• Title, Summary, Keyword: T-N

Search Result 10,727, Processing Time 0.072 seconds

The Result of Radiotherapy in Glottic Cancer (성문암의 방사선치료)

  • Cho, Moon-June;Kim, Il-Han;Park, Charn-Il
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.131-136
    • /
    • 1985
  • A retrospective analysis of 29 patients with glottic cancer, treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. $97\%$ of the patients was male. Of the 29 patients, stage $T_1N_0M_0$ comprised $31\%$, $T_2N_0M_0\;52\%$, and stage $T_3N_0M_0\;14\%$. Local control rate with radical readiotherapy was $78\%$ for stage $T_1N_0M_0,\;60\%$, for stage $T_2N_0M_0$, and $50\%$ for stage $T_3N_0M_),\;57\%$ of the patients with the radiation failure was salvaged by surgery. The overall 3 year survival rate was $89\%$ for the $T_1N_0M_0,\;80\%$ for stage $T_2N_0M_0$, and $50\%$ for stage $T_3N_0M_0$. Among the survivors: $88\%$ of $T_1N_0M_0\;75\%$ of $T_2N_0M_0,\;and\;50\%$ $T_3N_0M_0$ had an intact larynx and natural voice. It is concluded that radiotherapy is a highly effective method as the primary treatment of the early glottic cancer, emphasized on preserving of the larynx and natural voice.

  • PDF

Comparative Analysis of Three Subgroups in Stage II Stomach Cancer (제2기 위암에서 3 Subgroup간의 비교 분석)

  • Suh Byung Sun;Kim Byung Sik;Kim Yong Ho;Yook Jung-Whan;Oh Sung-Tae;Kim Wan-Soo;Park Kun-Choon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.32-37
    • /
    • 2001
  • Purpose: Three subgroups of stage II stomach cancer (T1N2M0, T2N1M0, T3N0M0) by UICC-TNM staging system show obvious survival difference to each other, which becomes the pitfall of the current staging system. We analyzed the survival and relapse pattern of stage II stomach cancer patients in three subgroups retrospectively to prove the need for change in staging system. Materials and Methods: From July 1989 to December 1995, curative gastric resection was performed in 1,037 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, and among them 268 patients ($26\%$) were in stage II. The number in each of subgroups (T1N2M0, T2N1M0, and T3N0M0) were 17, 139 and 112 respectively. Survival and relapse pattern were analyzed and median follow up period was 46 months. Results: The 3-year cumulative survival rates of T1N2M0, T2N1M0, and T3N0M0 were $50\%,\;80\%,\;and\;76\%$ respectively (p=0.001). And the 3-year cumulative survival rates of T1N2M0 was comparable to those of 2 subgroups of stage IIIa (T2N2M0, T3N1M0), $47\%\;and\;45\%$ (p>0.05). Peritoneal recurrence was the most frequent in T3N0M0. And hematogenous spread was more frequent in T2N1M0 while nodal spread was more frequent in T1N2M0. Ten out of 17 cases of T1N2M0 died of recurrence. Most of them showed submucosal tumor with depressed lesion and mean tumor size was 3.3 cm. Conclusions: Up-staging of T1N2M0 should be considered because it has the lowest survival rate and the worst prognosis among the three subgroups of Stage II stomach cancer patients. In early gastric cancer patients with high-risk factors (large tumor size, invasion into the submucosal layer, and lymphatic vessel involvement), lymph node dissection and postoperative adjuvant therapy is recommended in an attempt to prevent recurrence in the form of lymph node metastasis.

  • PDF

Specific Effects on Monocular OKN Directional Asymmetry of Unilateral Microinjections of GABA Antagonist into the Mesencephalic Structures in the Chicken (OKN을 유발하는 단축 Mesencephalic 구조에 GABA Antagonist를 미량 주입할 때의 닭의 OKN 방향적 불균형성에 관한 특수효과)

  • 김명순
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
    • /
    • v.39 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-11
    • /
    • 1996
  • The SR 95531, a GABA antagonist was microinjected into either the pretectum nuclei (nucleus Superficialis Synencephali nSS) or the nBOR (nucleus Ectomammilaris nEM) of chickens. Monocular optokinetic nystagmus (01(N) was reorded by the search coil technique before and after unilateral intracerebral drug administration. Unilateral microinjections of SR 95531 into either the nSS or nEM induce a reversible increase of gain in OKN directed by contralateral eye for both directions of stimulation. The administration into the nSS increased directional asymmetry by increasing the T~ component velocity gain more strongly than the N-T component velocity gain. On the other hand, the unilateral administration of the drug into the nEM suppressed the diretional O1(N asymmetry by increasing the N-T component velocity gain more strongly than the T-N component velocity gain. The nSS seems especially involved in monocular OKN in response to a T-N stimulation, while the nEM seems more involved in the OKN response to N-T stimulation. These results indicate that the drug suppresses GABAergic inhibition at the mesencephalic level. The increase in gain of OKN directed by the ipsilateral eye to microinjeded nuclei could account for the strong interactions existing between these two mesencephalic structures responsible for horizontal OKN.

