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Evaluation the Feed Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Comparison of Rumen Fermentation according to Its Ratio (신규 조사료원 사료용 벼 사일리지의 사료가치 평가 및 급여 비율에 따른 반추위 발효성상 비교)

  • Park, Seol Hwa;Baek, Youl Chang;Lee, Seul;Kim, Byeong Hyeon;Ryu, Chae Hwa
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2020
  • This study was to evaluate the feed value of whole crop rice silage (WCRS) and to investigate a suitable ratio of the WCRS and concentrate by an analysis of rumen fermentation. A total of 6 treatments were used according to WCRS: concentrate ratio on in vitro rumen fermentation: T1 (100:0), T2 (60:40), T3 (40:60), T4 (20:80), T5 (10:90), and T6 (0:100). The ruminal pH, total gas emission, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) were determined as fermentation parameters. Total nutrients digestibility trial was conducted by 4 treatments according to WCRS: concentrate ratio at 40:60 (W40), 20:80 (W20), and 10:90 (W10), respectively. Feed value was analyzed according to AOAC (2019) and nutrient digestibility was calculated based on NRC (2001). The levels of crude protein (CP), crude fat, and neutral detergent fiber of the WCRS were 12.29%, 1.67%, and 59.79%, respectively. It was found to be 51.49% as a result of predicting the total digestible nutrient of WCRS using the NRC (2001) model. In vitro rumen fermentation, T4, T5, and T6 treatments showed a greater gas emission and total VFA concentration compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Acetate and acetate to propionate ratio of T4, T5, and T6 were significantly higher than other treatments (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the level of propionate and butyrate according to the WCRS: concentrate ratio (p<0.05). The digestibility of dry matter and CP was significantly lower in W40 than in other treatments (p<0.05); however, there was no difference in W20 and W10. In conclusion, the 20:80 (WCRS: concentrate) is beneficial for stabilizing the rumen that does not inhibit rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion. This ratio might have a positive effect on the economics of farms as a valuable feed.

Effects of Roughage Feeding Type during the Growing and Early-Fattening Periods on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics in Holstein Steers (육성 및 비육전기의 조사료 급여형태가 홀스타인 거세우의 성장 발육, 사료이용성 및 도체특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, S.W.;Ki, K.S.;Oh, Y.K.;Kim, K.H.;Choi, C.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.769-782
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    • 2005
  • Twenty four Holstein steers fed commercial concentrates with rice straw(T1), mixed grass hay(T2), or wet brewer’s grains based TMR ad libitum(T3) were used to investigate the effects of roughage feeding type during the growing and early-fattening periods on growth performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics. Growth performance and feed efficiency were investigated during the feeding trial conducted from 6 to 23 mo of age, and carcass characteristics were investigated after slaughter. Body weight at slaughter and daily gains were 751 to 802 kg(mean 782 kg) and 1.064 to 1.159 kg/d(mean 1.122 kg/d), respectively, showing that those for T2 were highest followed by T3. Compared with T1, the daily gain for T2 was improved by 8.9%. The TDN intakes per kg gain were 6.87, 7.17 and 7.15 kg for T1, T3 and T2, respectively, indicating that feed efficiency for T2 was improved(approx. 5%) compared with T1. The feeding treatments did not change dressing percentage(mean 60.8%), back fat thickness(6.68 mm) and rib-eye area(84.0$cm^2$). Neither meat quality characteristics nor physicochemical properties were significantly different among the treatments. However, economic analysis accounting for 882.8, 991.7 and 943.8 thousand won per head for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, indicated that T2 and T3 increased(7-12%) total net income compared with T1. Therefore, it may be concluded that high quality meat of Holstein steers can be produced if they are fattened until 23 mo of age and that feeding mixed grass hay as roughage or TMR containing mainly wet brewer's grains during the growing and early-fattening periods can improve growth performance compared with feeding rice straw.

