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Lived Experience of patients with Terminal Cancer : Parses Human Becoming Methodology (말기 암환자의 체험에 관한 현상학적 연구)

  • 이옥자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.510-537
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    • 1995
  • Human health is an integral part of experience in the process of Human Becoming. Through continual interaction with the environment human beings freely choose experience and develop as responsible beings. The process of the health experience of patient with terminal cancer is a unique. he objective of this study is to understand the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer in order to provide basic information for nursing care in the clinical setting and to develop a theoretical background for clinical practice. This study is to de-scribe and define the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer in order to provide a foundation for nursing research and education. Data collection has been done between December 1993 and November 1994. The subjects included five persons -four females and one male : one who was in her sixties, one in his fifties, two in their forties, and one who was in her thirties. The researcher has met with these patients 35 times, but at eight times the patient was in a stuporous condition and not able to participate, so these were not included in the data analysis. Parse's "Human Becoming Methodology", an existential phenomenological research methodology is used for this study. Data has been collected using he dialogical engagement process of "I and You", the participant researcher and the participant subject. Dialogical engagement was discontinued when the data was theoretically saturated. Data was analyzed using the extraction - synthesis and heuristic interpretation. The criteria of Guba and Lincoln(1985). and Sandelo wski(1986) : credibility, auditability, fitness and objectivity were used to test the validity and reliability of the data. The following is a description of the structure of the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer as defined by this study : 1. Structure : 1) Suffering through the reminiscence of past experience 2) The appearance of complex emotions related to life and connectedness 3) The increasing importance of significant people and of the Absolute Being 4) The increasing realization of the importance of health and belief 5) Desire for a return to health and a peaceful life or for acceptance of dying and a comfortable death In summary the structure of the lived experience of these patients can be said to be : suffering comes through reminiscence of past experience, and there are complex emotions related to life and connectedness. Significant people and the Absolute Being become increasingly important along with a realization of the importance of health and faith. And finally there is a desire for either a return to health and a peaceful life or for the acceptance of dying and a comfortable death. 2. Heuristic Interpretation : Using Parse's Human Becoming Methodology, the structure of the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer identified in this research is interpreted as. The lived experience of patients with terminal cancer involves the solving of past conflicts, and the experience of the healing and valuing of sorrow and pain. Through the relation of life and health, and the complex emotions that arise, the lived experience of revealing - concealing is of paradoxical emotions. The increasing importance of significant others and of the Absolute Being shows Connecting and Separating an on- going process of nearness and farness. Revision of thoughts about health and faith is interpreted as transforming and desire for restoration to health and a peaceful life or acceptance of dying and a cowfortable death, as powering. In summary, it is possible to see, in the lived experience of patients with terminal cancer, the relationship of the five concepts of Parse's theory : valuing, revealing -concealing, connecting-separating, transforming, and powering. From Parse's theory, the results of this study show that meaning is related to valuing, rhythmicity to revealing-concealing and connect-ing-separating, and cotranscendence to transforming and powering.

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Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Optically Active Bis(L-Prolinato)(2,2'-bipyridine)Co(Ⅲ) and Bis(L-Prolinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)Co(Ⅲ) (광학활성 비스(L-Prolinato)(2,2'-bipyridine)코발트(Ⅲ)와 비스(L-Prolinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)코발트(Ⅲ)의 합성과 구조적인 특성)

