• Title/Summary/Keyword: Storage

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Analysis of Critical Control Points through Field Assessment of Sanitation Management Practices in Foodservice Establishments (현장실사를 통한 급식유헝별 위생관리실태 분석)

  • Kwak Tong-Kyung;Lee Kyung-Mi;Chang Hye-Ja;Kang Yong-Jae;Hong Wan-Soo;Moon Hye-Kyung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.290-300
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    • 2005
  • Increased sanitation management of foodservice establishments is required because most of the reported foodborne-disease outbreaks were in the foodservice industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the important control points for good sanitation. In this study, we inspected twenty foodservice establishments in Seoul, Kyunggi, Kyungnam with a self-developed monitoring tool. These foodservice establishments included secondary schools, universities, and industries. Six of them had appointed as the HACCP-certified establishments from the Korea Food and Drug Administration. The inspection was conducted from June to August in 2002. The inspection tool consisted of nine dimensions and sixty-five items. The dimensions were 'personal sanitation', 'supply of raw food', 'food storage', 'handling of raw food and ready-to-eat', 'cleaning and sterilization', 'waste control', 'pest control', and 'control of establishment and equipment' The highest possible score of this inspection tool is 105 points. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS Package(11.0) for descriptive analysis Kruskal-Wallis. The score for the secondary schools (83.6 points) was higher than for the others and number of in compliance item was 50.9 on average. Therefore, we concluded that the secondary schools' sanitation condition was good. The foodservice establishments acquired HACCP certification was 89.7 points, which was significantly higher than that of establishments not applying foodservices in total score. Instituting the HACCP system in a foodservice is very effective for sanitation management. Many out of the compliance observations were found in the dimensions of 'waste control', 'control of establishment and equipment', and 'supply of raw food' 'Clean condition of refrigerator' item was $65\%$ out of the compliance that was the highest percent in this study. 'Notify and observance of heating/reheating temperature' was $45\%$ out of compliance. Items which were over $30\%$ out of compliance were 'sterilization of knifes and chopping boards in cooking', 'education of workers', 'maintain refrigerator temperature blow $5^{\circ}C$', and 'countermeasure of infection workers' In the results, most of the foodservice establishments were poorly managed in temperature control and cross-contamination. The important control points revealed in this study were preventing contamination, cooking temperature compliance, management of raw food and refrigerator. Therefore foodservice establishments should pay attention to education and training about important control points. The systematic sanitation management monitoring tool developed in this study can be effectively applied for conducting self-inspection and improving the sanitary conditions of their own foodservice operations.

Processing of Water Activity Controlled Fish Meat Paste by Dielectric Heating 1. Formulation and Processing Conditions (내부가열을 이용한 보장성어육(고등어) 연제품의 가공 및 제품개발에 관한 연구 1. 원료${\cdot}$첨가물의 배합 및 가공조건)