Effect of Undegradable Dietary Protein Level and Plane of Nutrition on Lactation Performance in Crossbred Cattle

  • Kumar, M. Ravi;Tiwari, D.P.;Kumar, Anil
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.1407-1413
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    • 2005
  • An experiment was conducted in order to assess the effect of level of RDP:UDP ratio and level of feeding concentrate on milk yield, milk composition and nutrient utilization in lactating crossbred cattle. Twenty four medium producing (-10 kg/d, 45 to 135 days postpartum) lactating crossbred cows were divided into four groups of six animals each in a 2${\times}$2 factorial completely randomized design. The cows in group 1 were fed concentrate mixture I containing 59:41 RDP:UDP ratio (low UDP) at normal plane (LUDP+NP), in group 2 were fed low UDP ration at 115% of NRC (1989) requirements (LUDP+HP), whereas cows in group 3 were fed concentrate mixture II containing 52:48 RDP:UDP ratio (high UDP) at normal plane (HUDP+NP) and in group 4 were fed high UDP ration at 115% of NRC (1989) requirements (HUDP+HP). Green jowar was fed ad libitum as the sole roughage to all the animals. The experimental feeding trial lasted for 105 days. The total dry matter intake (DMI), DMI/100 kg body weight, DMI/kg $W^{0.75}$, digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE and intakes of TDN and DCP did not differ significantly among the different groups and also due to both UDP level and plane of nutrition and also due to their interaction. The total dry matter intake varied from 145 g in group 1 (LUDP +NP) to 152.57 g/kg $W^{0.75}$ in group 2 (LUDP+HP) diet. However, increase in milk yield with increased UDP level and also with increased plane of nutrition was observed consistently throughout the experimental period. The average milk yield was 7.66, 8.15, 8.64 and 9.35 kg in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively and there was no significant difference in milk yield among different groups of cows. The overall daily average milk yields in cows fed with low and high UDP diets were 7.91 and 8.99 kg, respectively and at normal and higher plane of feeding the milk yields were 8.15 and 8.75 kg/day, respectively. Thus, there was 13.65% increase in milk yield due to high UDP level and 7.36% due to higher plane of feeding. The daily 4% FCM yields were 9.20 kg for low UDP diet and 10.28 kg for high UDP diet, whereas it was 9.11 kg at normal plane of feeding and 10.37 kg at higher plane of feeding. Fat yields for the corresponding treatment groups were 0.37, 0.43, 0.41 and 0.48 kg, respectively. The 4% FCM yield and also fat yield did not differ significantly among different dietary treatments and also due to UDP level and plane of nutrition, however, 4% FCM yield was increased by 11.74% with high UDP level and 13.83% with higher plane of feeding. The values for total solids, fat, lactose, solids-not-fat and gross energy contents in milk differed significantly (p<0.05) among the different groups and were significantly (p<0.05) higher in milk of cows fed LUDP+HP diet followed by HUDP+HP diet. Total solids (14.65 and 13.83%), lactose (5.44 and 4.92%), solids-not-fat (9.44 and 8.83%) and gross energy (887 and 838 kcal/kg) of milk decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increased UDP level while total solids (13.84 and 14.64), fat (4.84 and 5.36%) and gross energy (832 and 894 kcal/kg) increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in plane of feeding. Gross and net energetic efficiencies and also gross and net efficiencies of nitrogen utilization for milk production were not significantly different among different groups and also were not affected significantly due to either UDP levels or plane of feeding. Results of the present study suggest that, increasing UDP level from 41% to 48% of CP in concentrate mixture and also increasing plane of feeding from normal (100%) to 115% of NRC requirements maintain a consistently higher milk production.

Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of the Corn Silage During Feedout at Yonchon of Gyeonggi-do (연천지역에 있어서 옥수수 사일리지의 개봉 후 경과기간에 따른 시료성분 및 발효품질)

  • Sung Kyung Il;Kim Gon Sik;Lee June Woo;Kim Byung Wan;Kim Sang Rok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to discuss the ways to consistently feed high quality corn silage(CS). This study evaluated the effect of the corn silage, after a certain time has elapsed, on the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics after feedout during the winter feeding period of the CS. Six samples of CS from four dairy farms(E1, E2, E3, and L1 ) were taken in order to feed the milking cows over a winter feeding Period from November of 2002 until February of the following year, 2003(six samples were taken at the fellowing dates in the following order: sample one was taken on the 23rd Nov. 2002, sample two on the 5th of Dec. 2002, 3rd sample on the 23rd of Dec. 2002, 4th sample on the 7th of Jan. 2003, 5th sample on the 22nd of Jan. 2003, and the 6th sampling was carried out on the 6th of Feb. 2003) at the three sampling sites after the opening of the trench silos at intervals of 15 days. In the dry matter contents of CS, there wasn't any specific tendency according to the elapsed time in the range of 21.3~$27.3\%$ at all low dairy farm(E1, E2, E3, and L1). And the average dry matter contents were 24.1, 25.9, 23.6, and $20.4\%$. Considering the Proper amount of the dry matter of CS during the ripen yellow stage, the appropriate moisture content was $33\%$ (NRC, 1989), and these dry matter contents were all low. A consistent tendency was not found in the contents of CS. The average of CP contents were 10.2, 8.0, 8.5, and $9.8\%$ at the E1, E2, E3, and L1 farms, and there were significant differences. The TDN contents of CS were not different among forms according to the time elapsed. The pH, according to the time elapsed after opening of the CS, there were no differences at each of E1, E2, E3, md L1 farms. Average pH were 3.5, 3.9, 3.6, and 4.1, md all of them were in normal range. In the lactic acid contents of CS, a consistent tendency was not found among four farms. But according to the time elapsed. there was a goat difference from 1.13~$7.8\%$ The acetate, propionate, and butyrate contents of CS were very low. In this study, there was no significant difference in the CS's chemical composition and fermentation characteristics according to the elapsed time at all four dairy farms. Considering the proper dry matter contents of CS during the ripen yellow stage, the appropriate dry matter content was $33\%$, and dry matter contents of few farms were all low. To enhance the quality of corn silage should be ensiled com at proper dry matter content range from 28 to $35\%$ Therefore, content of the corn plant should be always be closely monitored prior to beginning harvest.