  • Oh, Chang Eon;Kim, Bok Jo;Yoon, Doo Cheon;Doh, Myung Ki;Heo, Nam Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.715-721
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    • 1995
  • Reaction between trans-$[Co(py)_4/Ci_2]^+(py=pyridine)$ and L-proline and diimine (=2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline) gives two products, $[Co(L-pro)_2/(bipy)]^+$ and $[Co(L-pro)_2(phen)]^+$ complexes, respectively. On column chromatography, $[Co(L-pro)_2(bipy)]^+$ was obtained only as $Lambda$-trans(N) and $[Co(L-pro)_2(phen)]^+$ was obtained both as ${\Delta}$-trans(N) and $Lambda$-cis(O)cis(N) due to the stereoselectivity of L-prolinato which was stereospecific. Crystal data are as follows: $Lambda$-trans(N)-$[Co(L-pro)_2(bipy)]CIO_4{\cdot}2H_2O$ (1): monoclinic, space group $P2_1(#4)$, a=9.807(3), b=10.421(1), c=12.778(2) ${\AA}$, ${\beta}=109.90(2)^{\circ}$, V=1227.8(5) ${\AA}^3$, Z=2; 1571 data with I > 3.0${\sigma}$(I) were refined to R=0.060, $R_W = 0.067$; ${\Delta}$-trans(N)-$[Co(L-pro)_2(phen)]Cl{\cdot}_3H_2O$(2): monoclinic, space group $P2_1(#4)$, a=9.838(2), b=12.892(2), c=10.747(2)${\AA}$, ${\beta}=113.79(2)^{\circ}$, V=1247.2(4) ${\AA}^3$, Z=2; 2433 data with I > 3.0${\sigma}$(I) were refined to R=0.043, $R_W = 0.050$.

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The TNF Receptor Expressions in Cancer Cells Transfected with TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA Using Retroviral Vector (Retroviral vector를 이용한 종양괴사인자 (TNF-$\alpha$) 유전자 이입 암세포에서 종양괴사인자 수용체의 발현)

  • Lee, Hyuk-Pyo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu;Kim, Young-Whan;Shim, Young-Soo;Han, Sung-Koo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.1271-1284
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    • 1997
  • Background : Tumor necrosis factor(TNF) has been considered as an important candidate for cancer gene therapy based on its potent anti-tumor activity. However, since the efficiency of current techniques of gene transfer is not satisfactory, the majority of current protocols is aiming the in vitro gene transfer to cancer cells and re-introducing genetically modified cancer cells to host. In the previous study, it was shown that TNF-sensitive cancer cells transfected with TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA would become highly resistant to TNF, and the probability was shown that the acquired resistance to TNF might be associated with synthesis of some protective protein. Understanding the mechanisms of TNF-resistance in TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfected cancer cells would be an important step for improving the efficacy of cancer gene therapy as well as for better understandings of tumor biology. This study was designed to evaluate whether the levels of TNF receptor mRNA expression and soluble TNF receptor release from cancer cells are changed after TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfection. Method : We transfected TNF-$\alpha$ c-DNA to WEHI164(murine fibrosarcoma cell line), NCI-H2058(human mesothelioma cell line), A549(human non-small cell lung cancer cell line), ME180(human cervix cancer cell line) cells using retroviral vector(pLT12SN(TNF)) and confirm the expression of TNF with PCR, EUSA, MTT assay. Then we determined the TNF resistance of TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfected cells(WEHI164-TNF, NCIH2058-TNF, A549-TNF, ME180-TNF) and evaluated the TNF receptor mRNA expression with Northern blot analysis and soluble TNF receptor release with EUSA. Results : The TNF receptor mRNA expressions of parental cells and genetically modified cells were not significantly different. The soluble TNF receptor levels of media from genetically modified cells were lower than those from parental cells. Conclusion : The acquired resistance to TNF after TNF-$\alpha$ cDNA transfection may not be associated with the change in the TNF receptor and the soluble TNF receptor expression.