  • PDF

A GENERALIZED SIMPLE FORMULA FOR EVALUATING RADON-NIKODYM DERIVATIVES OVER PATHS

  • Cho, Dong Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.58 no.3
    • /
    • pp.609-631
    • /
    • 2021
  • Let C[0, T] denote a generalized analogue of Wiener space, the space of real-valued continuous functions on the interval [0, T]. Define $Z_{\vec{e},n}$ : C[0, T] → ℝn+1 by $$Z_{\vec{e},n}(x)=\(x(0),\;{\int}_0^T\;e_1(t)dx(t),{\cdots},\;{\int}_0^T\;e_n(t)dx(t)\)$$, where e1,…, en are of bounded variations on [0, T]. In this paper we derive a simple evaluation formula for Radon-Nikodym derivatives similar to the conditional expectations of functions on C[0, T] with the conditioning function $Z_{\vec{e},n}$ which has an initial weight and a kind of drift. As applications of the formula, we evaluate the Radon-Nikodym derivatives of various functions on C[0, T] which are of interested in Feynman integration theory and quantum mechanics. This work generalizes and simplifies the existing results, that is, the simple formulas with the conditioning functions related to the partitions of time interval [0, T].

Continuously initial observability for the fuzzy system (퍼지 시스템에 대한 관측가능성)

  • 강점란;권영철;박종서
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.168-171
    • /
    • 2000
  • This paper is concerned with fuzzy number whose values are normal, convex, upper semicontinuous and compactly supported interval in E$\_$N/ We study continuously initial observability for the following fuzzy system. x(t)=a(t)x(t)+f(t,x(t)), x(0)=x$\_$0/, y(t)=$\_$${\alpha}$/∏(x(t)), where a: [0, T]\longrightarrowE$\_$N/ is fuzzy coefficient, initial value x$\_$0/$\in$E$\_$N/ and nonlinear funtion f: [0, T]${\times}$E$\_$N/\longrightarrowE$\_$N/ satisfies a Lipschitz condition. Given fuzzy mapping ∏: C([0, T]: E$\_$N/)\longrightarrowY and Y is an another E$\_$N/.

  • PDF

SYMBOLIC DYNAMICS AND UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION MODULO 2

  • Choe, Geon H.
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.881-889
    • /
    • 1994
  • Let ($X, \Beta, \mu$) be a measure space with the $\sigma$-algebra $\Beta$ and the probability measure $\mu$. Throughouth this article set equalities and inclusions are understood as being so modulo measure zero sets. A transformation T defined on a probability space X is said to be measure preserving if $\mu(T^{-1}E) = \mu(E)$ for $E \in B$. It is said to be ergodic if $\mu(E) = 0$ or i whenever $T^{-1}E = E$ for $E \in B$. Consider the sequence ${x, Tx, T^2x,...}$ for $x \in X$. One may ask the following questions: What is the relative frequency of the points $T^nx$ which visit the set E\ulcorner Birkhoff Ergodic Theorem states that for an ergodic transformation T the time average $lim_{n \to \infty}(1/N)\sum^{N-1}_{n=0}{f(T^nx)}$ equals for almost every x the space average $(1/\mu(X)) \int_X f(x)d\mu(x)$. In the special case when f is the characteristic function $\chi E$ of a set E and T is ergodic we have the following formula for the frequency of visits of T-iterates to E : $$ lim_{N \to \infty} \frac{$\mid${n : T^n x \in E, 0 \leq n $\mid$}{N} = \mu(E) $$ for almost all $x \in X$ where $$\mid$\cdot$\mid$$ denotes cardinality of a set. For the details, see [8], [10].