Effect of Ad libitum and Restricted Milk Feeding on Growth Performance of Holstein Calves (제한 및 무제한 포유방법이 홀스타인 송아지의 성장능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Khan, M. A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.871-880
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to estimate the maximum amount and time of milk consumption by Holstein calves during two months of pre- weaning period and to compare ad libitum milk feeding with conventional system for their effects on dry feed consumption, nutrient intake, growth performance and occurrence of diarrhea during the pre-weaning phase. Holstein calves (n=20) were alternatively fed colostrum at 10% of their body weight or ad libitum for the first three days (d) and then assigned either to conventional (n=10; calves were fed milk at 10% of their body weight from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age) or ad libitum milk feeding (n=10; calves were fed ad libitum milk from birth to weaning at d 60 of their age). Milk intake as a percent of body weight was increased in ad libitum fed calves from 13.59% at d 1 to 23.50% at d 30 of their age, thereafter it was gradually reduced. Ad libitum fed calves consumed daily 9.8kg milk compared with 4.3kg milk in restricted fed calves(p<0.05). Daily starter and mixed grass hay intake was gradually increased in both groups with the age however; the group differences were noted non-significant up to 40 d of age. Overall from birth to weaning conventionally fed calves ate 18.4, 20 and 18.9% more dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients, respectively than ad libitum milk fed calves (p<0.05). Weight gain was 49, 18.4 and 26% higher in ad libitum milk fed calves than conventionally fed calves during the first month, the second month and from birth to weaning, respectively(p<0.05). Body weight was not significantly different between groups for the first 20 d of age. However, it was significantly higher for ad libitum milk fed calves at d 30, 40, 50, 60 (weaning) and 90 (post weaning) of their age(p<0.05). Similar body weights for both conventionally and ad libitum milk fed calves were observed for the post weaning period at 120, 150 and 180 d of age. Feed efficiency was significantly higher for conventionally fed calves than ad libitum milk fed calves(p<0.05). No sign of diarrhea, fever or cough was observed in calves fed either conventionally or ad libitum milk during the experimental period. In conclusion, calves fed more milk remained healthy and gained higher weight before weaning and maintained this advantage at least up to 90 d of their age.

Changes of chemical Composition According to the Ensiling Periods of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds using Rice Straw and Green Forages (청초와 볏짚을 이용한 완전배합발효사료의 저장기간에 따른 화학조성분의 변화)

  • Lee, H.J.;KIm, W.H.;Kim, H.S.;Lim, K.B.;Ahn, B.S.;Cho, K.K.;Kang, S.H.;Kang, S.K.;Lee, H.G.;Woo, J.H.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.769-782
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    • 2002
  • Three kinds of green forages(rye, oats and mixed forages) was harvested and mixed with rice straw, wheat bran and 2 grains(corn and soybean), which harvested 2 different dates(common harvesting dates, 7 days early to common harvesting dates). And each mixture was ensiled in 6 poly vinyl chlorides that was 60 liter, immediately. They were opened at 0, 5, 10, 25, 35, 60 and 100 days after ensiling for chemical analysis. And its effects of those TMFFs on feed values were observed. Average contents of water, crude protein, ADF, NDF, Ca and P of formulated TMFs were 72 to 75%, 14.75 to 18.24, 12.47 to 19.07, 39.82 to 47.01, 0.99 to 1.07 and 0.38 to respectively. Crude protein content was the highest in the mixed forages-TMFF and the lowest in the rye-TMFF. The ADF and NDF contents of rye-TMFF were higher than orthers. And CP, ADF, NDF, TDN, P and Ca contents were no significant difference among treatments regardless of storage period and harvest time, but all treatments indicated good quality. Intenal temperatures of TMFF were shown to be 1 to 5$^{\circ}C$ higher than ambient temperatures. The temperature of the Oat-TMFF formulated during winter sustained higher to the level of 6${\sim}$9$^{\circ}C$ for 10 days. The pH of TMFF were 4.0 to 4.2 and the content of $NH_3$-N was shown to be 7.79 to 8.23mg/$d{\ell}$. In the VFA contents, any tendency was not shown at all treatments depending on harvest time. Even though rye-TMFF showed the lowest VFA value. At all treatments except rye-TMFF, propionate production was increased and stable after 25 days of storage. Digestibility of rice straw from TMFF on DM basis was 15${\sim}$20% higher compared with non-treated rice straw.