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A development of DS/CDMA MODEM architecture and its implementation (DS/CDMA 모뎀 구조와 ASIC Chip Set 개발)

  • 김제우;박종현;김석중;심복태;이홍직
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.1210-1230
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, we suggest an architecture of DS/CDMA tranceiver composed of one pilot channel used as reference and multiple traffic channels. The pilot channel-an unmodulated PN code-is used as the reference signal for synchronization of PN code and data demondulation. The coherent demodulation architecture is also exploited for the reverse link as well as for the forward link. Here are the characteristics of the suggested DS/CDMA system. First, we suggest an interlaced quadrature spreading(IQS) method. In this method, the PN coe for I-phase 1st channel is used for Q-phase 2nd channels and the PN code for Q-phase 1st channel is used for I-phase 2nd channel, and so on-which is quite different from the eisting spreading schemes of DS/CDMA systems, such as IS-95 digital CDMA cellular or W-CDMA for PCS. By doing IQS spreading, we can drastically reduce the zero crossing rate of the RF signals. Second, we introduce an adaptive threshold setting for the synchronization of PN code, an initial acquistion method that uses a single PN code generator and reduces the acquistion time by a half compared the existing ones, and exploit the state machines to reduce the reacquistion time Third, various kinds of functions, such as automatic frequency control(AFC), automatic level control(ALC), bit-error-rate(BER) estimator, and spectral shaping for reducing the adjacent channel interference, are introduced to improve the system performance. Fourth, we designed and implemented the DS/CDMA MODEM to be used for variable transmission rate applications-from 16Kbps to 1.024Mbps. We developed and confirmed the DS/CDMA MODEM architecture through mathematical analysis and various kind of simulations. The ASIC design was done using VHDL coding and synthesis. To cope with several different kinds of applications, we developed transmitter and receiver ASICs separately. While a single transmitter or receiver ASC contains three channels (one for the pilot and the others for the traffic channels), by combining several transmitter ASICs, we can expand the number of channels up to 64. The ASICs are now under use for implementing a line-of-sight (LOS) radio equipment.

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Inhibitory Role of Polyamines in Dexamethasone-induced Apoptosis of Mouse Thymocytes (Dexamethasone에 의한 생쥐 흉선의 Apoptosis에서 Polyamine의 역할)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Hong, Gi-Hyun;Shin, Kyung-Ho;Chun, Yeon-Sook;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 1996
  • It has been well known that polyamines ensure the stability of chromatin structure and the fidelity of DNA transcription. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of polyamines on the apoptosis of mouse thymocytes induced by dexamethasone and polyamine synthesis inhibitors. 1) In the histological death findings of thymocytes double-stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide, the apoptotic and the necrotic fractions (AF; NF) in the control group were $9.4{\pm}4.2%$ and $4.5{\pm}5.3%$, respectively. Dexamethasone $(3\;{\times}\;10^{-8}\;M:\;DX)$ in creased AF upto $52.0{\pm}8.1%$ and did not change NF, but A23187 $(5\;{\times}\;10^{-7}\;M:\;A2)$ increased AF and NF upto $45.0{\pm}8.9%$ and $20.5{\pm}10.6%$, respectively. 2) The thymocyte viability was significantly reduced by DX, DHEA $(1\;{\times}\;10^{-4}\;M)$, A2, DFMO $(1\;{\times}\;10^{-4}\;M)$, and $MGBG\;(1\;{\times}\;10^{-4}\;M)$, respectively. It was, however, little affected by $aminoguanidine\;(1\;{\times}\;10^{-4}\;M:\;AG)$, $putrescine\;(1\;{\times}\;10^{-5}\;M:\;PT)$, $spermidine\;(1\;{\times}\;10^{-5}\;M:\;SD)$, and $spermine\;(1\;{\times}\;10^{-5}\;M:\;SM)$. 3) The genomic DNA of mouse thymocyte was markedly fragmented by DX and A2, respectively, and to a lesser extent, by DHEA, but was little affected by MGBG, DFMO, AG, and each of polyamines. 4) The DX induced reduction of thymocyte viability was moderately attenuated by DHEA, but little affected by DFMO, MGBC, and AG. However, SM significantly attenuated the viability reduction induced by A2 as well as DX. 5) The thymocyte viability reduction by MGBG and DFMO was significantly attenuated by only SM among three polyamines applied in this study. 6) The thymocyte viability redution by combined treatments of DX with DFMO and MGBG, respectively, was significantly attenuated by SM, and moderately by PT. But the viability reduction by combined treatment of DX with AG or DHEA was not affected by polyamines. These results suggest that polyamines, particularly spermine, might play the inhibitory role in thymocyte apoptosis and the inhibitory effect can be ascribed in part to the increase of polyamine uptake by thymocytes pretreated with DFMO and MGBG.

