• Title, Summary, Keyword: Specular reflection

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Estimation of the 3-D Shape Surfaces with Specular Reflections

  • Kim, Jee Hong
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.672-678
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    • 2014
  • We propose a method to estimate the 3-D shape of surfaces with specular reflection, using a model of the difference in appearance between images reflected from a flat surface and a curved surface. First, we analyze the geometry of spatial reflection from a specular surface and how reflected light varies due to a curved surface. This is used to estimate 3-D shape. The proposed method is shown to be effective in experiments using illumination from spatially distributed light sources and a camera capturing the reflected light from curved, specular surfaces.

Specular Reflectance Measurements of Dielectric Plates in Millimeter Frequency Range

  • Kang, Jin-Seob;Kim, Jeong-Hwan;Kang, Kwang Yong;Yoon, Dae Hwan;Park, Sung Won
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.78-87
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    • 2018
  • This paper describes specular reflectance measurements of dielectric plates in three waveguide frequency bands: D-band (110-170 GHz), G-band (140-220 GHz), and J-band (220-325 GHz). The transmit (Tx) part of the proposed specular reflectance measurement system is stationary, while the receive (Rx) part and the material under test (MUT) holder are concentric-rotating with a 2:1 speed ratio for specular reflectance measurements. In specular reflectance measurements, the first step measures the specular reflection coefficients of an MUT and a metal plate on the MUT holder located at the center of the Tx and Rx parts, and the second step calculates the specular reflectance defined by the specular reflection power (i.e., intensity) of the MUT normalized to that of the metal plate. Multiple reflection effects between the Tx and Rx antennas and the MUT on the measured specular reflectance are minimized by averaging out the multiple specular reflectances measured with changing the separation distance between the two antennas by ${\lambda}/8$ intervals. Measurement results of the perpendicular-polarized specular reflectance of commonly used dielectric plates are verified by comparing those with the analytic results and show that the results measured over the overlapped frequency range of the D-/G-bands and at the boundary frequency of the G-/J-bands agree well with the results for the other band, respectively.

Image Processing for 3-D Shape Estimation of Specular Reflection (경면반사체의 3차원 형상 추정을 위한 영상처리)

  • Kim, Jee-Hong;Cho, Byung-Gwon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2012
  • A method to estimate the 3-D shape of surface with specular reflection is proposed, where the difference between the images reflected from a flat surface and a curved surface is used. First, we analyzed the geometry of the spatial reflection at specular surface and the variation of reflected light due to curved surface, whose results are used to estimate 3-D shape. The proposed method is shown to be effective via experiments using the illumination with spatially distributed light source and the CCD camera to capture the light reflected from a surface. In experiments, the captured images from curved surface with specular reflection are processed to approximately estimate 3-D shape.

Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement of a Specular Object by LED Array Reflection (LED Array의 반사영상에 의한 경면체의 3차원 형상 측정)

  • Kim, Jee Hong
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2016
  • An optical method to measure the three-dimensional (3D) shape of a surface with specular reflection is proposed. The proposed method is based on the analysis of the geometric path of the light from a point source, and the relative displacements of points in the reflection image. The 3D shape of a concave mirror is shown to be determined approximately via experiments, where the vision system consists of LED array illumination, a half-mirror, and an imaging sensor.

Estimation of Specular Light Power by Adjusting Incident Laser Power for Measuring Mirror-Like Surface Roughness (경면 거칠기 측정을 위해 레이저 입사 강도 조정에 의한 정반사 광량 추정 알고리즘 개발)

  • 서영호;김주년;안중환
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.94-101
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    • 2004
  • From the Beckmann's reflection model of wave incident, reflected light from a surface is known to have not only specular but also diffuse components. The specular component dominant a surface for a mirror-like surface is distributed on the almost the same area as the spot on the surface, but the diffuse component region dominant f3r a rough surface spreads scattered on the larger areas than the spot. Therefore, statistic parameters from the scattered light distribution are more meaningful in the diffuse region, while the magnitude of rather meaning in the specular region. In usual, there need two sensors to acquire two kinds of information: Photo-detector for light intensity magnitude and image sensor for light intensity distribution. But dual sensor scheme requires a beam splitter usually to feed light to each sensor, and moreover there is not a combination rule to relieve the different sensor characteristics. In this study a new method is proposed for acquisition of the dual information using only an image sensor. Specular region is established on an image area being distinguished from a diffuse component, and laser power is adjusted so that no pixel of the image sensor in the specular region is saturated. Simulation based on the light reflection theory and the experimental results are quite well matched, and thus the proposed method was proved to be very useful for mirror-like surface measurement.

