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Effect of Sowing Dates, Fertilizer Levels and Clipping Treatment on Forage Production and Quality of Barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye(Secale cereale L.) in Paddy field (답리작 대맥.호맥의 파종기.시비량 및 예취방법이 청예수량과 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 최영원;이호진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 1985
  • Field experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of sowing dates, ferrilizer levels and clipping treatment of forage production and quality of barley and rye in paddy field. The field emergence rates in barley varieties was decreased rapidly at sowing after November. But in rye varieties, it was not decreased even in sowing until Nov. 3. Winter survival of barley and rye varieties were not affected by fertilizer levels. And winter survival decreased with delay in sowing dates in barley varieties, but, it was not influenced by sowing dates in rye varieties. The production of forage dry matter at heading stage was increased with fertilizer levels, and was decreased with delay in sowing dates. Content of crude protein and crude fat of dry forage at heading stage were increased with fertilizer levels. But, content of crude ash, crude fiber and TDN were not influenced by fertilizer levels. As increased fertilizer levels, NFE Content was decreased and TDN yield was increased with fertilizer levels. In comparisons of TDN yield between barley and rye varieties, TDN yield of rye were superior to those of barley. Clipping twice produced more forage yield than clipping once in both crops. However, optimum clipping interval was about 40 days between first and second clipping in rye but not determined in barley. The l2cm clipping height was the highest production in average total yield.

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Growth Characteristic and Productivity of Forage Corn Varieties Sown at the Last Ten Days of May in Central Region of Korea (중부지역에서 5월 하순 파종한 사료용 옥수수의 품종별 생육특성과 조사료 생산성)

  • Choi, Gi Jun;Jung, Jeong Sung;Choi, Ki Choon;Hwang, Tae Young;Kim, Ji Hye;Kim, Won Ho;Lee, Eun Ja;Sung, Kyung Il;Lee, Ki-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2019
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the characteristic and productivity of forage corn varieties sown at the last ten days of May at Cheonan of Korea on 2017 and 2018. Forage corn varieties sown on 24th May 2017 and $25^{th}$ May 2018 were emerged in 5th and 1st June, respectively. Silking date of forage corns was different among varieties(p<0.05). Stem length of forage corns was not different among the varieties, except Kwangpyeongok(KPA) and Nero IT. Stem diameter of forage corns was not different amaong the varieties. Outbreak rate of black streaked dwarf virus was lower than 3% in all varieties. Total digestible nutrient(TDN) yield was different among corn varieties(p<0.05), which was higher in P32P75, followed by P2088, P31N27, and KPA. The TDN yield of varieties had direct correlation with stem length, stem diameter and ear yield, respectively(p<0.01). Average of TDN in all varieties was 69.8%. These results suggested that forage corn variety with late-seeding adaptability is more important for increasing the productivity of forage corn If harvesting of winter forage crops have to be finished in the middle ten days of May in middle region of Korea.

Effect of Seeding Date on Forage Yield and Chemical Composition of Kenaf in Jeju (제주지역에서 파종기에 따른 양마의 사료수량 및 조성분 변화)

  • 조남기;송창길;조영일;고지병
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.439-442
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    • 2001
  • This study has been conducted from April 25, 1999 to June 25, 1999 in Jeju Province in order to determine the influence of seeding date on growth, yield and chemical composition of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Delaying the seeding date from April 25 to June 25 decreased the plant height of Kenaf from 278.5 cm to 205.7 cm. As for the number of leaves, number of withering leaves, number of branches, and stem diameter decreased as the seeding date was delayed. As the seeding date was delayed, fresh forage yield decreased from 98.5MT/㏊ to 45.9MT/㏊, dry matter yield from 20.7MT/㏊ to 8.2MT/㏊, crude protein (CP) yield from 2.9MT/ha to 1.3MT/ha and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield form 1l.6MT/㏊ to 5MT/㏊. However, both leaf yield and stem yield were nearly the same tendency. Delaying the seeding date from April 25 to June 25 increased crude protein contents of leaves from 21.5% to 24.4%, crude fat contents from 5.2% to 6.1%, nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents form 39.9% to 41.2% and TDN contents from 64.3% to 69.7%. However, delaying seeding date decreased crude fiber contents from 20.8% to 17.5%, and crude ash contents from 7.9% to 7.0%. Based on the these findings, optimum seeding date for forage production of Kenaf seems to be about 25 April in atmospheric phenomena and volcanic ash soils of Jeju island.

