• Title, Summary, Keyword: Synthesis

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Changes in Protein Synthesis Induced by Chilling in Tomato Chloroplasts

  • Kim, Won-Il;Jung, Goo-Bok;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Park, Kwang-Lai;Yun, Sun-Gang
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2001
  • To find out the effect of low temperature on the regulation of tomato chloroplast genes, the optimization of the system in chloroplast protein synthesis and the identification of the changes in chloroplast protein synthesis induced by chilling were studied. Incorporation reaction occurred rapidly at the first 30 minutes and was constantly maintained after 60 minutes. A broad optimal temperature on protein synthesis was found around 20 to $30^{\circ}C$. No difference was shown in the chloroplast protein synthesis under high light intensity (1600 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) as well as under low light intensity (400 ${\mu}E/m^2/s$) even darkness. $K^+$, $Mg^{++}$ and ATP at an optimal concentration act as an activator, while DTT, chloramphenicol, cycloheximide, $Ca^{++}$ and inorganic phosphate act as an inhibitor in the chloroplast protein synthesis. Synthesis of 15, 55 and 60 kd chloroplast encoded stromal proteins and 18, 24, 33 and 55 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane proteins were reduced by chilling, while 17 kd chloroplast encoded stromal protein and 16 kd chloroplast encoded thylakoid membrane protein was induced by chilling. It was expected that the 55 kd stromal protein would be the large subunit of rubisco and the 33 kd thylakoid membrane protein would be the D1 protein which was drastically reduced by chilling.

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Application of Substructure Synthesis Method for Analysis of Acoustic System (음향계의 해석을 위한 부분구조합성법의 적용)

  • 오재응;고상철;조용구
    • Journal of KSNVE
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.737-746
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    • 1997
  • The substructure synthesis method is used for making it easy to analyze vibration systems generally in vibration field. In the past, this method has been to be used mainly because of shortage of computer memory and CPU time. But recently this method is used for analyzing complex structure or identifying the characteristics of systems precisely. The purpose of this study is to develop acoustic substructure synthesis method that can be applied to acoustic modal analysis of complex acoustic systems. Acoustic modal analysis method to be introduced here is a method that analyze acoustic natural mode shape of the complex acoustic system by the principle of CMS(component mode synthesis method). This paper describes the acoustic modal analysis of the acoustic finite element model of simple expansion pipe by acoustic substructure synthesis method. The resutls of acoustic modal analysis analyzed by Acoustic substructure synthesis method and the results by FEM(finite element method) shows good agreement.

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New Tactics for Stereospecificity in Metallocene-based Olefin Polymerization

  • Kim, Seong-Kyun;Park, Sung-Jin;Kim, Hwa-Kyu;Yoon, Seung-Woong;Lee, Jun-Seong;Park, Myung-Hwan;Do, Young-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.221-221
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    • 2006
  • The stereochemical control in polypropylenes and styrene-ethylene copolymers based on homogeneous single-site polymerization catalysts has received great attention since the stereocpecificity is one of the key factors in tailoring the polymer properties. Thus, we have developed new tactics for isospecificity in propylene polymerization with the unbridged metallocenebased systems and syndiospecific styrene-styrene sequence in styrene-ethylene copolymerization with the group 4 metallocene system. Brief details of the synthesis, structures and the polymerization behavior of a set of new metallocene catalysts will be presented.

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Solid-phase Synthesis of 7-Aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-one Derivatives on a BOMBA Resin Utilizing the Smiles Rearrangement

  • Lee, Ji-Min;Yu, Eun-Ae;Park, Joo-Yeon;Ryu, In-Ae;Shin, Dong-Soo;Gong, Young-Dae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1325-1330
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    • 2009
  • A general method has been developed for the solid phase synthesis of drug-like 7-aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)- one derivatives 6. The method relies on a novel, microwave irradiation promoted cyclization reaction of the BOMBA resin bound, N-substituted-$\alpha$-(2-chloro-4-bromophenoxy)acetamide 3 that takes place via a Smiles rearrangement. The 7-bromobenzo[1,4]oxazine 4, produced in this process is converted to 7-aryloxazin analogs 5 by utilizing Suzuki coupling with various substituted arylboronic acids. Finally, the target 7-aryl-benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-ones 6 are liberated from the resin by treatment with 5% TFA. The progress of the reactions involved in this preparative route can be monitored by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy on a single bead. The target compounds, obtained by using this five-step sequence, are produced in high yields and purities.