  • LEE Kang-Ho;LEE Byeong-Ho;You Byeong-Jin;SUH Jae-Soo;JO Jin-Ho;JEONG In-Hak;JEA Yoi-Guan
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.353-360
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    • 1984
  • As an effort to expand the utilization of mackerel which has been thought disadvantageous to processors due to the defects in bloody dark color of meat, high content of lipid, and low stability of protein, and to develope a new type of product, so called, preservative fish meat paste, the processing method was studied in which dielectric heating was applied by means of cooking, pasteurization, dehydration, and control of water activity. The principle of this method is based on that dielectric heating can initiate a rapid dispersion or displacement of moisture in the meat tissue so that the level of water acivity can be controlled by dehydration with hot air meanwhile the product is cooked, pasteurized, and texturized. And the product is finally heated with electric heaters and vacuum sealed to stabilize water activity and storage stability. In present paper, a formula for preparing the fish meat-stach paste, the conditions of dielectric heating and dehydration, shape and size of the product, and other parameters were tested to optimize the process operation. A formula of the fish meat-starch paste to provide proper textural properties and water activity was $10\%$ starch, $1.5\%$ salt, $3\%$ soybean, $0.6\%$ MSG, $2\%$ sucrose, and $3\%$ sorbitol against the weight of fish meat. A proper shape and size of the product to avoid foaming and case hardening during heating was sliced disc of 8 cm $diameter{\times}0.8$ cm thickness or $10{\times}10$ cm square plate with 1.0 cm thickness. The disc shape was recommended because it resulted more uniform heating, minimum foaming and case hardening. And it was also advantageous that disc was simply provided when the fish meat disc was stuffed in the same, solidified in boiling water for 2 to 3 minutes, and sliced. Condition of dielectric heating was critical to decide the levels of sterility, water activity, and textural property of the product. The temperature at the center of the meat disc slices was raised up to $95^{\circ}C$ in 1.5 minutes so that continuous exposure to microwave caused expanded tissue and hardening ending up with a higher water content. Heating for 5 to 6 minutes was adequate to yield the final water activity of 0.86 to 0.83(35 to $40\%$ moisture). It is important, however, that heating had to be done periodically, for instance, in the manner of 2.0, 1.5, 1.5, and 1.0 minute to give enough time to displace or evaporate moisture from the meat tissue. The product was dehydrated for 2 to 3 minutes by hot air of $60^{\circ}C$, 3 to 5m/sec and finally exposed to electric heaters for 5 to 6 minutes until the surface was roasted deep brown. These conditions of heating and dehydration resulted in a complete reduction of total plate count from an initial count of $5.3{\times}10^6/g$ to less than $3{\times}10^2/g$. General composition of the product was $40.1\%$ moisture, $20.8\%$ protein, $17.4\%$ lipid, $16.2\%$ carbohydrate, and $5.5\%$ ash. Textural properties revealed folding test AA, hardness 42, cohesiveness 0.53, toughness 4.6, and elasticity 0.8.

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Effect of Sanitation Treatment of Extending Shelf-life on Fresh Poultry Meats (계육(鷄肉)의 유통기간연장(流通期間延長)을 위(爲)한 위생처리방법(衛生處理方法)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, M.J.;Jang, P.H.;Park, K.B.;Lee, B.M.
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1982
  • In order to develop effective and simple sanitation method for the extention of shelf-life of fresh poultry meat, the effect of sanitizers, sanitation methods and packaging materials on the extention of shelf-life of poultry meats was observed at the $4^{\circ}C$ and room temp$(10{\sim}20^{\circ}C)$. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The autochonous skin microflora of poultry, before processing, were believed to be removed or killed during the scalding and plucking, and exposed dermal tissue was contaminated by microorganisms from the subsequent stages of processing. 2. In the final stage of poultry processing, total viable counts of microorganisms and coliforms were averaged to $3.5{\times}10^4/cm^2$ and $400/cm^2$, respectively. 3. The refrigerated shelf-life of fresh whole poultry carcasses at $3\;to\;4^{\circ}C$ was extended to 7 to 16 days compared to control with the various treatments of some sanitizers by dipping freshly chilled carcasses for 5 min or spraying 1 liter of sanitizers per carcasses. In the case of storage at $10\;to\;15^{\circ}C$, the shelf-life of poultry carcasses was extended to one to two days by the sanitation treatments compared to control. 4. Spraying sanitation was more effective than dipping sanitation, and 5 minutes dipping and one liter spraying per carcass were enough for effective sanitation of poultry carcasses in most sanitizers. 5. The packaging with an oxygen impermeable polyvinylidene chloride extended the shelf-life to 10 days and 5 days with polyethylene compared to control. When poultry carcasses were sanitized by continuous spraying with one liter of 30 ppm of chlorine and another one liter of 5% of potassium sorbate, packaged with polyvinylidene chlorlde were extended to about 30 days compared to control.