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Analysis of Dry Matter Yield and Feed Value for Selecting of Whole Crop Rice (최적 총체사료벼 품종 선발을 위한 건물수량 및 사료가치 분석)

  • Lee, Jeom-Ho;Jeong, O.Y.;Paek, J.S.;Hong, H.C.;Yang, S.J.;Lee, Y.T.;Kim, J.G.;Sung, K.I.;Kim, B.W.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.355-362
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to obtain basic information on variety selection for the utilization of whole crop rices(WCR) at National Institute of Crop Science, RDA, in 2004. Fifteen varieties and elite line were evaluated on feed value such as dry matter yield(DMY), crude protein( CP), acid detergent fiber(ADF), neutral detergent fiber(NDF) and total digestible nutrients(TDN). The dry matter yields were ranged from 13.23 to 17.83 ton per ha, the highest yielding varieties were Sobibyeo(l6.98ton / ha) in Japonica type, SR22060 (17.83 ton / ha) in New plant type, Hangangchalbyeo(I7.66 ton / ha) in Tongil type. Suweon 468 showed the highest value in the RFV and TDN content among the varieties, and Suweon 468, Suweon 498, Suweon 490 and SR22058 were chosen to have the high feed values through cluster analysis. The dry weight(grain) was found to be positively related with percent of the ripened grain, 1,000 grain weight and CPo TDN content was found to be positively related with CP, but negatively related with NDF and ADF. RFV was found to be negatively related with plant height, NDF and ADF. The promising rice varieties for WCR were Suweon 468, Suweon 498, Suweon 490 and SR22058 on the basis of CP, TDN and DMY.

Effect of Planting Date and Plant Density on Yield and Quality of Soybean Forage in Jeju

  • Kang, Young-Kil;Kim, Hyun-Tae;Cho, Nam-Ki;Kim, Yeong-Chan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.95-99
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    • 2001
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is known to produce the highest total digestible mutrients (TDN) yield among summer grain legumes in Jeju area but little is known about the effects of cultural practices on forage yield and quality. A determinate soybean cv. Baegunkong was planted on 5 June, 20 June, and 3 July and grown at four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants $m^{-2}$ in 1998 in Jeju to evaluate the effects of planting date and plant density on the yield and quality of soybean forage. Days to flowering decreased from 47 to 38 days, average plant height from 61 to 51cm and main stem diameter from 6.31 to 5.00mm as planting was delayed from 5 June to 3 July. Average plant height quadratically increased from 45 to 62cm as plant density increased from 30 to 90 plants $m^{-2}$. Planting date did not affect the average dry matter, crude protein, and TDN yields. The average dry matter and TDN yields displayed a quadratic response to plant density and the optimum plant density for both dry matter and TDN yields was estimated about 60 plants $m^{-2}$. Plant density had no effect on crude protein yield. Planting date did not significantly influence forage quality. The crude protein content was not significantly influenced by plant density. Increasing plant density slightly increased acid detergent fiber content but slightly decreased TDN content.

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EFFECT OF STANDING AND LYING BEHAVIORS ON HEAT PRODUCTION OF DAIRY HEIFERS DIFFERING IN FEED INTAKE LEVELS

  • Purwanto, B.P.;Matsumoto, T.;Nakamasu, F.;Ito, T.;Yamamoto, Sadaki
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.271-274
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    • 1993
  • Four Holstein heifers were used in the present study to investigate the effect of standing and lying behaviors on heat production and physiological responses under low (L), medium (M) and high (H) levels of TDN intake. Rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), heat production (HP) and animals behavior (standing time, ST) were measured continuously for 5h (11:00-16:00) periods. There was a tendency for increased RT with TDN intake, and no difference in RT was observed between standing and lying. The RR, HR and HP during standing were significantly higher (p<0.05) than during lying. The difference between standing and lying HP were 4.41, 4.68 and $5.37kJ/kg^{0.75}$ h for L, M and H of TDN intake, respectively. These values showed that standing HP was 18.6-20.9% higher than lying HP. A multiple regression analysis of HP ($kJ/kg^{0.75}$ h) on TDN intake ($g/kg^{0.75}$ d) and ST (min/h) was HP = 7.75 + 0.28 TDN intake + 0.12 ST (R = 0.84). This analysis showed that the total HP not only depend on feed intake levels, but also depends on animal behavior. It was suggested that the change in HP due to the change in feed intake and animal behavior would influence the level of heat loss which was indicated by the changes in the RR and HR.