Characteristics of Prostaglandin Synthesis Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Alveolar Macrophages (Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide가 Prostaglandin 합성에 미치는 작용의 특성)

  • 이수환;임종석;황동호;문창규
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1993
  • It is well known that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in various experimental system, but the mechanism and the detailed nature of its action are yet to be understood. Thus, this study was designed to characterize LPS induced PG synthesis in rat alveolar macrophage. Although results were not so much prominent, LPS stimulated PGE2 synthesis in macrophage with short term exposure, and this was thought to be mainly due to the activation of phopholipase A2+ But there was a burst in the PG synthesis 6 hours after the LPS treatment and this was accompanied with the increase of cyclooxygenase activity. This effect was not mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or platelet activating factor (PAF), and the existence of serum was prerequisite for its action. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) themselves did not stimulate PG synthesis and the showed stimulatory activities to some extent. Normal rat serum was more effective for the elicitation of the LPS action than growth factors. Thus, considering the amounts of growth fafctors contained in normal serum, it was suggested that another factors like LPS binding protein (LBP) might be involved in the serum effect on LPS action. Conclusively. it was thought that LPS could stimulate PG synthesis through interaction with serum factors such as EGF, PDGF and/or LBP.

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Effect of Individual Fatty Acids on Synthesis and Secretion of Apolipoprotein and Lipoprotein in hep-G2 Cells

  • Ryowon Choue
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.910-923
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    • 1994
  • The effects of individual fatty acids, differing in their degree of unsaturation(18:0, 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3) on the biosynthesis and secretion and lipids were investigated in Hep-G2 cells. Synthesis of apolipoprotein was measured by the incorporation of 3H-leucine into apolipoprotein(d<1.21g/ml) and synthesis of lipids was measured by the incorporation of 3H-glycerol and 14C-acetate into various lipid classes. Inclusion of 1.0mM of each fatty acids into the culture medium significantly increased the synthesis of total apolipoprotein and Apo B(p<0.05). However, addition of fatty acid did not affect the synthesis of cellular and medium protein. Among different fatty acids tested, oleic acid had the greatest effect on Apo B synthesis. While stearic, linoleic and linolenic acid, all had similar effects. The secretion of triglyceride into the medium markedly increased in all fatty acid groups being 5-6 times over the albumin control. The triglyceride secretion was the highest int he oleic acid group. The secretion of phospholipid and cholesterol also increased with triglyceride output. A positive relationship existed between the output of lipoprotein-triglyceride and Apo B. Since the synthesis of Apo B was significantly increased when various fatty acids were included into the culture medium, part of the apparently stimulated synthesis of the apolipoprotein may be in response to the increased formation and secretion of lipoprotein lipids.

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A Study of Mode of Action of Alachlor - I. Effects of Alachlor on Nucleic acid, Amino acid and Protein Synthesis in Oat(Avena sativa L.) (Alachlor의 제초기구(除草機構)에 관한 연구(硏究) - I.Alachlor가 귀리의 핵산(核酸), 아미노산 및 단백질합성(蛋白質合成)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kwon, S.W.;Kim, J.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 1990
  • The effects of alachlor [2-chloro-2', 6' diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide] treatment on nucleic acid, amino acid and protein synthesis were studied. The amide herbicide alachlor blocks the biosynthesis of the amino acids isoleucine, valine and aromatic amino acid in oat root tips. Nucleic acid was inhibited, but was not proportional to reduction in protein synthesis. $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ of alachlor treatment of oat roots inhibited 36% DNA synthesis, but DNA synthesis was not inhibited at $1{\times}10^{-5}M$. RNA synthesis was inhibited by $1{\times}10^{-5}M$ and $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ of alachlor 16 and 27%, respectively, while inhibition of protein synthesis did occur at same concentrations. Inhibition of protein synthesis also did not occur at concentration below $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ alachlor. It suggest that inhibition of protein sythesis caused significantly by alachlor($1{\times}l0^{-3}M$) result from secondary action.