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A Study on the Consciousness Survey of Improvement of Emergency Rescue Training -Based on the Fire Fighting Organizations in Gangwon Province- (긴급구조훈련 개선에 관한 의식조사 연구 -강원도 소방조직을 중심으로-)

  • Choi, Yunjung;Koo, Wonhoi;Baek, Minho
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.440-449
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Fire-fighting organizations are the very first agencies that take actions at a disaster scene, and emergency rescue training is carried out for prompt and systematic response. However, there is a need for a change due to the limitations in emergency rescue trainings such as perfunctory trainings or trainings without considering regional or environmental characteristics. Method: This study is to conduct theoretical review with regard to emergency rescue training and present a measure to improve the emergency rescue training through attitude survey targeting fire-fighting organizations in Gangwon area. Result: Facilities that cause difficulties when doing emergency rescue activity were mostly hazardous material storage and processing facilities. In terms of the level of emergency rescue and response task, most respondents answered that the emergency rescue was insufficient. The respondents answered that the effectiveness of emergency rescue training was helpful, but some responses showed that the training was not helpful because of scenario-based training, seeming training, similar training carried out every year, unrealistic training, and lack of competent authorities' interest and perfunctory participations. Most respondents answered for the appropriateness of emergency rescue training and evaluation that they were satisfied, however, they were not satisfied with the evaluation methods irrelevant to the type of training, evaluation methods requiring unnecessary training scale, and evaluation methods leading perfunctory participations of competent authorities. Lastly, respondents mostly answered that training reflecting various damage situations are necessary regarding the demand on the improvement of emergency rescue training. Conclusion: The improvement measures for emergency rescue training are as follows. First, it is necessary to set and prepare various training contents in accordance with regional characteristics by reviewing major disasters occurred in the region. Second, it is necessary to revise the emergency rescue training guidelines and manuals for appropriate training plan for each fire station, provide education and training for working-level staff members, and establish training in a way that types, tactics, and strategies of emergency rescue training could be utilized practically. Third, it is necessary to prepare a scheme that can lead participation and provide incentive or penalty from the planning stage of training in order to increase the participation of supporting and competent authorities when an actual disaster occurs. Fourth, it is necessary to establish support arrangements and cooperative systems by authority through training by fire stations or zones in preparation for disaster situations that may occur simultaneously. Fifth, it is necessary to put emphasis on the training process rather than the result for emergency rescue training and evaluation, pay attention to the identification of supplement points for each disaster situation and make improvements. Especially, type or form of training should be considered rather than evaluating the execution status of detailed processes, and the evaluation measure that can consider the completeness (proficiency) of training and the status of role performance rather than the scale of training should be prepared. Sixth, type and method of training should be improved in accordance with the characteristics of each fire station by identifying the demand of working-level staff members for an efficient emergency rescue training.

Application of OECD Agricultural Water Use Indicator in Korea (우리나라에 적합한 OECD 농업용수 사용지표의 설정)