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Synthesis of ceramic particles by hydrothermal method (수열법에 의한 세라믹분말 합성)

  • 김판채;최종건
    • Proceedings of the Korea Association of Crystal Growth Conference
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    • pp.219-222
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    • 1996
  • 수열법은 밀폐용기중에서 10$0^{\circ}C$이상의 가열, 가압된 수용액이 반응에 관여하는 것으로써, 수정, CaCO3, AlPO4, GaPO4 등과 같은 단결정의 육성 뿐만 아니라 균일분산계로부터 균일한 결정성의 미립자 합성에도 폭넓게 이용되고 있다. 세라믹분말의 합성에 있어서, 이 방법은 특히 형상, 입자크기의 제어가 용이할 뿐만 아니라 고상법, 졸-겔법, 공침법에서와 같은 열처리, 분쇄과정이 필요없기 때문에 고순도의 초미립자를 얻을 수 있는 장점이 있다. 근년 미국, 일본에서는 수열법을 이용한 유전, 압전체 등 세라믹분말의 일부가 공업적인 규모로 대량 생산되고 있다. 그러나 이에 대한 국내 기술은 아직 초기단계에 이르고 있는 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구실에서는 수열법에 의한 단결정 육성 (예; 자수정, CaCO3, AlPO4, GaPO4, KTP, Emerald 등), 박막제조 (예; GaP, PbTiO3, BaTiO3 등), 정제 (고령토, 장석, 도석 등), 원석처리 (진주, 인공 emerald, 비취 등) 그리고 각종 세라믹분말의 합성 등과 같은 다양한 기반기술의 축적과 동시에 공업화에 대응한 수열장치를 위하여 반응용기의 대형화, 엄밀한 밀폐방식, 실용적인 수열조건 등을 개발해 오고 있다. 본 발표에서는 현재까지의 연구개발 내용 중에서 결정성 미립자에 관련한 세라믹분말의 합성에 대한 일부의 결과들을 보고한다. 일반적으로 수열장치는 전기로, 반응용기, 온도 및 압력제어계 등을 기본으로 하고 있으며 시판용의 대부분이 교반기가 부착된 수직형 (vertical type)이다. 이와 같은 방식에 있어서는 엄밀한 밀폐가 곤란, 반응온도의 한계성 (25$0^{\circ}C$ 이하), 증진율의 한계성 (소량생산) 등과 같은 점이 있기 때문에 본 연구실에서는 개폐식 전기로내에 엄밀한 밀폐가 가능한 수평식(horizontal type)의 반응용기를 채택한 뒤 이를 회전 또는 시이소(seesaw)식으로 움직일 수 있도록 하여 연속공정화, 온도구배의 자율조절 그리고 보다 저온에서도 인위적인 이온의 확산을 효율적으로 유도할 수 있도록 하였다. 이와 같은 방식은 기존의 방식과 비교하여 반응용기 내에 응집현상과 미반응물이 존재하지 않으며 또한 단분산으로 결정성 미립자를 대량적으로 얻을 수 있는 장점이 있었다. 다음은 이상과 같이 본 연구실에서 자체 개발한 수열장치를 이용하여 PbTiO3, (Pb,La)TiO3Mn, BaTiO3, ZnSiO4:Mn, CaWO4 등과 같은 세라믹분말에 대한 합성 실험의 결과이다. 압전성, 초전성이 우수한 PbTiO3 및 (Pb,La)TiO3:Mn 분말의 수열합성은 PbO, TiO2, La2O3 등의 분말을 출발원료로 하여 합성도도 25$0^{\circ}C$부근의 알카리성 용액중에서 결정성 PbTiO3 및 (Pb,La)TiO3:Mn 미립자를 단상으로 얻었으며 입자의 형상 및 크기는 합성온도와 수열용매의 종류에 의존하였다. 유전체로서 폭넓게 응용되고 있는 BaTiO3 분말은 Ba(OH)2.8H2O, TiO2와 같은 최적의 출발원료를 선택함으로써 15$0^{\circ}C$ 부근의 저온영역에서도 용이하게 합성할 수 있었다. 특히 본 연구에서는 수용성인 Ba(OH)2.8H2O를 사용함으로써 host-guest적인 반응을 유도시키는데 있어 물의 가장 실용적이고 효과적인 수열용매임도 알았다. ZnSiO4:Mn, CaWO4, MgWO4와 같은 형광체 분말은 공업적으로 고상반응 또는 습식법에 의해 얻어지고 있으나 이들 방법에 있어서는 분쇄공정으로 인한 형광특성의 저하와 같은 문제점이 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 수열법을 이용하여 이들 화합물의 합성을 시도하였으며 그 결과 합성온도 30$0^{\circ}C$ 부근의 알칼리성 용액중에서 수열적으로 얻어짐을 알았다. 여기서의 합성분말을 이용하여 실제 조명램프로 제조한 결과 녹색, 청색 발광용 형광체로서 우수한 형광특성을 나타내었다. 천연에서 소량 산출되고 있는 고가의 (Li,Al)MnO2(OH)2:Co 분말은 도자기의 전사지용 청색안료로써 이용되고 있다. 본 연구실에서는 LiOH.H2O, Al(OH)3, MnO2 등의 분말을 출발원료로 하고 24$0^{\circ}C$ 온도 부근 그리고 물을 수열용매로 하여 천연산에 필적하는 (Li,Al)MnO2(OH)2:Co 분말을 인공적으로 합성하였다.