Genetic Parameters for Traits in Performance and Progeny Tests and Their Genetic Relationships in Japanese Black Cattle

  • Oikawa, T.;Hoque, M.A.;Hitomi, T.;Suzuki, K.;Uchida, H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.611-616
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    • 2006
  • Genetic parameters for performance traits on 409 bulls and growth and carcass traits on 591 of their steer progeny were estimated in Japanese Black cattle with Gibbs sampling. Traits of bulls included body weight at the start (BWS) and finish (BWF) of test, daily gain (DG), concentrate, roughage and TDN intake, and TDN conversion ratio. Progeny traits were BWS, BWF, DG, rib eye area, marbling score (MSR), dressing percentage and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT). In bulls, heritabilities were high for BWS (0.50) and BWF (0.63) and moderate for concentrate (0.48) and TDN intake (0.45), while in progeny, the heritability for all the studied traits was moderate to high (ranging from 0.30 to 0.73), highlighting the potential for genetic improvement of these traits. Genetic correlations between TDN intake and growth traits (BWS, BWF and DG) in bulls were highly positive (ranging from 0.77 to 0.94). The weak but negative genetic correlation (-0.20) between MSR and SFT in progeny indicated that improvement of beef marbling without increasing subcutaneous fat deposition could be possible. The estimated genetic correlations of roughage intake of bulls with body weights (BWS and BWF) and MSR of their progeny were moderate (ranging from 0.35 to 0.52). On the basis of the selection for bulls, growth traits and TDN intake correlated positively with SFT (ranging from 0.43 to 0.53) of their progeny, suggesting the necessity of controlling the increase of SFT in selection programs.

Effects of Applying Livestock Manure on Productivity and Feed Value of Corn and Sorghum$\times$Sorghum Hybrid (가축분뇨시용이 옥수수와 수수$\times$수수교잡종의 생산성 및 사료가치에 미치는 영향)

  • Jo, Ik-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.115-125
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to determine adequate forage crop choice and optimal level of livestock manure, when different types and levels of the livestock manure were applied in corns or sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrids for the production of organic roughages by utilizing livestock manure. For the corn, yields of annual dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were highest in N+P+K-applied treatments, showing 17.3 and 11.7 ton/ha, respectively. Treatments applied 100% composted cattle manure (8.9 and 6.1 ton/ha) and 100% cattle slurry (9.4 and 7.5 ton/ ha) in contrast with chemical fertilizer-N had higher yields of DM and TDN than no fertilizer (4.8 and 2.7 ton/ha) and P+K-applied treatments (8.8 and 6.0 ton/ha). Particularly, treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry were markedly higher, which represented 11.4 and 7.6 ton/ha and 10.3 and 7.3 ton/ha, respectively. Crude protein (CP) contents for corns applied livestock manure ranged from 5.6 to 6.6%, which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of no fertilizer (3.9%) and P+K-applied treatments (5.5%). ADF (42.4%) and NDF (58.3%) contents for no fertilizer treatment were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other treatments. However, TDN contents were higher for livestock manure treatments than for no and/or chemical fertilizer treatments. In particular, TDN contents of treatments applied 150% composted cattle manure and 150% cattle slurry showed 72.3 and 70.8%, respectively and both treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than all of the other treatments. For the sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrid, yields of annual DM and TDN for 100% (12.4 and 7.4 ton/ha) and 150% (13.1 and 7.6 ton/ha) cattle slurry-applied treatments, and N+P+K-applied treatments (12.6 and 7.7 ton/ha) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the others. In the others, 150% composted cattle manure (9.3 and 5.2 ton/ha) had higher annual DM and TDN yields than P+K-applied (8.4 and 4.8 ton/ha) and 100% composted cattle manure treatments (7.4 and 4.2 ton/ha), with no significant difference. Crude protein contents for sorghum$\times$sorghum hybrid applied P+K and cattle slurry were 8.8 and 8.6%, respectively. CP contents for both treatments were significantly higher than those of composted manure ($7.5{\sim}8.3%$) and no fertilizer (4.0%) treatments, but 100% livestock manure treatments had higher CP contents than 150%-applied treatments. ADF and NDF contents for N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments were significantly (p<0.05) lower than the others. However, TDN contents were highest in N+P+K and cattle slurry-applied treatments, showing 61.2 and 58.3 to 59.4%, respectively. These results indicated that application of livestock manure instead of chemical fertilizer to the soil of forage crops might not only improve yields of DM and TDN, but also reduce environmental pollution by producing organic roughages through recycling of livestock manure.