  • Hur, Seung-Oh;Jung, Kang-Ho;Ha, Sang-Keun;Song, Kwan-Cheol;Eom, Ki-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.321-327
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    • 2006
  • In Korea, there is a growing competitive for water resources between industrial, domestic and agricultural consumer, and the environment as many other OECD countries. The demand on water use is also affecting aquatic ecosystems particularly where withdrawals are in excess of minimum environmental needs for rivers, lakes and wetland habits. OECD developed three indicators related to water use by the agriculture in above contexts : the first is a water use intensity indicator, which is expressed as the quantity or share of agricultural water use in total national water utilization; the second is a water stress indicator, which is expressed as the proportion of rivers (in length) subject to diversion or regulation for irrigation without reserving a minimum of limiting reference flow; and the third is a water use efficiency indicator designated as the technical and the economic efficiency. These indicators have different meanings in the aspect of water resource conservation and sustainable water use. So, it will be more significant that the indicators should reflect the intrinsic meanings of them. The problem is that the aspect of an overall water flow in the agro-ecosystem and recycling of water use not considered in the assessment of agricultural water use needed for calculation of these water use indicators. Namely, regional or meteorological characteristics and site-specific farming practices were not considered in the calculation of these indicators. In this paper, we tried to calculate water use indicators suggested in OECD and to modify some other indicators considering our situation because water use pattern and water cycling in Korea where paddy rice farming is dominant in the monsoon region are quite different from those of semi-arid regions. In the calculation of water use intensity, we excluded the amount of water restored through the ground from the total agricultural water use because a large amount of water supplied to the farm was discharged into the stream or the ground water. The resultant water use intensity was 22.9% in 2001. As for water stress indicator, Korea has not defined nor monitored reference levels of minimum flow rate for rivers subject to diversion of water for irrigation. So, we calculated the water stress indicator in a different way from OECD method. The water stress indicator was calculated using data on the degree of water storage in agricultural water reservoirs because 87% of water for irrigation was taken from the agricultural water reservoirs. Water use technical efficiency was calculated as the reverse of the ratio of irrigation water to a standard water requirement of the paddy rice. The efficiency in 2001 was better than in 1990 and 1998. As for the economic efficiency for water use, we think that there are a lot of things to be taken into considerations to make a useful indicator to reflect socio-economic values of agricultural products resulted from the water use. Conclusively, site-specific, regional or meteorogical characteristics as in Korea were not considered in the calculation of water use indicators by methods suggested in OECD(Volume 3, 2001). So, it is needed to develop a new indicators for the indicators to be more widely applicable in the world.

Interlaboratory Comparison of Blood Lead Determination in Some Occupational Health Laboratories in Korea (일부 산업보건기관들의 혈중연 분석치 비교)

  • Ahn, Kyu Dong;Lee, Byung Kook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1995
  • The reliable measurement of metal in biological media in human body is one of critical indicators for the proper evaluation of its toxic effect on human health. Recently in Korea the necessity of quality assurance of measurement in occupational health and occupational hygiene fields brought out regulatory quality control program. Lead is often used as a standard metal for the program in both fields of occupational health and hygiene. During last 20 years lead poisoning was prevalent in Korea and still is one of main heavy metal poisoning and the capability of the measurement of blood lead is one of prerequisites for institute of specialized occupational health in Korea. Furthermore blood lead is most important indicator to evaluate lead burden of human exposure to lead and the reliable and accurate analysis is most needed whenever possible. To evaluate the extent of the interlaboratory differences of blood lead measurement in several well-known institute specialized in occupational health in Korea, authors prepared 68 blood samples from two storage battery industries and all samples were divided into samples with 2 ml. One set of 68 samples were analyzed by authors's laboratory(Soonchunhyang University Institute of Industrial Medicine: SIIM) and 40 samples of other set were analyzed by C University Institute of Industrial Medicine(CIIM) and the rest 28 samples of other set were analyzed by Japanese institute(K Occupational Health Center:KOHC). Authors also prepared test bovine samples which were obtained from Japanese Federation of Occupational Health Organization (JFOHO) for quality control. Authors selected 2 other well-known occupational health laboratories and one laboratory specialized for instrumental analysis. A total of 6 laboratories joined the interlaboratory comparison of blood lead measurement and the results obtained were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference in average blood lead between SIIM and CIIM in different group of blood lead concentration, and the relative standard deviation of two laboratories was less than 3.0%. On the other hand, there was also no significant difference of average blood lead between SIIM and KOHC with relative standard deviation of 6.84% as maximum. 2. Taking less than 15% difference of mean or less than 6 ug/dl difference in below 40 ug/dl in whole blood as a criteria of agreement of measurement between two laboratories, agreement rates were 87.5%(35/40) and 78.6%(22/28) between SIIM and CIIM, SIIM and KOHC respectively. 3. The correlation of blood lead between SIIM and CIIM was 0.975 (p=0.0001) and the regression equation was SIIM = 2.19 + 0.9243 ClIM, whereas the correlation between SUM and KOHC was O.965(p=0.0001) with the equation of SIIM = 1.91 + 0.9794 KOHC. 4. Taking the reference value as a dependent variable and each of 6 laboratories's measurement value as a independent variable, the determination coefficient($R^2$) of simple regression equations of blood lead measurement for bovine test samples were very high($R^2>0.99$), and the regression coefficient(${\beta}$) was between 0.972 and 1.15 which indicated fairly good agreement of measurement results.