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Amino Acid Biosynthesis and Gene Regulation in Seed (종자내 아미노산 합성 조절 유전자에 관한 연구)

  • ;;;;;Fumio Takaiwa
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.61-74
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    • 1996
  • Human and monogastric animals can not synthesize 10 out of the 20 amino asids and therefor need to obtain these from their diet. The plant seed is a major source of dietary protein. It is particular important in their study to increase nutritional quality of the seed storage proteins. The low contents of lysine, asparagine and threonenein various cereal seeds and of cystein and methionine. In legume seeds is due to the low proportions of these amino acids in the major storage proteins, we have tried to apply the three strategies; (1) mutagenesis and selection of specific amino acid analogue resistance, (2) cloning and expression study of lysine biosynthesis related gene, (3) transfomation of lysine rich soybean glycinin gene. The 5-methyltryptophan (5MT) resistant cell lines, SAR1, SAR2 and SAR3 were selected from anther derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L. "Sasanishiki"). Among these selected cell lines, two (SAR1 and SAR3) were able to grow stably at 200 mg/L of 5MT. Analysis of the freed amino acids in callus shows that 5MT resistant cells (SAR3) accumulated free tryptophan at least up to 50 times higher than those that of the higher than of SAS. These results indicated that the 5MT resistant cell lines are useful in studies of amino acid biosynthesis. Tr75, a rice (Oryza sativa L., var. Sasanishiki) mutant resistant to 5MT was segregated from the progenies of its initial mutant line, TR1. The 5MT resistant of TR75 was inherited in the M8 generations as a single dominant nuclear gene. The content of free amino acids in the TR75 homozygous seeds increased approximately 1.5 to 2.0 fold compared to wild-type seeds. Especially, the contents of tryptophan, phenylalanine and aspartic acid were 5.0, 5.3 and 2.7 times higher than those of wild-type seeds, respectively. The content of lysine is significantly low in rice. The lysine is synthesized by a complex pathway that is predominantly regulated by feedback inhibition of several enzymes including asparginase, aspatate kinase, dihydrodipicolinat synthase, etc. For understanding the regulation mechanism of lysine synthesis in rice, we try to clone the lysine biosynthetic metabolism related gene, DHPS and asparaginase, from rice. We have isolated a rice DHPS genomic clone which contains an ORF of 1044 nucleotides (347 amino acids, Mr. 38, 381 daltons), an intron of 587 nucleotides and 5'and 3'-flanking regions by screening of rice genomic DNA library. Deduced amino acid sequence of mature peptide domain of GDHPS clone is highly conserved in monocot and dicot plants whereas that of transit peptide domain is extremely different depending on plant specie. Southern blot analysis indicated that GDHPS is located two copy gene in rice genome. The transcripts of a rice GDHPS were expressed in leaves and roots but not detected in callus tissues. The transcription level of GDHPS is much higher in leaves indicating enormous chloroplast development than roots. Genomic DNA clones for asparaginase genes were screened from the rice genomic library by using plaque hybridization technique. Twelve different genomic clones were isolated from first and second screening, and 8 of 12 clones were analyzed by restriction patterns and identified by Southern Blotting, Restriction enzyme digestion patterns and