Environmental Perception Considering Beam Opening Angle and Specular Reflection of Ultrasonic Sensors (초음파센서의 지향성 및 경면반사현상을 고려한 환경인식)

  • Ha, Yun-Su;Kim, Duck-Gon
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.919-926
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    • 2006
  • To move in unknown or uncertain environment, a mobile robot must collect informations from various sensors and use it to construct a representation of the external world. Ultrasonic sensor can provide range data for this purpose in a simple cost-effective way. However conventional ultrasonic sensor system for a mobile robot are not sufficient for environment recognition because of their large beam opening angle, specular reflection. This paper describe on environmental perception algorithm which can solve these problems in case using ultrasonic sensor. The algorithm consist of two parts. One is to solve beam opening angle problem by fusion from multiple ultrasonic sensors. The other is to cope with specular reflection problem in wall line extract, which is based on Hough Transform. Experiments to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm are carried out, and the results are provided at last part in this paper.

Radiation-Laminar Free Convection in a Square Duct with Specular Reflection by Absorbing-Emitting Medium

  • Byun, Ki-Hong;Im, Moon-Hyuk
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1346-1354
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this work is to study the effects of specularly reflecting wall under the combined radiative and laminar free convective heat transfer in an infinite square duct. An absorbing and emitting gray medium is enclosed by the opaque and diffusely emitting walls. The walls may reflect diffusely or specularly. Boussinesq approximation is used for the buoyancy term. The radiative heat transfer is evaluated using the direct discrete ordinates method. The parameters under considerations are Rayleigh number, conduction to radiation parameter, optical thickness, wall emissivity and reflection mode. The differences caused by the reflection mode on the stream line, and temperature distribution and wall heat fluxes are studied. Some differences are observed for the categories mentioned above if the order of the conduction to radiation parameter is less than order of 10$\^$-3/ fer the range of Rayleigh number studied. The differences at the side wall heat flux distributions are observed as long as the medium is optically thin. As the top wall emissivity decreases, the differences between these two modes are increased. As the optical thickness decreases at the fixed wall emissivity, the differences also increase. The difference of the streamlines or the temperature contours is not as distinct as the side wall heat flux distributions. The specular reflection may alter the fluid motion.

Sonar Map Construction for Autonomous Mobile Robots Using Data Association Filter (데이터 연관 필터를 이용한 자율이동로봇의 초음파지도 작성)

  • Lee Yu-Chul;Lim Jong-Hwan;Cho Dong-Woo
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers D
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    • v.54 no.9
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    • pp.539-546
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    • 2005
  • This paper describes a method of building the probability grid map for an autonomous mobile robot using the ultrasonic DAF(data association filter). The DAF, which evaluates the association of each data with the rest and removes the data affected by the specular reflection effect, can improve the reliability of the data for the Probability grid map. This method is based on the evaluation of possibility that the acquired data are all from the same object. Namely, the data from specular reflection have very few possibilities of detecting the same object, so that they are excluded from the data cluster during the process of the DAF. Therefore, the uncertain data corrupted by the specular reflection and/or multi-path effect, are not used to update the probability map, and hence building a good quality of a grid map is possible even in a specular environment. In order to verify the effectiveness of the DAF, it was applied to the Bayesian model and the orientation probability model which are the typical ones of a grid map. We demonstrate the experimental results using a real mobile robot in the real world.

An Approximation Technique for Real-time Rendering of Phong Reflection Model with Image-based Lighting (영상 기반 조명을 적용한 퐁 반사 모델의 실시간 렌더링을위한 근사 기법)

  • Jeong, Taehong;Shin, Hyun Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Graphics Society
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we introduce a real-time method to render a 3D scene using image-based lighting. Previous approaches for image-based lighting focused on diffuse reflection and mirror-like specular reflection. In this paper, we provide a simple preprocessing approach to efficiently approximate Phong reflection model, which has been used for computer graphics applications for several decades. For diffuse reflection, we generate a texture map for diffuse reflection by integrating the source image in preprocessing step, similarly to the previous approaches. We adopt the similar idea to produce a set of specular reflection maps for various material shininess. By doing this, we can render a dynamic scene without high computational complexity or numerous texture map access.

Effect of Higher Order Form Factors on the Prediction of Room Acoustics by Extended Radiosity Method (확장 라디오시티법에 의한 실내음향 예측에 있어 고차 형태 계수의 영향)

  • 이희원;고일두;오양기;두세진;정대업
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2003
  • Numerous investigations have demonstrated that diffused reflection is one of the most important factors in predicting room acoustics by computer simulation. Recent studies have suggested several computational algorithms in order to account for diffused reflections in the ray tracing or beam tracing method. In this study, a computational algorithm for the calculation of diffuse sound reflections in the image method is suggested and a computer simulation system is developed based on the suggested algorithm. The methodology adopted in our computer simulation system is similar to the extended radiosity method, which is developed for the computer graphics. In a real room, sound energy is reflected in a partially diffused manner which results in four reflection combinations: diffuse-diffuse, specular-specular, diffuse-specular and specular-diffuse. In this study, higher order form factor is introduced to handle the four types of reflection combinations so that the partially diffused reflection could be modeled. In this paper, the concept of extended radiosity method is described and the approximate method of calculating higher order form factor is suggested. Finally, the effect of higher order form factors on the simulation of reverberation time is investigated.