Mammary Performance of First Lactation Bali Cows (Bibos banteng) Fed Grass-Legume Based Diets in Relation to the Role of Glucose

  • Sukarini, I.A.M.;Sastradipradja, Djokowoerjo;Nusada, N.;Mahardika, I.G.;Kiranadi, B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.615-623
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    • 2001
  • A study of mammary function in relation to glucose metabolism of first lactation Bali cows on grass-legume diets was carried out using 12 primiparous cows (initial BW $263.79{\pm}21.66kg$) for 16 weeks starting immediately post calving. The animals were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatment groups R1, R2, R3 and R4, receiving from the last 2 months of pregnancy onwards, rations based on a mixture of locally available grass and legume feed ad libitum. On a DM basis R1 contained 70% elephant grass (PP, Penicetum purpureum) plus 30% Gliricidia sepia leaves (GS), R2 was 30% PP plus 25% GS supplemented with 55% Hibiscus tilliacius leaves (HT, defaunating effect), R3 and R4 were 22.5% PP+41.25% GS+11.25% HT+25% concentrate, with R4 supplemented with zinc-diacetate. TDN, CP and zinc contents of the diets were 58.2%, 12.05% and 18.3 mg/kg respectively for R1, 65.05%, 16.9% and 25.6 mg/kg respectively for R2, 66.03%, 16.71% and 29.02 mg/kg respectively for R3 and 66.03%, 16.71% and 60.47 mg/kg respectively for R4. Milk production and body weights were monitored, an energy and protein balance trial conducted, overall glucose kinetics parameters assessed, mammary blood flow (MBF) and metabolite arteriovenous differences (${\Delta}AVs$) measured to get uptake data and mammary performance relationships. Parameters of glucose kinetics at peak lactation or during dry condition were not affected by ration quality. Glucose pool size, space of distribution and flux increased by 61.77, 62.26 and 82.08%, respectively, during lactation compared to the dry period. Mean glucose flux of lactating Bali cows was $5.52mg/min.kgBW^{0.807}$ which resembles the range of values of temperate dairy cows. Calculation showed that glucose requirements for maintenance, milk lactose and fat-glycerol synthesis, and the formation of NADPH reached 461.69 g for a yield of 1 kg/d or equal to 320.62 mg/min, which was less than the average glucose flux of lactating Bali cows of 481.35 mg/min. Mammary blood flow (MBF) values ranged from 56 to 83 l/h for the different treatments and the ratio MBF per kg milk produced improved from av. 1540 l/kg for R1 to av. 967 l/kg for R4 treated cows. Mammary glucose uptake ranged from 6.27 to 12.03 g/h or 120 to 140 g/kg milk. Glucose uptake was mass-wise 2 to 4 times the amount secreted as lactose, which indicated values less than the calculated mammary glucose needs and that little lactose was synthesized. The excess glucose taken-up was used for other metabolic processes. Linear relationships between metabolite ${\Delta}AVs$ and arterial blood plasma concentration [A] showed that in Bali cows triglycerides (TG), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) have high coefficients of determination, i.e. 0.77, 0.81 and 0.69, respectively. For glucose, the relationship is quadratic with an $R^2$ value of 0.49. It was concluded that lactose synthesis was inadequate, which led to a speculation that milk yield could be improved by increased lactose synthesis.