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Chromaticity and Brown Pigment Patterns of Soy Sauce and UHYUKJANG, Korean Traditional Fermented Soy Sauce (간장과 어육장의 색도 및 갈색색소 패턴)

  • Kim, Ji-Sang;Moon, Gap-Soon;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.642-649
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    • 2006
  • The browning of soy sauce is caused by the reaction of amino-carbonyl between amino-compounds and reducing sugar. Only a few studies have investigated the formation of melanoidins in UHYUKJANG. The objectives of this study were to analyze the brown pigment of UHYUKJANG and to investigate the characteristics of UHYUKJANG in comparison with soy sauce and model melanoidins. The samples were ripened for 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 20$^{\circ}C$. The pH, absorbance at 420 nm absorbance ratio of 400 to 500 nm and UV-VIS spectra as an index of color intensity were measured. Additionally, L, a and b values of the samples and the amount of 3-Deoxyglucosone(3DG) in the samples were measured. The pH of both soy sauce (from 6.26 to 5.52) and UHYUKJANG (from 6.13 to 5.11) rapidly decreased during the first 60 days of aging and was also affected by storage temperature. The absorbance of samples at 420 nm increased during the aging process, reaching its maximum after 180 days, regardless of sample and temperature. On the other hand, the intensity of brown color in the samples increased with increasing aging period according to the results of absorbance ratio (soy sauce: 1.37 to 5.29, UHYUKJANG: 1.37 to 5.02). The L value of soy sauce increased during the aging process and was maximized after 240 days at 4$^{\circ}C$ and 180 days at 20$^{\circ}C$, but decreased thereafter. There was no significant difference in L value of UHYUKJANG, regardless of aging period and temperature. On the other hand, the b value did not reveal any significant change during aging, but the a value increased until 120 days of aging in the other samples except for UHYUKJANG at 20$^{\circ}C$. The average amount of 3DG separated from soy sauce was 5.65 mg%, and from UHYUKJANG was 3.74 mg%. These results indicated that the browning of UHYUKJANG was also caused by melanoidins produced by the reaction of amino-carbonyl during the fermentation process.

The relationships between lead exposure indicies and urinary δ-ALA by HPLC and colorimetric method in lead exposure workers (연노출근로자에 있어서 흡광광도법과 HPLC법에 의한 요중 δ-ALA 배설량과 연노출지표들 간의 관련성)