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Effects of Taurine on Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Poultry and Mice

  • Shim, K.S.;Jung, H.J.;Na, C.S.;Yoon, C.;Park, Garng H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.865-870
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    • 2009
  • In this study, we have attempted to understand the effects of taurine on serum and liver concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in broiler chickens and mice in the post-absorptive state, and on in vitro protein synthesis in the livers of broiler chickens and laying hens, as well as the effects of taurine on in vivo protein synthesis in the liver of mice. The experimental animals were subjected to 24 h of starvation in order to perpetuate a post-absorptive state. Serum concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the taurine groups than in the controls in both the broilers and the mice. However, taurine resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in liver concentrations of total cholesterol and triglycerides, relative to what was seen in the control groups of both animals. Taurine stimulated the in vitro synthesis of 57-kDa, 40-kDa and 23-kDa proteins in the liver of broilers, but inhibited the in vitro synthesis of 54-kDa, 37-kDa and 24-kDa proteins. Taurine in the liver of laying hens exerted effects on in vitro protein synthesis, with the exception of the 26-kDa protein which was not detected in broiler liver, but was inhibited by taurine in the liver of laying hens. Unlike the findings regarding in vitro protein synthesis in the liver of broilers or laying hens, taurine appeared to stimulate the synthesis of only two proteins, a 47-kDa and a 40-kDa protein, in the liver of mice. Overall, theses findings indicate that taurine treatment results in a reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, and also affects protein synthesis in the livers of broilers, laying hens, and mice.

Synchrotron Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering and Its Applications in Polymer Nanotechnology

  • Ree, Moon-Hor;Lee, Byeong-Du;Yoon, Jin-Hwan;Heo, Kyu-Young;Jin, Kyeong-Sik;Jin, Sang-Woo;Kim, Hyun-Chul;Kim, Gha-Hee;Choi, Seung-Chul;Oh, Weon-Tae;Park, Young-Hee;Hwang, Yong-Taek;Kim, Jong-Seong
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.120-120
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    • 2006
  • In our study grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) measurements with synchrotron radiation sources were conducted statically and in-situ for a series of nanoscale thin films prepared from nanoporous dielectrics, block copolymers, brush polymers, and molecular assemblies. All GIXS measurements were performed at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The measured scattering data were analyzed in detail by using newly developed GIXS scattering theory. All GIXS results will be discussed in details with considering the materials chemistry and nanostructure formation process parameters.

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Modeling, Preparation, and Elemental Doping of Li7La3Zr2O12 Garnet-Type Solid Electrolytes: A Review

  • Cao, Shiyu;Song, Shangbin;Xiang, Xing;Hu, Qing;Zhang, Chi;Xia, Ziwen;Xu, Yinghui;Zha, Wenping;Li, Junyang;Gonzale, Paulina Mercedes;Han, Young-Hwan;Chen, Fei
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.111-129
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    • 2019
  • Recently, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have attracted increasing interest owing to their higher energy density and safety. As the core material of ASSBs, the characteristics of the solid electrolyte largely determine the performance of the battery. Thus far, a variety of inorganic solid electrolytes have been studied, including the NASICON-type, LISICON-type, perovskite-type, garnet-type, glassy solid electrolyte, and so on. The garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) solid electrolyte is one of the most promising candidates because of its excellent comprehensively electrochemical performance. Both, experiments and theoretical calculations, show that cubic LLZO has high room-temperature ionic conductivity and good chemical stability while contacting with the lithium anode and most of the cathode materials. In this paper, the crystal structure, Li-ion transport mechanism, preparation method, and element doping of LLZO are introduced in detail based on the research progress in recent years. Then, the development prospects and challenges of LLZO as applied to ASSBs are discussed.