Southern blot analysis of 8 clones show the different pattern for asparaginase gene. Genomic Southern blot analysis from rice were done. It is estimated that rice has at least 2-3 copy of asparaginase gene. One of 8 positive clones was subcloned into the pBluescript SK(+) vector, and was constructed the physical map. For transformation of lysine rich storage protein into tobacco, soybean glycinin genes are transformed into tobacco. To examine whether glycinin could be stably accumulated in endosperm tissue, the glycinin cDNA was transcriptionally fused to an endosperm-specific promotor of the rice storage protein glutelin gene and then introduced into tobacco genomic via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Consequently the glycinin gene was expressed in a seed-and developmentally-specific manner in transgenic tobacco seeds. Glycinin were targeted to vacuole-derived protein bodies in the endosperm tissue and highly accumulated in the matrix region of many transgenic plant (1-4% of total seed proteins). Synthesized glycinin was processed into mature form, and assembled into a hexamer in a similar manner as the glycinin in soybean seed. Modified glycinin, in which 4 contiguous methionine residues were inserted at the variable regions corresponding to the C - teminal regions of the acidic and basic polypeptides, were also found to be accumulated similarly as in the normal glycinin. There was no apparent difference in the expression level, processing and targeting to protein bodies, or accumulation level between normal and modified glycinin. glycinin.

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Immunoelectron Microscopic Study on the Nitric Oxide Synthase in Rat Salivary Glands (흰쥐 침샘의 Nitric Oxide Synthase에 관한 면역전자현미경적 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Hwan;Ko, Jeong-Sik;Park, Dae-Kyoon;Park, Kyung-Ho
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.221-233
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    • 2008
  • Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been known to regulate many physiological and pathological processes, especially the glandular secretion and blood flow. However, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) responsible for NO synthesis has not been well studied ultrastructurally in rat salivary gland. The present study was performed to investigate the distribution of nitric Oxide synthase isoforms (endothelial. neuronal, and inducible NOS). Immunoelectron microscopic study, using monoclonal mouse anti-endothelial NOS, anti-neuronal NOS, and anti-inducible NOS, was performed in the salivary gland of rat. Endothelial NOS (eNOS)-positive immunoreactivities were most prominent in the secretory granules of serous cells of the salivary gland of the rat. Immunoreactivities were well concentrated on serous secretory granules in the serous cells. However, weak eNOS-positive immunoreactivity was observed in the mucous secretory granules of the mucous cells. Positive endothelial NOS (eNOS) immunoreactivities were most prominent in the secretory granules of intralobular ducts. Ductal secretory granules and acinar serous secretory granules have a similar pattern of labeling as eNOS suggestings. Neural NOS (nNOS)-positive immunoreactivity was not detected in duct systems or in acinar cells. Inducible NOS (iNOS)-positive immunoreactivity was not seen in acinar and ductal cells. These results reveal the presence of eNOS in the salivary gland of the rat, which may be related with regulation of the glandular secretion and blood flow through the gland.