  • Ahn, Kyu-Dong;Lee, Sung-Soo;Hwangbo, Young;Lee, Gab-Soo;Yeon, You-Yong;Kim, Yong-Bae;Lee, Byung-Kook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.77-87
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    • 1996
  • In order to compare the difference of the measurement of delta aminolevulinic acid(${\delta}$-ALA) in urine between HPLC method(HALA) and colorimetric method(CALA), and also to provide useful information for the new diagnostic criteria of ${\delta}$-ALA in urine in lead poisoning, if at all possible in the future, authors studied 234 male lead workers who were selected from 7 storage battery factories, 3 secondary smelting industries, and 2 litharge making industries. Study subjects were selected on the basis of blood Zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) level from low to high concentration to cover wide range of lead exposure. Study variables for this study were ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two different methods, blood lead(PbB), and blood ZPP. The results were as follows: 1. There was very high correlation between ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method(r = 0.989 : HALA = -0.8194 + 0.8110 ${\times}$ CALA), but the value of CALA was measured about 2mg/L greater than HALA. 2. While the correlations of ${\delta}$-ALA by two method with blood lead and blood ZPP were 0.46 and 0.37 respectively, they were increased to 0.63 and 0.57 if ${\delta}$-ALA values were log-transformed. 3. Simple linear regression of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method on ZPP were as follows: CALA = 2.0421 + 0.0341 ${\times}$ ZPP ($R^2=0.1385$ p = 0.0001) HALA = 0.8006 + 0.0280 ${\times}$ ZPP ($R^2=0.1389$ p = 0.0001) 4. Simple linear regression of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by two method on PbB were as follows: CALA = - 0.4134 + 0.1545 ${\times}$ PbB ($R^2=0.2085$ p = 0.0001) HALA = -1.2893 + 0.1287 PbB ($R^2=0.2154$ p = 0.0001), 5. Simple linear regression of log-transformed ${\delta}$-ALA by two method on ZPP and PbB were as follows: logHALA = 0.3078 + 0.0060 ZPP ($R^2=0.3329$ p = 0.0001) logCALA = 1.0189 + 0.0044 ZPP ($R^2=0.3290$ p = 0.0001) logHALA = -0.0221 + 0.0246 PbB ($R^2=0.4046$ p = 0.0001) logCALA = 0.7662 + 0.0184 PbB ($R^2=0.4108$ p = 0.0001) 6. The cumulative percent of colorimetric method to detect lead workers whose value of PbS and ZPP were over screening level such as $40{\mu}/dl$ and $100{\mu}/dl$ respectively was higher than HPLC method if cut-off level of ${\delta}$-ALA for screening of lead poisoning was 5 mg/L. But if cut-off level of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by HPLC was reduced to 3 mg/L which is compatible to 5 mg/L of ${\delta}$-ALA measured by colorimetric method, there were good agreement between two methods and showed dose-response relationship with other lead exposure indices such as PbB and ZPP.

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Inhibitory Effects of Amitriptyline, Sertraline and Chlorpromazine on the Thrombin-induced Aggregation of Platelets (Thrombin성 혈소판응집에 대한 Amitriptyline, Sertraline 및 Chlorpromazine의 억제작용)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyun;Lee, Young-Jae;Shin, Kyung-Ho;Chun, Yeon-Sook;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.299-311
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    • 1995
  • Platelets resemble monoaminergic neurons in several respects, i.e. the uptake of 5-HT and its inhibition, the subcellular storage and release of 5-HT, and the metabolism of aromatic amines brought about by monoamine oxidase. And the 5-HT content of rabbit platelets is well known to be about 40 times higher than that of human platelets. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the influences of amitriptyline (AMT) and sertraline (SRT) on the aggregation, contents of signaling second messengers, and protein phosphorylations of rabbit platelets in response to thrombin, 0.25 unit/ml, comparing with those of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Thrombin-induced aggregation was inhibited by SRT $(IC50:4.37{\times}10^{-5}\;M)$, CPZ $(IC50:5.76{\times}10^{-5}\;M)$, and AMT $(IC50:1.15{\times}10^{-4}\;M)$, respectively, and the aggregation by A23187 $(1.0\;{\mu}M)$ or PMA (320 nM) was also inhibited by SRT, CPZ, and AMT. AMT, SRT, and CPZ had little affects on basal contents of platelet $TXB_2$ and $PGE_2$, but all of them inhibited the thrombin-induced increase of $TXB_2$. Thrombin did not change the platelet contents of cAMP and cGMP. CPZ, AMT, and SRT produced the slight decrease of basal cAMP content, and their effects were not affected by thrombin-treatment. But SRT and AMT moderately increased the basal cGMP content, and the cGMP content of thrombin-stimulated platelets was gradually increased by the pretreatment with SRT, AMT, and CPZ. Particularly, the SRT-dependent increase of the cGMP content was notable. Platelet $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ content was rapidly increased up to a plateau within 10 sec after thrombin-stimulation, AMT, SRT, and CPZ increased the basal $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ content, and the thrombin-dependent increase was enhanced by pretreatment with CPZ and AMT, but was blunted by SRT. Platelet $[Ca^{2+}]_i$, was rapidly increased up to a peak level within 20 sec after thrombin-stimulation. The increase of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was sisnificantly inhibited by AMT, SRT, and CPZ. Thrombin- or PMA-induced phosphorylations of platelet $41{\sim}43\;kDa$ and 20 kDa proteins were significantly inhibited by AMT, SRT, and CPZ. These results suggest that the antiplatelet activities of AMT and CPZ may be considerably attributed to the inhibition of protein kinase C activity, and the activity of SRT may be associated with the inhibitory effect on the thrombin-induced increase of $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$ and the increasing effect on the cGMP content of ptatelets. Therefore, it seems to be evident that AMT and SRT may produce their antidepressant activity, at least, partly through the inhibition of protein kinase C activity or the increase of resting $Ins(1,4,5)P_3$, content and in case of SRT, to a lesser extent, via the increase of cGMP in the brain.