Effect of Livestock Manure Application on the Productivity of Whole Crop Rice, Feed Value and Soil Fertility (가축분뇨 시용이 총체 벼의 생산성, 사료가치 및 토양의 화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Chul;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Jung, Min-Woong;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Geun;Lee, Joung-Kyong;Seo, Sung;Park, Nam-Gun;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2007
  • The experimental work was conducted to determine the growth characteristics and yield of whole crop rice (cv. Suwon 468 and cv. Chuchungbeo) and soil properties using various type of livestock manure application on rice paddy land for 3 years ($2003{\sim}3005$). Compared Suwon 468 and Chuchungbeo, Suwon 468 has longer plant height and more DM yield than that of Chuchungbeo. Among livestock manure type, plant height was longer in order of liquid swine manure (LSM) > composted swine manure (CSM) > chemical fertilizer (CF) > composted cattle manure (CCM). Number of branch on Chuchungbeo had more than that of Suwon 468. Among livestock manure type, number of branch had more in order of LSM > CSM > CF > CCM. DM yield of whole crop rice (WCR) was affected by various types of livestock manure application and increased in order CSM > CCM = LSM. DM yield on the effects of application level of LSM was highest in LSM 75% + CF 25%. Plant diseases such as rice blast, damage by insect, smut, sheath blight occurred in LSM and CSM and there was not significantly different among application level of LSM. The nitrogen content of WCR by CSM was the highest of all treatments and the ripened ratio by CSM was in contrary order. Moreover the feed value of WCR was not significantly different among treatments. Soil pH, organic matter and total nitrogen was not different by LSM application whereas phosphorus content increased by LSM application. Cu and Zn content increased by LSM and CSM application and were not different by CCM as compared to control plots.

A Study on Changes in Feed Digestibility and Establishment of Energy Requirement for Maintenance of Growing Hanwoo Steers under Severe Heat Stress (심각한 열스트레스에 의한 육성기 거세한우의 사료 소화율 변화 탐색 및 유지를 위한 에너지 요구량 설정 연구)

  • Cho, Yu Kyung;Choi, Seong Ho;Han, Ouk Kyu;Park, Joung Hyun;Choi, Chang Weon
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.163-172
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    • 2016
  • Four growing Hanwoo cattle weighing 200±11.7kg were used within 4×4 Latin square design to establish nutrient requirements for Hanwoo growing steers under severe heat stress. The steers were fed four different energy level diets; 100%(control), 100%(E100), 115%(E115) and 130%(E130) of energy levels of growing Hanwoo steers based on total digestible nutrient level suggested by the Korea Feeding Standard for Hanwoo using timothy hay and commercial concentrate. The steers in the control were housed with no stress, whereas the steers in the other groups were under severe heat stress. The severe heat stress significantly decreased(p<0.05) true digestibility of dry matter(i.e. control 81.5% vs E100 79.1, E115 77.0 and E130 76.0, respectively). The severe heat stress and different energy intake levels did not affect blood physiological metabolites and body temperature of the growing steers. Based on changes in average daily gain by different energy intake level, the equation(Y=0.235X+115.03) of energy requirement of growing Hanwoo steers without changes in body weight was calculated, indicating that, compared with the present energy intake suggested by Korean feeding standard, 15.03% of dietary energy for maintenance of growing Hanwoo steers under severe heat stress should be increased.

Effect of Varieties and Seeding Date on Over Winter and Dry Matter Yield of Italian Ryegrass in Paddy Field (논에서 이탈리안 라이그라스 품종별 파종시기가 월동 및 건물수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Meing-Jooung;Choi, Ki-Jun;Kim, Jong-Geun;Seo, Sung;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Lim, Young-Chul;Im, Seok-Ki;Kwon, Eung-Gi;Chang, Sun-Sik;Kim, Hyeong-Cheol;Kim, Tae-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2009
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of cultivar and seeding date on the winter survival rate, quality and DM yield of Italian ryegrass on paddy field for three years in Suwon. Seeding started from 30th Sep. 2003. at intervals of five days and finished 20th Oct. New varieties of Italian ryegrass used in this experiment were "Kospeed", "Kowinmaster" and "Hwasan 101". The winter survival average rate of 5th Oct. seeding plot was 89.8% and it decreased with delayed seeding date. The heading date of "Kospeed" was 7th~13rd May, "Kowinmaster" was 16th May, but "Hwasan 101 ho" didn't show heading until 17th May. Dry matter (DM) yields of 30th Sep. seeding plot were Kospeed 7,909kg/ha, Kowinmaster 6,398 kg/ha and Hwasan 101 ho 5,204 kg/ha. DM yield was decreased with delayed seeding date. Total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield was also decreased with delayed seeding date. Crude protein (CP) content was the highest in Kospeed. seeding plot as 18.3% and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) was not showed significant difference among seeding dates.