A Study on Design Education Re-engineering by Multi-disciplinary Approach (다학제적 접근을 통한 대학디자인 교육혁신 프로그램 연구)

  • Lee, Soon-Jong;Kim, Jong-Won;Chu, Wu-Jin;Chae, Sung-Zin;Yoon, Su-Hyun
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.299-314
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    • 2007
  • For the past 20 years, the growth and development of university-design-educational institutes contributed to the industrial development of our country. Due to the technological fluctuation and changes in the industrial structure in the latter half of the 20th century, the enterprise is demanding professionally-oriented design manpower. The principle which appears from instances of the advanced nations is to accommodate the demands in social changes and apply them to educational design programs. In order to respond promptly to the industrial demand especially, the advanced nations adopted "multidisciplinary design education programs" to lead innovation in the area of design globally. The objective of the research consequently is to suggest an educational system and a program through which the designer can be educated to obtain complex knowledge and the technique demanded by the industry and enterprise. Nowadays in order to adapt to a new business environment, designers specially should have both the knowledge and techniques in engineering and business administration. We suggest that the IPDI, a multidisciplinary design educational system and program is made up of the coordinated operation of major classes, on-the-job training connection, educational system for research base creation, renovation design development program for the application and the synthesis of alternative proposals about the training facility joint ownership by connecting with the education of design, business administration and engineering.

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Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Li1-xFeO2-yFy-LixMnO2 (Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.8, 0≤y≤0.15)) Cathode Materials by Anion Substitution (음이온 치환을 이용한 Li1-xFeO2-yFy-LixMnO2 (Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.8, 0≤y≤0.15) 양극 활물질의 합성 및 전기화학적 특성)

  • Heo, J.B.;Park, G.J.;Lee, Y.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2007
  • In order to investigate the effect of fluorine ion in the $Li_{1-x}FeO_2Li_xMnO_2$ (Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.8) cathode material, it was synthesized $Li_{1-x}FeO_{2-y}F_y-Li_xMnO_2$ (Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.8, $0.05{\le}y{\le}0.15$) cathode materials at $350^{\circ}C$ for 10hrs using solid-state method. $Li_{1-x}FeO_{2-y}F_y-Li_xMnO_2$ (Mn/(Mn + Fe) = 0.8, $0.0{\le}y{\le}0.1$ was composed many large needle-like particles of about $1-1.5\;{\mu}m$ and small particles of about 50-100 nm, which were distributed among the larger particles. However, $Li_{1-x}FeO_{1.85}F_{0.15}-Li_xMnO_2$ material showed slightly different particle morphology. The particles of $Li_{1-x}FeO_{1.85}F_{0.15}-Li_xMnO_2$ were suddenly increased and started to be a spherical type of particle shape. $Li/Li_{1-x}FeO_{1.9}F_{0.1}-Li_xMnO_2$ cell showed a high initial discharge capacity of 163 mAh/g and a high cycle retention rate of 95% after 50 cycles. The initial discharge capacity of $Li/Li_{1-x}FeO_{2-y}F_y-Li_xMnO_2$ ($0.05{\le}y{\le}0.15$) cells increased according to the increase of F content. However, the cycleability of this cell was very rapidly decreased when the substituted fluorine content is over 0.1. We suggested that too large amount of F ion fail to substitute into the $Li_{1-x}FeO_2-Li_xMnO_2$ structure, which resulted in the severe decline of battery performance.