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A study on the air pollutant emission trends in Gwangju (광주시 대기오염물질 배출량 변화추이에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Gwang-Yeob;Shin, Dae-Yewn
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 2009
  • We conclude the following with air pollution data measured from city measurement net administered and managed in Gwangju for the last 7 years from January in 2001 to December in 2007. In addition, some major statistics governed by Gwangju city and data administered by Gwangju as national official statistics obtained by estimating the amount of national air pollutant emission from National Institute of Environmental Research were used. The results are as follows ; 1. The distribution by main managements of air emission factory is the following ; Gwangju City Hall(67.8%) > Gwangsan District Office(13.6%) > Buk District Office(9.8%) > Seo District Office(5.5%) > Nam District Office(3.0%) > Dong District Office(0.3%) and the distribution by districts of air emission factory ; Buk District(32.8%) > Gwangsan District(22.4%) > Seo District(21.8%) > Nam District(14.9%) > Dong District(8.1%). That by types(Year 2004~2007 average) is also following ; Type 5(45.2%) > Type 4(40.7%) > Type 3(8.6%) > Type 2(3.2%) > Type 1(2.2%) and the most of them are small size of factory, Type 4 and 5. 2. The distribution by districts of the number of car registrations is the following ; Buk District(32.8%) > Gwangsan District(22.4%) > Seo District(21.8%) > Nam District(14.9%) > Dong District(8.1%) and the distribution by use of car fuel in 2001 ; Gasoline(56.3%) > Diesel(30.3%) > LPG(13.4%) > etc.(0.2%). In 2007, there was no ranking change ; Gasoline(47.8%) > Diesel(35.6%) > LPG(16.2%) >etc.(0.4%). The number of gasoline cars increased slightly, but that of diesel and LPG cars increased remarkably. 3. The distribution by items of the amount of air pollutant emission in Gwangju is the following; CO(36.7%) > NOx(32.7%) > VOC(26.7%) > SOx(2.3%) > PM-10(1.5%). The amount of CO and NOx, which are generally generated from cars, is very large percentage among them. 4. The distribution by mean of air pollutant emission(SOx, NOx, CO, VOC, PM-10) of each county for 5 years(2001~2005) is the following ; Buk District(31.0%) > Gwangsan District(28.2%) > Seo District(20.4%) > Nam District(12.5%) > Dong District(7.9%). The amount of air pollutant emission in Buk District, which has the most population, car registrations, and air pollutant emission businesses, was the highest. On the other hand, that of air pollutant emission in Dong District, which has the least population, car registrations, and air pollutant emission businesses, was the least. 5. The average rates of SOx for 5 years(2001~2005) in Gwangju is the following ; Non industrial combustion(59.5%) > Combustion in manufacturing industry(20.4%) > Road transportation(11.4%) > Non-road transportation(3.8%) > Waste disposal(3.7%) > Production process(1.1%). And the distribution of average amount of SOx emission of each county is shown as Gwangsan District(33.3%) > Buk District(28.0%) > Seo District(19.3%) > Nam District(10.2%) > Dong District(9.1%). 6. The distribution of the amount of NOx emission in Gwangju is shown as Road transportation(59.1%) > Non-road transportation(18.9%) > Non industrial combustion(13.3%) > Combustion in manufacturing industry(6.9%) > Waste disposal(1.6%) > Production process(0.1%). And the distribution of the amount of NOx emission from each county is the following ; Buk District(30.7%) > Gwangsan District(28.8%) > Seo District(20.5%) > Nam District(12.2%) > Dong District(7.8%). 