.08($ME-RE_{body\;tissue}$)]MJ/d]; (r=0.94). The requirement for protein intake for maintenance ($IP_m$) equals $6.19 g/kg^{0.75}.d$ derived from the relationship RP=-47.4+0.12 IP; (r=0.74, n=9). Equation for protein requirement for lactation is $Q_{nl}$=[($Q_{mp}$)(% protein in milk)($I_{mp}$)]/100, where $Q_{nl}$ is g protein required for lactation, $Q_{mp}$ is daily milk yield, Bali cow's milk-protein content av. 5.04%, and $I_{mp}$ is metabolic increment for milk production ($ME_{lakt}/ME_{m}=1.46$).