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Productivity of Early Maturity Silage Corns during Continuous Monocropping (조생종 사료용 옥수수 품종의 2기작 재배 시 생산성)

  • Son, Beom-Young;Bae, Hwan Hee;Go, Young Sam;Kim, Sun-Lim;Shin, Seong Hyu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.416-425
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    • 2020
  • This study evaluated the productivity of early maturity silage corns during continuous monocropping and the possibility of expanding forage production. Continuous monocropping of three silage corns, such as Kwangpyeongok (medium maturity), Sinhwangok (early maturity), and Sinhwangok2 (early maturity) was planted twice, in April and July from 2018 to 2019 at Suwon. The number of days from the sowing date to the silking date was 78 for the preceding crop and 52 for the succeeding crop. The number of days from the silking date to the harvesting date was 26 for the preceding crop and 46 for the succeeding crop. The sums of the temperature from the sowing date to the silking date were 1,512℃ for the preceding crop, 1,246℃ for the succeeding crop. The sums of the temperature from the sowing date to the harvesting date were 2,198℃ for the preceding crop and 1,951℃ for the succeeding crop. The dry matter yield of the preceding crop (1,637 kg/10a) was similar to that of the succeeding crop (1,565 kg/10a). The dry matter yields of Sinhwangok2 (1,673 kg/10a), Sinhwangok (1,660 kg/10a) and Kwangpyeongok (1,579 kg/10a) were similar to those of the preceding crop. The dry matter yields of Sinhwangok (1,669 kg/10a) and Kwangpyeongok (1,651 kg/10a) were similar to those of the succeeding crop and Sinhwangok2 (1,374 kg/10a) was the lowest among the three corn varieties. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) yield of the preceding crop (1,135 kg/10a) was similar to that of the succeeding crop (1,037 kg/10a). The TDN yields of Sinhwangok2 (1,183 kg/10a), Sinhwangok (1,158 kg/10a), and Kwangpyeongok (1,063 kg/10a) were similar to those of the preceding crop. The TDN yields of Sinhwangok (1,150 kg/10a) and Kwangpyeongok (1,100 kg/10a) were similar for the succeeding crop and Sinhwangok2 (970 kg/10a) was the lowest among the three corn varieties. The total dry matter yields of Sinhwangok (3,329 kg/10a) and Kwangpyeongok (3,230 kg/10a) were similar, but Sinhwangok2 (3,047 kg/10a) was the lowest among the three corn varieties. The total TDN yields of Sinhwangok (2,307 kg/10a), Kwangpyeongok (2,162 kg/10a), and Sinhwangok2 (2,152 kg/10a) were similar. It was concluded that Sinhwangok and Sinhwangok2 have high TDN yields as well as early maturity, and therefore are advantageous for direct continuous monocropping.

Effects of Level of CP and TDN in the Concentrate Supplement on Growth Performances and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers during Final Fattening Period (한우거세우 비육후기 배합사료의 적정 조단백질 및 에너지함량 규명에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Joon;Seong, Nak-Il;Hwang, Il-Ki;Lee, Sun-Bok;Yu, Myung-Sang;Nam, In-Sik;Lee, Myong-Il
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2010
  • Seventy two Hanwoo steers in final fattening period ($585.87{\pm}41.02kg$) were randomly assigned to 3 groups, LPLT (relatively low protein and low energy; CP 12%, TDN 73%), LPHT (relatively low protein and high energy; CP 12%, TDN 75%) and HPHT (relatively high protein and high energy; CP 14%, TDN 75%) in concentrate feed for 163 days in order to investigate the effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and longissimus dorsi muscle's chemical compositions. Rice straw was also fed as a roughage. Because ADGs were higher in LPLT and HPHT than LPHT, feed efficiencies were improved in LPLT and HPHT group (P<0.05). Feeding concentrates with different CP and TDN levels had affected to improve back fat thickness and rib eye area in HPHT group but had no effect on carcass weight and meat yield index. Carcass weight for LPLT, LPHT and HPHT were $420.75{\pm}30.56$, $417.05{\pm}32.03$ and $418.32{\pm}32.03kg$, respectively. Meat quality grade was improved in HPHT (P<0.001), because the marbling score was highest in HPHT group. Auction prices (carcass/kg) of LPLT, LPHT and HPHT group were 17,904 won, 18,094 won and 18,899 won, respectively. The percentage of animals over grade 1 appeared in LPLT, LPHT and HPHT were 79.2, 72.7 and 90.8%, respectively. The results of chemical analysis of longissimus dorsi muscle showed no difference between groups but crude fat composition tended to be higher in HPHT group (P=0.088) than the other groups. Stearic acid contents in the muscle was significantly increased in HPHT group than LPLT group (P<0.05). Myristoleic acid and oleic acid composition in HPHT group was higher than LPLT and LPHT group. These results supported the hypothesis that supplementation of higher levels of crude protein and energy in concentrates to Hanwoo steers' during final fattening period improved the growth performance and the carcass quality grade.