7. The distribution of the amount of carbon monoxide emission in Gwangju is shown as Road transportation(82.0%) > Non industrial combustion(10.6%) > Non-road transportation(5.4%) > Combustion in manufacturing industry(1.7%) > Waste disposal(0.3%). And the distribution of the amount of carbon monoxide emission from each county is the following ; Buk District(33.0%) > Seo District(22.3%) > Gwangsan District(21.3%) > Nam District(14.3%) > Dong District(9.1%). 8. The distribution of the amount of Volatile Organic Compound emission in Gwangju is shown as Solvent utilization(69.5%) > Road transportation(19.8%) > Energy storage & transport(4.4%) > Non-road transportation(2.8%) > Waste disposal(2.4%) > Non industrial combustion(0.5%) > Production process(0.4%) > Combustion in manufacturing industry(0.3%). And the distribution of the amount of Volatile Organic Compound emission from each county is the following ; Gwangsan District(36.8%) > Buk District(28.7%) > Seo District(17.8%) > Nam District(10.4%) > Dong District(6.3%). 9. The distribution of the amount of minute dust emission in Gwangju is shown as Road transportation(76.7%) > Non-road transportation(16.3%) > Non industrial combustion(6.1%) > Combustion in manufacturing industry(0.7%) > Waste disposal(0.2%) > Production process(0.1%). And the distribution of the amount of minute dust emission from each county is the following ; Buk District(32.8%) > Gwangsan District(26.0%) > Seo District(19.5%) > Nam District(13.2%) > Dong District(8.5%). 10. According to the major source of emission of each items, that of oxides of sulfur is Non industrial combustion, heating of residence, business and agriculture and stockbreeding. And that of NOx, carbon monoxide, minute dust is Road transportation, emission of cars and two-wheeled vehicles. Also, that of VOC is Solvent utilization emission facilities due to Solvent utilization. 11. The concentration of sulfurous acid gas has been 0.004ppm since 2001 and there has not been no concentration change year by year. It is considered that the use of sulfurous acid gas is now reaching to the stabilization stage. This is found by the facts that the use of fuel is steadily changing from solid or liquid fuel to low sulfur liquid fuel containing very little amount of sulfur element or gas, so that nearly no change in concentration has been shown regularly. 12. Concerning changes of the concentration of throughout time, the concentration of NO has been shown relatively higher than that of $NO_2$ between 6AM~1PM and the concentration of $NO_2$ higher during the other time. The concentration of NOx(NO, $NO_2$) has been relatively high during weekday evenings. This result shows that there is correlation between the concentration of NOx and car traffics as we can see the Road transportation which accounts for 59.1% among the amount of NOx emission. 13. 49.1~61.2% of PM-10 shows PM-2.5 concerning the relationship between PM-10 and PM-2.5 and PM-2.5 among dust accounts for 45.4%~44.5% of PM-10 during March and April which is the lowest rates. This proves that particles of yellow sand that are bigger than the size $2.5\;{\mu}m$ are sent more than those that are smaller from China. This result shows that particles smaller than $2.5\;{\mu}m$ among dust exist much during July~August and December~January and 76.7% of minute dust is proved to be road transportation in Gwangju.