  • PDF

ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF HIGHER ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH DEVIATING ARGUMENT

  • Yang, Yitao;Meng, Fanwei
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
    • /
    • v.28 no.1_2
    • /
    • pp.333-343
    • /
    • 2010
  • The asymptotic behavior of solutions of higher order differential equations with deviating argument $$(py^{(n-1)}(t))'\;+\;\sum\limits_{i=1}^{n-1}ci(t)y^{(i-1)}(t)\;=\;f\[t,\;y(t),\;y'(t),\;{\ldots},\;y^{(n-1)}(t),\;y(\phi(t)),\;y'(\phi(t)),\;{\ldots},\;y^{(n-1)}\;(\phi(t))\]\;\;\;\;(1)$$ $t\;{\in}\;[0,\;\infty)$ is studied. Our technique depends on an integral inequality containing a deviating argument. From this we obtain some sufficient conditions under which all solutions of Eq.(1) have some asymptotic behavior.

NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOME NONLINEAR STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

  • El-Borai, Mahmoud M.;El-Nadi, Khairia El-Said;Mostafa, Osama L.;Ahmed, Hamdy M.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-90
    • /
    • 2005
  • In this paper we study the numerical solutions of the stochastic differential equations of the form $$du(x,\;t)=f(x,\;t,\;u)dt\;+\;g(x,\;t,\;u)dW(t)\;+\;\sum\limits_{|q|\leq2m}\;A_q(x,\;t)D^qu(x,\;t)dt$$ where $0\;{\leq}\;t\;{\leq}\;T,\;x\;{\in}\;R^{\nu}$, ($R^{nu}$ is the $\nu$-dimensional Euclidean space). Here $u\;{\in}\;R^n$, W(t) is an n-dimensional Brownian motion, $$f\;:\;R^{n+\nu+1}\;{\rightarrow}\;R^n,\;g\;:\;R^{n+\nu+1}\;{\rightarrow}\;R^{n{\times}n},$$, and $$A_q\;:\;R^{\nu}\;{\times}\;[0,\;T]\;{\rightarrow}\;R^{n{\times}n}$$ where ($A_q,\;|\;q\;|{\leq}\;2m$) is a family of square matrices whose elements are sufficiently smooth functions on $R^{\nu}\;{\times}\;[0,\;T]\;and\;D^q\;=\;D^{q_1}_1_{\ldots}_{\ldots}D^{q_{\nu}}_{\nu},\;D_i\;=\;{\frac{\partial}{\partial_{x_i}}}$.

  • PDF

Preparation and Characterization of the L-prolino Co(III) Complexes with the Tetradentate $N_2O_2$-type Ligands

  • Jin-Seung Jung;Cheal Kim;Moo-Jin Jun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.11 no.3
    • /
    • pp.235-238
    • /
    • 1990
  • Complexes of the type[Co(T)(L-pro)], where T is the quadridentate $N_2O_2$-type ligand, N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetate or N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine-N,N'-di-$\alpha$-butyrate, have been prepared. The complexes were separated into the two stereoisomers, $\Delta$-s-cis-[Co(T)(L-pro)] and $\Lambda$-s-cis-[Co(T)(L-pro)]. They were characterized by their proton magnetic resonance, absorption and circular dichroism spectra, elemental analyses.

  • PDF

WEAK AND STRONG CONVERGENCE FOR QUASI-NONEXPANSIVE MAPPINGS IN BANACH SPACES

  • Kim, Gang-Eun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
    • /
    • v.49 no.4
    • /
    • pp.799-813
    • /
    • 2012
  • In this paper, we first show that the iteration {$x_n$} defined by $x_{n+1}=P((1-{\alpha}_n)x_n +{\alpha}_nTP[{\beta}_nTx_n+(1-{\beta}_n)x_n])$ converges strongly to some fixed point of T when E is a real uniformly convex Banach space and T is a quasi-nonexpansive non-self mapping satisfying Condition A, which generalizes the result due to Shahzad [11]. Next, we show the strong convergence of the Mann iteration process with errors when E is a real uniformly convex Banach space and T is a quasi-nonexpansive self-mapping satisfying Condition A, which generalizes the result due to Senter-Dotson [10]. Finally, we show that the iteration {$x_n$} defined by $x_{n+1}={\alpha}_nSx_n+{\beta}_nT[{\alpha}^{\prime}_nSx_n+{\beta}^{\prime}_nTx_n+{\gamma}^{\prime}_n{\upsilon}_n]+{\gamma}_nu_n$ converges strongly to a common fixed point of T and S when E is a real uniformly convex Banach space and T, S are two quasi-nonexpansive self-mappings satisfying Condition D, which generalizes the result due to Ghosh-Debnath [3].